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Introduction.— View of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of the Monastic Orders. Chapter 1.

tinguished the fire which had fallen from CCLESIASTICAL historians heaven on the sacrifice of Abel. HAYLEY

are agreed in assigning the ori- refers for this to St. RoMNALD Abrégé du gin of Monachism to the third Tresor Chronologique.

century, and in representing it as an incidental consequence of the perse- SIR G. MACKENZIE'S Vindication of the cutions under Decius and Valerian. But body against the soul, as the party which the age was prepared for it by the corrup- is more sinned against than sinning. Estions with which Christianity was from its

says, p. 69. This argument might have puzvery origin infected, corruptions arising zled St. Francis and his followers. from that common infirmity of human nature, which Sir Thomas Browne says, is the first and father cause of common errors.1

“ CARDINAL CORCÉONE, under whom a

council was celebrated at Paris in 1212, The first type of monastic institutions, in past this among other decrees there :- In.. Paradise. See the Censura, prefixed to terdicimus regularibus et monialibus, ne bithe second volume of BARTOLOCCI's Bibl. ni, vel binæ in lecto jaceant, propter metum

incontinentiæ. Rabbinica, where there are extracts from S. AUGUSTINE, &c. on the subject.

On publia un petit hore l'an 1643, fait par un pieux prêtre, et apprové par qua

tre docteurs, portant pour titre, Avis ChréA.M. 99. Eve instituted a religious or

tien touchant une matière de grande imder of virgins, who were to preserve unex- portance, dans lequel l'auteur désire gran

dement que ce décret-là soit sérieusement 1 This is all that was ever written out clean for gardé.'”—BAYLE, vol. 5, p. 297. the press. All that follows is but a mere collection of notes. No doubt the whole materiel for the Monastic Orders is in the MS. Collection for the History of Portugal,—but the Editor has not

Egypt and Syria. had time to examine those valuable papers accurately, and they have nothing to do with the

AssEman's passage respecting the use of Common-Place Book.-J. W. W.

the deserts.- RODERICK, vol. 1, p. 230.

SCOTT — DR. SAYERS — LIGHTFOOT – FULLER – DR. WHITAKER. 369

“ THERE is a book by ANDRES ANTONIO “ FULLER says of the Pharisees, quoting SANCKEz, entitled Exclamacion a los heroi- EPIPHANIUS adv. Hereses, (lib. 1, p. 20,) cos hechos del Eremita del Ayre S. Simeon." | • They wore coarse clothing, pretending -Sevilla. 1680.

much mortification, and otɛ ñokovv, when they exercised (that is, when these moun

tebanks theatrically acted their humilia“He," says ARISTOTLE, “that cannot con- tion,) ακάνθας στρωμνήν είχον, they had tract society with others, or through his thorns for their bed to lay upon; and some own self-sufficiency, does not need it, be- of them wore a mortar on their heads, so longs not to any commonwealth, but is ei- ponderous, that they could look neither upther a wild beast or a god."

ward, nor on either side, but only down“'O pri dvváuevos koivwveiv, ñ under ward, and forthright." Pisgah Sight, p. δεόμενος δι' αυτάρκειαν, ουδέν μέρος πο- | 107. 2nd paging. λεως, ώστε η θηρίον ή θεος.” – ScoTT's Christian Life, p. 53.

Benedictines.

ACCORDING to Dr. WHITAKER, (Hist. of Britain.

Craven, 40 N.) twelve monks and an ab

bot were the legitimate number which con“ CAPGRAVE, (Vit. S. Alban, ff. 8. 6.) and stituted an early Benedictine House,-in HOSPINIAN (De Origine Monochatus, l. 4. reference to Christ and his apostles. He c. 3,) attribute the introduction of Mona- quotes Instituta Mon. Cist. DUGDALE, vol. chism into Britain to Pelagius the Heresi- 1, p. 699. “ Et sicut (Benedictus) Monasarch."-DR. SAYERS, vol. 2, p. 217. teria constructa per 12 monachos, adjuncto

patre disponebat, sic se acturos confirmabant."

The Essenes and Pharisees. 6 ONE novice at least seems to have been

When Josephus belonged to this sect, maintained by every religious house at one “ understanding that there was one Banus,

of the Universities.”—Ibid. p. 52. a harmit, who used no clothes but what were made of trees, and that ate nothing but

“ It was a practice of which I could prowhat grew of itself, and that for chastity's duce many instances, from the Liber loci sake, washed himself often, day and night, Benedicti, to send refractory monks to unin cold water, I was very zealous, (he says,) dergo a temporary discipline in some neighto become an imitator of him, and I spent bouring monastery.”—Ibid. three years with him.”—This he says in his own Life.

“ The Sartrina, in the religious houses,

was the tailor's office. Vestiarius sartri“We might begin the history of the Es- num habere debet extra officinas claustri senes from Judges i. 16. “And the sons of interiores.' Lib. Ord. St. Victor, Paris, the Kenite, Moses's father-in-law, went out as quoted by Du Cange. But how the caof the city of palms, with the sons of Ju- nons of Bolton should make a profit of this, dah, into the deserts of Judah.' From these, mounting to sixteen pounds, unless their we suppose, came the Rechabites, and from taylors wrought for all the country around their stock or example, the Essenes.”- them, or even then, I do not understand."LIGHTFOOT, vol. 10, p.

Ibid. p. 385.

17.

B B

370

SENOR ALARCON - BAYLE - CRADOCK

DOBRIZHOFFER.

St. BERNARD's epistle to a nephew, who, at Assissi. They are said, “notwithstandfrom the Cistercian past to the Cluniacing the rudeness of their execution,” to order. It is placed first among his Epistles, astonish the beholder, by their grand and having been honoured by a miracle.-Ibid. simple style.

p. 1380.

“ LUSITANI nautæ diem Divo Francisco COMPLAINT of the Abbot of Monte Cas- Assisiati sacrum magnopere reformidant, sino to Gonsalvo de Cordoba, that his abbey quod ejus fune flagellari mare tunc, irritawas deprived of the benefit of the reform, rique credunt. Hanc opinionem a majoribus because it was held in Encomienda by car- suis acceptam, quamvis nobis ridicula lucudinals.-Mem. del Señor Alarcon, p. 141. lenterque superstitiosa videatur, experientiâ

tuentur suâ.”—DOBRIZHOFFER, tom. 1, p.

378. INTERLINEAR Saxon Versions of the Rules of S. Fulgentius, and of Benedict, “ Les plus erudits de nos etymologistes are among the Cotton MSS.— Tiberius, A. pretendent qu'il faut chercher la source de 111, 43-44.

l'ancienne locution faire la scote, dans l'usage

adopté par les Capucins, qui, ne portant BENEDICT is said to have been descended point de linge, passent leurs vétemens sur from Anicius, the first great Roman who | la flamme d'un feu clair, afin d'en chasser was converted. Attempts have been made la mauvaise odeur dont la sueur du corps to show that the House of Austria are of a pu les impregner. Cette origine paroit the same extraction.-BAYLE, sub voce. d'autant plus plausible, que l'Italie, comme

on le sait, a été le berceau des Capucins, et

que la locution, dont il s'agit, vient de cette “ From all that I had heard from the contrée.”—Mem. Historiques, tom. 36, p. monks of the Abbaye St. Victor, Father F. 450, N. at Marseilles, (the superior at Thoulouse,) and some Benedictines in the neighbour- “ If some laws are published with severe hood, I began to get a clear insight into the clauses of command, and others on purpose secrets of the rich churchmen; but my ideas and by design with lesser and the more became greatly altered. I found they had gentle, then the case is evident, that there little or no comfort; that the getting out is a difference to be made also by the conof a warm bed at stated times, and going science. And this is in particular made into cold chapels, had given most of them use of by the Franciscans in the observation fixed rheumatism; that they had no bene- of the Rule of their order. For in Clefit from wealth, and had much trouble in mentina. Exivi de Paradiso, sect. Cum aucollecting it; that their members, when they tem, de Verborum significatione,' it is dewere rich, were daily reducing, and that one termined that that part of the Rule of St. year one convent had privately furnished a Francis which is established by preceptive very large sum to the government, and said or prohibitive words, shall oblige the Friars they wished it would take all, except a bum- Minors under a great sin; the rest not, and ble pittance.”—Cradock's Travels, p. 300. this wholly upon the account of the different

clauses of sanction and establishment.”— J. Taylor, vol. 13, p.

247. Franciscans. The finest works of Cimabue are his BERINGTON says of St. Francis, “ In an decayed frescos in the church of S. Francis | age of less intemperance in religion, miracles BERINGTON

LINGUET - CORNEJO - FR. JUAN ANTONIO.

371

and the fancied intervention of peculiar los huessos, sobre los quales estàn los cimifavours from Heaven would not have been entos y fundamentos, en que se apoya, y deemed necessary to stamp worth and ad- sustenta la Iglesia Universal y su Santa miration on a character which, in itself, Sede. Y que assi como S. Francisco en la possessed the purest excellences that fall Vision del Papa Innocencio sustentaba la to the lot of man. But this circumstance, Iglesia, assi la sustenta oy su Religion."and more than this, the reception which an FR. JUAN ANTONIO. Ch. de S. Francisco en institute so peculiarly framed met with, las Philipinias, tom. 1, p. 286. serve to manifest the singular taste of the age."-BERINGTON's Henry II. p. 629.

The Popes choose him for their patron at

their coronation.-Ibid. “C'est une remarque importante a faire, que de tous les anciens souverains monastiques, il n'y en a pas un que fasse son

“ Some writers apply the prophecy in the sejour en Italie. Les Benedictins de toutes Apocalypse, ch. xx. v. 1, 2, to Innocent III. les congregations, les Bernardins, les Clu- who they say bound the Devil by approving nistes, les Prémontrés, enfin tous les Moines the orders of the Dominicans and Francisde la vieille-roche, si l'on peut se servir de cans.”—Lightfoot, vol. 6, p. 167. ce terme, ont leurs superieurs immediats hors des Etats du Pape. De tous ceux des Mendians, au contraire, il n'y en a pas un

An epistle of Urban to his legate in seul qui ne reside a Rome, et ne soit à la France, that he should allow the friars, both fois dans cette Cour le gage et l'instrument back, and enter the nunneries of any order

Dominican and Franciscan, to ride on horsede la soumission de tous ses sujets repan- whatsoever, notwithstanding their rules to dus dans l'univers chretien." LINGUET.

the contrary.

MARTENE and DURAND. Hist. de Jesuites, vol. 1, p. 163.

Thes. Novus, tom. 2, p. 79.

SEE LINGUET's view of St. Francis's character in this same chapter 14, and in chap.

“ FRANCIS," said LUTHER," was no doubt 18, 20, the ill effect which these orders pro

an honest and a just man. He little thought duced.

that such superstition and unbelief should

proceed out of his life. There have been CLEMENT VIII. told Card. D'Ossat that so many of those Grey Friars, that they the Capuchines ne veulent en sorte du

offered to send 40,000 of them against the monde se charger de confesser et gouverner Turks, and yet the monasteries of that order les Religieuses ; et qu' à grande peine les should be provided sufficiently." — Coll. avoit-on pû faire obéir, quand on leur com

Mensalia, p. 370. menda par plusieurs fois de prendre la superintendence de celles de Rome.”Lettres du CARD. D’Ossat, tom. 1, p. 161.

ST. ANTONIO first introduced the use of the public discipline, &c. of penitents flog

ging themselves till the blood streamed for BONAVENTURA introduced the Ave Ma- edification.-CORNEJO, vol. 2, p. 316. ria at vespers.—CORNEJO, vol. 2, p. 585.

IN the Continuation of Whitefield's “El Papa Clemente VIII. elogiando a Journal, (printed for James Hutton, second nuestra Seraphica Religion dijo, que era edition, 1739) is a story of Joseph Periam,

372

MARTENE AND DURAND - RICHEOME - BAYLE.

who was put in Bedlam for selling his sieres, comme celle des Chartreux et semcloathes and giving the money to the poor, blables. Les Maisons Prophesses vivent -obeying the Gospel, like St. Francis, lite- d'aumosne actuellement, sans aucun fonds rally.-P. 98.

ni rente, non pas mesme pour la Sacristie, ou Fabrique de l'Eglise."-See the pas

sage. Dominicans.

428. Education, gratuitous on their part, LETTER of Clement IV. confirming their

generally.

536. The name Jesuit defended. breviary, A. D. 1267.-MARTENE and DuRAND. Thes. Novus, tom. 2, p. 502.

Tres-humble Remonstrance. 1598.

70-1. Why they select their members. Jesuits.

91. Why they refuse dignities, and abRicheome. Plainte Apologetique. 1603.

stain from state affairs ! 26. Accused of injuring the University

97. The libraries which they lost.

99. Sacrifices which their members have of Paris, by establishing colleges in the provincial towns, causans en cela encor

made. ce mal, qu'ils empeschoient que la jeunesse “ Amongst the Jesuits they have a rule, ne se civilisast en la langue françoise et

that they who are unapt for greater studies, meurs : et en l'affection envers l'estat.

shall study cases of conscience."-CLAREN27. “ les villes qui n'ont point de col

DON, vol. 1, p. 304. leges et cognoissent nostre façon d'enseigner ne cessent d'en demander."

32. They opened their schools at Paris RABELAIS is the earliest writer who has 1564, sur le declin de l'estat scholastique," mentioned the Jesuits. In his Catalogue in that noble University, occasioned “ tant

des beaux livres de la Libraire de Sainct la mort de plusieurs Docteurs de mar- Victor, is this title, Le faguenet des Espagque, et par ceste grande peste qui avoit nols supercoquelicantiqué par Fra. Inigo. deux ans auparavant dissipé tous les col. See the Editor's note, tom. 3, p. 99. leges, que par la peste de l'heresie, qui avoit ou corrompu ou detraqué une bonne partie

“ The Inquisition of Toledo condemned des regens et des auditeurs des sciences fourteen volumes of the Acta SS. on account humaines."

(I believe) of what they contained con40. France considered a hot-bed of he- cerning the pretensions of the Carmelite resy, and therefore other Catholic countries order. The Carmelites presented a memoestablished Universities, instead of sending rial to the King, requesting that silence their youth thither as theretofore.

upon the subject of their antiquity might 210. Emanuel Sa's doctrine that a clergy- be enjoined to all parties. And the Toledan man conspiring against the person of the Jesuits presented a memorial in opposition king, is not guilty of high treason, ex

to this, 1696."-BAYLE, vol. 5, p. 503. Sub plained.

voc. Diana. 414-15. Reason why the members of the company retain the property of their estates, though they have not the usufruct.

Linguet. Hist. Impartiale des Jesuites. 423. Nature of their property. The No- They were tolerated at Paris. Thuanus vitias and the Colleges “ peuvent tenir des says, “ odio Protestantum, quibus debelrentes en commun, qui sont aumosnes fon- | landis isti homines nati credebantur.”

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