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Linguet shews very ably in his Epistle to 222-8. Very good this defence of their the King of Prussia, that the Sorbonne and system of education. the other Mon. Orders professed just the 245. Not true that they did not pretend same principles as the Jesuits in the time to miracles. They did not venture upon of the League.

such
open

exhibitions as the Stigmata. 28. A just criticism of the Lett. Provin- True, that they reconciled in their insticiales. — “ Elles flattent si agréablement la tute

une entiere liberté avec la plus parmalignité humaine :"- how many authors faite dépendance.” are continually labouring to deserve this: 251. Ignatius's leg after all being too praise,—which is in reality a just sentence short, he had it stretched every day, of damnation. 218. False citations by Pas- l'assujettissant avec des eclisses de fer." cal.

Bonhours is the authority quoted. 150. He shows admirably well how the 266. His scheme when he made his folMendicants (like the Jesuits after them) lowers take their first vows at Montmartre, came to advance and act upon principles so 1554, was to convert the Turks. injurious to society.

275. “ Il se renferma dans Rome avec 159. The Jesuits more hated because Laines et Salmeron, à qui il crut trouver from the first they had to encounter more l'esprit qu'il lui fallait." formidable and more watchful enemies :- 276. An excellent view of their economy. enemies too whom the Pope could not 293. silence.

294. They were the first who gave gra168. Very just. All the hatred has fallen tuitous education. Thence arose the hatred upon them, for actions in which the whole of the Universities. Romish Church was equally guilty.

296. And they exercised the ministry 178. “ Dix ans apres leur naissance, on without payment. leur reprochait, avec justice leur origine 300. Their brightest members were never espagnole."

entrusted with authority in the society. For 178. “ Les Espagnols d'aujourd'hui ne their superiors they chose men who had only sont plus ceux de Philippe II. mais les Je- one belief " celui de remuer les esprits avec suites sont restés les mêmes. Fondés par adresse.” un Espagnol Autrichien, composés d'abord 304. Two Jesuits sent to Ireland, 1541. entièrement d'Espagnols, soumis a la meme 314. Both the Franciscans and Dominidomination, la façon de penser des pre- cans were looking to catch S. Francisco miers membres est devenue invariablement Boza as a member. celle de tout l'ordre.”

315. Linguet calls the Exercises “ livre For when France, upon the de- | indecent-fruit honteux de ses delires." cline of Spain, succeeded to its places of 320. They did not renounce the cardinaldominion, the Company gallicized. ship.

204. Linguet had adopted the false notion 321. Loyola gave good instructions to that they enriched themselves by commerce. Laques and Salmeron for their conduct at But he allows that their wealth had not

Trent. debauched them.

393. Procession of Death in triumph at 220. He regrets that education has been Palermo. A Jesuit pageant. taken from the Jesuits, and entrusted to 396. “Il est certain que leur ordre, d'ailany who chose to undertake it. “L'en- leurs le plus éclairé de tous, est celui qui a seignement public qui etait un art, devien- le plus appuyé les petites pratiques de dedra bientot entre leurs mains un metier.” | votion qui frappent les yeux et le cæur du And he appeals to the condition of the Col- peuple.” leges in France at that time.

397. Attempt at giving religious instruc

Not so.

374

CARDINAL D'OSSAT - ALPHONSO DE VARGAS.

tion by histrionic dialogues in a church. credence the more easily for their own fa

447. Paul IV. made them perform the bles, the Virgin having made known that canonical services, and appoint their general to establish this was one main reason why for a limited time.

the Company by Divine inspiration was Vol. 2.

founded. 13. 64. Why it concerned them so much nei- 17. Paul IV. compelled them to perform ther to be declared Secular, nor Regulars. the service of the choir;—the Divine au

60. Management at the Council of Trent thority of their Rule in this, and other inwith regard to property, and persons wear- stances, giving way, and indeed never being ing the habit without taking the vows. pleaded when any change was to be made.

147. Douay. Opposed there by the Uni- 29. They taught the art of war. versity, because they taught gratuitously. 33. Commerce recommended by them as

154. An absurd calumny that they at- fitly to be carried on by the nobles and the tempted to make Sebastian establish a law clergy. that the kings of Portugal after him must 37. A boast that in their Institute they always be Jesuits, and elected by the Order, had realized all that was excellent in Plato's as the Pope is by the Cardinals. The republic. calumny is most absurd: but it is a form 43. Great preachers of persecution, but of elective monarchy which would have in- so were all the Regulars, and this the writer sured able kings.

dishonestly keeps out of sight.—But he well 388. Reproached for using castrated edi- applies the text that the Lord was not in tions of the classics-as if this had been a the wind, nor in the earthquake, nor in the crime.

fire, but in the small still voice.

45. Nuremberg says he named himself in CARDINAL D'Ossat had always advised | infancy Ignatius,—“quasi Ignem facio, ut the restoration of the Jesuits in France ; significaret officium quod in Ecclesia esset but a little before his death, he declared sortiturus." that after what he had read and heard of 85. No Jesuit could for 100 years comthem— (i. e. from themselves)— he would mit a mortal sin. Xavier obtained an exmeddle no more in their behalf.

tension of the privilege for 200 more. (?) See the passage in his Letters, vol. 5, p. 97. Poza's Marian mythology. Matripa197. It is of importance, because he was a ter vel Patrimater he called her. most judicious and moderate man.

98. This book, though condemned at

Rome, they are said to have reprinted at “ Un Espagnol sans un Jesuite, est une

Lyons.

105. Poza's creed deduced. perdrix sans orange,” said a Deputé de Bourgogne.-Satyre Menippée, p. 237.

164.70.252. They made themselves many enemies by obtaining monasteries founded

for other Orders; these they persuaded the Alph. de Vargas de Stratagematis et Sophis

Emperor to transfer to them for Colleges; matis Politicis Societatis Jesu, ad Monar

and they are likened to Luther for this. chiam Orbis terrarum sibi conficiendum. 1641.

Spiritual Exercises. 12. They set themselves against S. Tho- 3. MORAVIAN language in the introducmas Aquinas, taking advantage of his un- tory prayer. popular doctrine respecting the immaculate- 10. Not a word altered by the Censors, ness, and they laboured to have that notion though they were authorized to make any declared an article of faith, thus to procure alterations.

SPIRITUAL EXERCISES.

375

11. Not to be printed or sold except for 47. Cilices, chains and flagellation. the Society.

50. Parallel between allegiance to Christ, 12. The course comprises meditation, and to an earthly king. contemplation, mental and oral prayer. 53. The Virgin's house at Nazareth, and

13. Divided into four weeks—and usually the Prelude there. 54. completed in about thirty days.

55. To imagine himself at the Nativity. 16. An hour in each day's exercise. A 62-3. De duobus vexillis. common temptation of the Devil's is to 78. Midnight contemplations in the third shorten the time appointed for meditation week. or prayer.

90. Comfortable feelings now to be in17. Greater merit in the “opus ex voto, duced. quam sine voto factum.”

136. How the devil acts during the course. 19. To be accommodated to the weak. 138. Celibacy. 139. Relics, pilgrimages,

23. All things on earth “creata sunt ho- holy candles, &c. minis ipsius causâ, ut eum ad finem crea- 141. Perfect submission to the Church, tionis suæ prosequendam juvent.”

even if it tells us that white is black.
24. At morning he is to determine upon
correcting some one particular sin. At
noon to pray

for
grace
that he

may

be enabled to remeinber how often he has com

Directorium in Exercitia. mitted it, and to avoid it in future. He is 3. Jesuits desired to inform the General to have lines ruled each for a sin, and make through their respective Superiors, if any a mark upon the line for every time he has thing can be added or altered with advanfallen into that sin in the course of the cur

tage in the Course. rent day. At night to sum up the account.

7. The Exercises inspired

and the The book is not clear here, but I believe scheme of the Society. 8. the ruled paper related to the sin of the 8-9. Their importance as the chief means day, a line for every hour; every lapse into of the Society's rise and progress. it was to be noted, and pricked down, and 10. A means of conversion when all others the diminished score in the latter lines have failed. Men put themselves thus in proved the progress of amendment. the way of Grace,-out of the way of the

27. When sin suggests itself, the more world, and in solitude. struggle the more merit.

12. The first General Congregation de34. What the imagination is to pourtray termined that a Directory should be preas a prelude.

pared. 35. Sin of the angels to be contemplated. 13. They are to induce men to undergo

36. Then the sin of Adam and Eve,—then the Course, and carefully avoid giving any sin itself, mortal and venial, and a colloquy cause to suspect that there is a wish of with Christ on the cross, to conclude with! drawing them into a religious profession.

40. Exaggerated self-condemnation. 27. Eyging on. 107.

41. Colloquies with the Mother, the Son, 14. Prudent proceedings. and the Father.

15. Who are fit subjects for the Course. 42. Prelude de Inferno.

17. Seclusion from all friends and busi44. What on going to sleep, what on ness during the Course. 18. waking

21. What books are allowed to the Exer46. Joyful cogitations to be avoided in ciser. this stage, and the patient to be kept in 23. Five hours the daily allowance. 24. darkness, except when reading, or at his Dispensation of the midnight hour. meals.

25. The place.

376

DIRECTORIUM IN EXERCITIA - FRANCISCO DE SALAZAR.

Expenses,-neither to be demanded, nor 72. “Applicatio Sensuum.” This accords refused.

ill with the caution given at p. 58. Only necessary speech with the attendant. 81. How the person who makes his elec

26. This attendant may in certain cases tion sure is to choose rejecting all thoughts be one of the Patient's own, to whom he will but the one needful. open himself more freely than to his Direc- 84. He must be watchful in detecting the tor.

false logic of the devil. 31. Fit times of visiting, early and late. 85. Choice of a religious state-and of

33. In time of consolation he may be which. 86. left much to himself.

105. No vow to be made when the choice 34. Men like to choose, or think that they | is fixed, lest it be repented when the spirit choose their own way.

flags. 35. Written meditations given them that

122. The first Week's Course is purgathe memory may be spared, the whole tive, the second partly purgative and partly strength of the faculties being required for illuminative, and so the third. The fourth the understanding and the will.

unctive. 35. Great danger of hurting the head by 124. Ill consequences of passing per salprayer.

tup to the unctive Course. 39. By this they may reform other Or- 126-7. Precautions after the Course. ders in no invidious way, qualifying their own members to undertake the work of reformation.

41. The Course may be at the patient's Francisco de Salazar. Afectos y Consideown house, “quod aliquando melius esse

raciones devotas sobre los quatro Novissi

mos, añadidas a los Exerciosos de la Pripotest, quam ut ipsi domum nostram veniant et instructorem: præsertim cum sunt

mera Semaña. 10th edition, 1758. persone Illustriores, quia sic facilius res ce- Such helps as this were much wanted, latur.” But retreat is best-to the country many such therefore had been prepared; or to a convent.

but this, which long circulated in MS. was 43. How women are to be dealt with ;- found the best. for whom however the Course was not de- 1-2. First Prelude. signed.

3. This is a good consideration, that all 43. Novices to have the Exercises piece- creatures except man, fulfil the end of their meal.

creation. 46. Others of the Order to go through 22-3. The presentation of his own sinful them for their own amendment.

state. 52. The consideration of our latter end 39. “ If any one held me suspended by a the foundation of this Course, “ quia est single rope from the top of a high tower, basis totius ædificii moralis et spiritualis.” should I dare provoke him ? Yet Lord,” 54. Every man has some ruling vice.

&c. One must be selected to begin with. 48. Moravian language.

57. Why the first Exercise is called of 52. Renunciation of his parents, and of the three Powers.

his senses. 58. Too much imagination must not be 54. Christ represented in terrors. directed to the Preludes.

98. Prayer for charity to the Virgin. 61. The Colloquies are what require most 120. Representation of death. reverence.

133-4. Of burial. 64. General Confession to be advised, at 137. A particular Judgement. the end of the first Week.

138. The Guardian Angel accusing him,

REGULÆ SOCIETATIS – LINGUET - LEDWICH.

377

190. Of 30,000 who died at the same 70. And with women. time with S. Bernard, only five souls were 71. The Superior may allow them to resaved.

ceive money. Of 6000 at another time, three souls went 75. Not to reprove Dignities in their to Purgatory, one to Heaven, the rest to serions,-nor meddle with news. the Pit, whence nulla est redemptio.

76. Not to jest or relate idle tales in their sermons.—To prepare their discourses, and never either in sermon or lecture exceed

an hour. Regulæ Societatis. 1635. 4. Its end the good of others. Their vocation. No austerities required, -permitted only.

The Dratorians. 35.

Having been instituted late, and in fa6. Every member must be contented to vourable circumstances, LINGUET says they be constantly observed, and to have all his have retained nothing “de la rouille monasdefects reported.

tique. C'est le plus respectable, et peut-être 11. No fees for any of their ministerial | le seul respectable des ordres religieuses. functions.

C'st le seul au moins qu'on n'ait jamais ac16. Every temptation must be confessed. cusé ni d'ambition, ni d'avidité, ni de bas

17. No part to be taken in political affairs. sesse, ni de cruauté."Hist. Imp. des Je24.

suites, vol. 1, p. 180. 22. At the summons of the bell, they must instantly repair to it, “statim vel imperfectâ litterâ relicta.”

“Ar Clonenagh, near Montrath, in IreEvery one must keep his own cell clean, land, are cemeteries for men and women and be his own chamberlain.

distinct from each other, by order of St. 33. Subordination.

Fintan. It would have been a breach of 36. The Superior, and all others in au- chastity for monks and nuns to lie interred thority, must every year take upon them within the same inclosure.” – LEDWICH, selves some of the menial offices of the Antiquities of Ireland, p. 99. house.

All letters to be inspected. 37. No musical instruments allowed. “In the act of confession a woman is to

Pupils not to have their time employed place herself beside the Confessor, not bein devotional exercises.

fore him, and not very near, so that he may 38. A holyday, or at least a half one hear her but not see her face, for the pro

phet Habakkuk says, the face of a woman 39. Every scholar reported to the Pro- shall sup up as the East Wind.”Partida, vincial.

1, tit. 4, ley 26. 44. Not to undertake the care of Nuns.

HOSTIENS. quoted in the Gloss. 45. Not to visit or write to women, except for great cause. Women not to enter their Colleges.

“If upon the death of a Monk any money 48-9. Rules for deportment, and for car- was found in his possession it was to be rying a Jesuitical face.

buried with him in a dunghill. But the 68. They must know the Exercises tho- Gloss. adds that not all the money—thirty roughly.

pence will be sufficient as a sign of his 69. Deportment when hearing confession. damnation.”—Ibid. vol. 1, tit. 7, ley 14.

every week.

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