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without defect, it was so much the more In the seventeenth and last council of
susceptible, all bodies being more suscepti- Toledo, it was decreed that the baptistery
ble in proportion as they are more perfect. should be shut up and sealed with the epis-
Even Adam before the fall could not by copal seal all the year till Good Friday, on
possibility have endured so much, he being which day the bishop, in his pontificals, was
made only of clay. “Y el cuerpo de Christo with great solemnity to open it; in token
fue formado de la purissima sangre de la that Christ by his passion and resurrection
virgin sin manzella.” Moreover a redemp- had opened the way to heaven for man-
tion was to be effected as much by justice kind, as on that day the hope was opened
as by love. He bore at that time the pain of obtaining redemption by this holy sacra-
which all the sins of mankind deserved.-ment.—MORALES, 12. 62. 3.
Las 400 Respuestas, p. 2, f. 112.

See Collect. Gothica, for an Athanasian

miracle. IMMEDIATELY after the resurrection, as soon all the children of men are risen and

Elijah. collected together in expectation of their doom. “ Sabemos que de repente se ha de

" This is he, who, though he continue a abrir no Ceo huma grande porta, et que a

man, yet waxeth he not old ;—this is he primeira cousa que todos verão sahir por

that is reserved for a captain of war against ella, cercada de resplandores bastantes a

Antichrist ;—this is he that in the end of the escurecer o Sol (se ainda ouvera Sol) serà world will turn all men from lying and dea mesma sagrada Cruz, em que o Redemp- ceit unto God. Afore his mother was detor do mundo padecco, reservada so ella livered of him, his father saw in a vision do incendio, et reunida de todas as partes the angels saluting him, all in white, wrapde Christendade, onde esteve dividida et ping him with flames of fire as it were adorada.”—VIeyra, Sermoens, tom. 2, p. swathing bands, and nourishing him with 489. See also Ibid. tom. 7, p. 255.

fire as if it had been usual food or pap.”—
DOROTHEUS.

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Baptism.

Enoch and Elias are preserved, accord“ The chrism was to be made of oil and ing to the opinion of grave expositors, to be balsam, denoting good inclination and good munhas de sens juizios), one in the state of

witnesses of God's judgements (ser testeappearances. The person was to be anointed twice with holy oil before the baptismal act; the written law,—to which, I suppose, St.

the law of nature, the other in the state of once on the breast, to expel all evil and sin

John is to be added for the law of grace.fulness and inspire good thoughts; once on

SEBASTIANESTAS, pt. 1, p. 21. the back, to expel slothfulness and strengthen to good works. After baptism twice with chrism, in the shape of a cross, on the head,

St. John. that he may have understanding to give a reason for his faith; and on the forehead, St. AUGUSTINE (Tract 124, in Johan.) that he may have courage to confess.—1 mentions and ridicules a tradition that John Partida, tit. 4, ley 14, 15. The chrism ordered his own grave to be made, lay down was only to be made on Good Friday.-P. 1, in it, and went to sleep, still sleeping there, tit. 10, ley 13.

as is manifest by the heaving of the earth At consecrating a church, the walls and over him as he breathes. altars were to be anointed with chrism.

DOROTHEUS says, “ he living as yet (the Ibid, ley 16.

Lord would so have it) buried himself.”

384

T. TAYLOR - - BERNINO — JEREMY TAYLOR.

encounter S. Magus on the morrow. Holy Water.

BERNINO. S. August. epist. 86.—Cass. coll. “ THERE were two reasons for sprinkling 3, c. 10, quos citat. Bar. an. 57, n. 24. the graves, because sometimes the grave is the special purgatory, where soul and body

Hell. suffer together : but in general, because, while the soul is in purgatory and looking " It is the fancy of some divines in the on to redemption, the Devil, knowing how Roman Church, and particularly of Cornedearly it loves the body wherein it is to rise lius a Lapide (in Apocal.) that the souls of again to glory, gets into the grave to insult the damned shall be rolled up in bundles it,-every wrong offered to the body afflict- | like a heap and involved circles of snakes, ing the soul. Now if he happens to be and in hell shall sink down like a stone into there when the grave is sprinkled, he can- the bottomless pit, falling still downward not bear holy water, and flies away di- for ever and ever.”—JER. TAYLOR, Duct. rectly."

Dub. b. 1, c. 2, rule 6. This is only an opinion of Fray Luys d'Escobar, but he says he knows no opinion in opposition to it, and it may hold good inferior et muito mais abaixo; onde estava

“He de Fe, que ha dous Infernos ; hum till some better reason be assigned.-- Las

o rico Avarento,—et outro superior et mais 400, Respuestas, p. 1, f. 118.

asima, onde estava Abraham et Lazaro. Deste Inferno superior tiron Christo todas

as Almas que la estavam : mas do Inferno Excommunication.

inferior (ou Christo descesse la presencialADAM was the first man that was excom

mente, ou não) não tiron Alma alguma.”— municated; but this was not the first in- VIEYRA, Serm. t. 4, p. 430. stance of excommunication, for the fallen angels were excommunicated before him.i Partida, tit. 8.

De Statu Mortuorum.

“ It was a common opinion in TertulliThe Celestial Hierarchy.

an's time, that the souls departed are in THERE were ten orders originally. One

outer courts, expecting the revelation of fell, and man was created to supply its

the day of the Lord; in the time of Pope

Leo and Venerable Bede, and after, it was place.—1 Partida, tit. 20.

a common opinion that they were taken into
the inner courts of heaven."-J. TAYLOR,

D. Dubit. b. 1, c. 4, rule 9.
Fasting
Lent is the title of the year.—This was
following the precept of giving full and

Images.
overflowing measure. - 1 Partida, tit. 20,
ley 3.

The Lady of Loretto precisely answers

the description which Tacitus gives of the Marinus, the disciple and biographer of Venus of Cyprus. Duppa remarked this Proclus, calls the sublimer virtues Cathar

to me. tic.-T. TAYLOR.

Some of the ancient statues were called The Saturday's fast was originally insti- Diopeteis, or such as descended from heaven, tuted in commemoration of one enjoined by because, says Jamblichus, apud Phot. p. 554, St. Peter on that day, because he was to the occult art by which they were fabri

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cated by human hands was inconspicuous. -Se Deos quando decreta a morte, dera a –T. TAYLOR, Note to Julian's Orations. escolher o dia, lodo o mundo se guardara

Taylor's explanation of the virtue or di- para morrer nelle." — VIEYRA, Sermoens, vinity of these statues is akin to the philo- tom. 4, p. 435. sophy of talismans.

LADDERS of Christ and of the Virgin, as

seen by S. Francesco and Leon.-Ibid. tom. Christ.

6, p. 479. “ Todos os outros homens, quando se gerão et concebem no ventre da may, não

On a certain day, when the Virgin sate são homēs, nem ainda meninos; porque so

weeping, “ præ desiderio videndi Christum," tem a vida vegetativa, ou sensitiva, et ainda an angel appeared and told her that within não estão informados com a Alma racional; three days she should depart and see her porem o Verbo Encarnado, Christo, desdo son, and placed in her hand a celestial palmprimeiro instante de sua conceição foy va

branch, radiant with splendour, which he rão perfeito et perfeitissimo, não so com todas said was to be borne before her bier. Upon as potencias da Alma et do corpo, senão

this she requests that all the apostles might tambem com o uso dellas."— VIEYRA, Ser

be brought together to see her before she moens, tom. 4, p. 50.

died. St. John was at that time preaching at Ephesus. At the ninth hour before noon, an earthquake shook the place, and in the sight

of the astonished people he was enveloped Confession and Absolution.

in a cloud and rapt away out of the pulpit, The necessity of those in the strict Ca- they knew not whither. He arrived first of tholic sense was one of the early corruptions all the Apostles, who from different parts of of Christianity. It is insisted upon by the world were transported in like manner; Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, under and the Virgin gave him the palm-branch, Decius. See EUSEBIUS, l. 6, c. 44. Djepi charged him with the care of her funeral, Σαραπίωνος. .

and especially that he would provide against Sozomen traces the growth of the prac- all danger of that outrage which the Jews tice. In the beginning of Christianity peo- were likely to offer to her corpse in their ple accused themselves publicly before the hatred for the mother of our Lord. Other congregation. As zeal abated, shame in- believers assembled, and when they were creased, and that confession which had for all sitting together, on the third day, a sudmerly been made openly in the church, was den sleep came upon all except the apostles, now made to the priest alone and in privacy. | in whose presence Christ appeared in glory, He gives this only as his opinion-eyw de surrounded with angels. The Virgin prosus oimai åpnyijoouai,—but it is the natural trated herself and adored him, and after process.—Lib. 7. c. 16.

mutual expressions of affection, she laid herself at his feet and died. Christ then

commends her soul to the Archangel Mi“He opiniam de Doutores piadosa et bem chael, directed the Apostle to conceal her recebida, que em todos os dias consagrados body in the earth, and then he ascended. a alguma Festa da Senhora, estam mais The body remained unchanged in colour or franqueadas as portas do Ceo. Mas que in beauty; it became fragrant not sunken,este privilegio seja particularmento con- a cloud in the shape of a cone descended cedido a mayor Festa de todas, que he a and remained upon the bier ;-angels accomda Assumpçam gloriosa, nað tem so a pro- panied it singing the obsequies ;-immense babilidade de opiniam, mas he cousa certa. numbers collect by the heavenly voice ;

CC

386

LIGHTFOOT

VIEYRA - GEOFFREY DE MONMOUTH.

se conser

-Jews who attempt to insult the bier are noble Roman, and bestow the kingdom with
struck with palsy or blindness, and are mi- her, that so they might enjoy a firmer peace.
raculously restored upon repentance; and Others were of opinion that his nephew
finally the body was interred at Geth- Conan Meriadoc ought to succeed to the
semene, in the spot which her Son had throne, and that his daughter, with a com-
appointed. There the angels remain three petent dowry in money, should be given in
days singing beside the grave, and it is marriage to a foreign prince. Caradoc,
doubtful whether they would ever have re- Duke of Cornwall, differed from both, and
turned to heaven, if they had not taken the advised, as the surest means of securing a
precious body with them. On the third permanent peace, that Maximian, the Ro-
day, Thomas, doubting of the Assumption, man Senator, should be invited over to
moreover came to the grave to see and marry the Princess, and succeed to the
venerate the body. He found the sepulchre throne. Maximian was the son of Leolin,
empty, retaining only the fragrance which who was also an uncle of the Empress He-
was left there.—Lightfoot, vol. 8, 307-9, lena; but by his mother and birth-place he
from Melito, S. Metuphrastes, Nicephor. et was a Roman, and on both sides of royal
aliis.

blood, therefore having on both sides a right
to the crown of Britain.

This advice, as might be expected, was
The Sacrament.

vehemently opposed by Conan Meriadoc; AFTER the end of the world,“

King Octavius came to no decision, and vará eternamente no mesmo Ceo huma Duke Caradoc persisting in his views sent Hostia consagrada.” — VIEYRA, tom. 7, p. his son Mauricius to acquaint Maximian 255.

with what had passed. Mauricius arrived
at Rome in happy hour, when Maximian

was offended with the two Emperors for [Fragment.] St. Ursula and the 11,000

having refused to admit him as a third. The Virgins.

Embassador represents to him that ample The earliest notice of St Ursula that has means for acquiring not merely a portion of been discovered, is in that veracious histo- the empire, but the whole, were now at his rian, GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH.

disposal. King Octavius being aged and According to him, when Constantine went infirm would gladly give him his daughter, from Britain to deliver the Roman world and make over to him his kingdom ; and from the tyranny of Maxentius, Octavius with the means in treasure and in men Duke of the Wesseans took advantage of which Britain could supply, he might return his absence, slew the proconsuls who had to Rome, drive out the Emperors, and win been left in charge of the government, made the empire for himself, after the example of himself king, and having once been driven his kinsman Constantine. Maximian lent a from the kingdom and recovering it by the willing ear, and set out accordingly for Brimurder of Trahern, an uncle of the Empress tain. On the way he subdued the cities of Helena, who had been sent from Rome the Franks, in which he found great treaagainst him, kept possession of it till the sure both of silver and gold; he raised men time of Gratian and Valentinian. Then in in all parts; set sail with a fair wind, and his old age, wishing to provide for the suc- arrived at Hamo's Port,-since called Southcession, he convoked his Council, and asked ampton. them which of his family they desired to Mauricius had deceived him, but with no have for their king after his decease, seeing

He had represented that the he had no son, and only one daughter. King and the Nobles had with one consent Some advised him to marry her with some invited him ; whereas the mission was from

ill intent.

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GEOFFREY DE MONMOUTH.

387

Duke Caradoc alone, and the King was so of his great age it was his wish to retire alarmed at what appeared an invasion, that from the fatigues of the government, God he ordered Conan to raise all the force of bad vouchsafed to bring him a person of the kingdom, and march against the enemy. the imperial family, upon whom he might This he did with such celerity that he came most fitly bestow his daughter and his in sight of Hamo's Port while Maxentius crown ;—one indeed who had a just claim was still in his tents there. Maxentius was to the throne, for he was the cousin of Connot prepared for an opposition which he had stantine and the nephew of King Coel, whose had no reason to expect; his troops were daughter Helena had possessed by an unfar inferior in numbers; his council were deniable hereditary right. To these repreof opinion that a battle ought not to be sentations Octavius yielded ; Maximian achazarded, and Mauricius proposed a politic cordingly married the Princess, and ascended way of proceeding, to which they all con- the throne. Conan retired in anger into sented. He took with him twelve gray- Albania, as Scotland was then called, raised haired men, eminent beyond the rest for an army there, crossed the Humber, and their quality and wisdom, and bearing olive wasted the provinces on either side. Maxibranches in their right hands; and thus ac- mian marched against him, gave him battle, companied he went towards the British and defeated him, but it was not till after army. The Britons seeing these venerable many conflicts, and much loss on both sides, men, and that they bore the emblem of that Conan's resentment was appeased, and peace, saluted them respectfully, and opened a sincere accommodation concluded. a way for them to their commander. Him From this time Conan became Maximian's they saluted in the name of the Emperors friend. That king, elated by the wealth and of the Senate, and said that Maximian and strength which he had at his command, was sent with an Embassy to the King from fitted out a fleet for the purpose of invading Gratian and Valentinian. Why then, said Gaul. He landed upon the coast of ArmoConan, comes he with an army, rather like rica, and there put the Gauls under their an invader than an ambassador ? Mauri- leader Inbaltus to flight, with the loss of cius replied that the force with which he fifteen thousand men. That victory rencame was not greater than was suitable for dered the conquest of Armorica certain, his rank, and necessary for his safety, seeing after which he doubted not of reducing all that by reason of the Roman power, and Gaul. Calling Conan aside, therefore, he the actions of his ancestors, he was obnoxious said that amends should now be made him to many kings through whose territories he for his disappointed hopes of the British had to pass. But it was in peace that he came

Another Britain should be made to Britain, and from the time of his landing of Armorica for his kingdom. The land his behaviour had been peaceful. He had was fruitful in corn, the rivers abounded taken nothing by force, and had paid for with fish, and the forests with game; they every thing that his people required. Duke would drive out the old inhabitants and Caradoc was at hand to urge that the Em- | people it with Britons. This determination bassy should be received, and Conan being was carried into effect. All the cities and rather overruled than persuaded, unwilling- towns were taken with little resistance, and ly laid down his arms, and conducted Maxi- all the males who were found in them were mian to London.

put to the sword. The strong places were Then Duke Caradoc and Mauricius re- made still stronger, and garrisoned with Bripresented to the King that what the more tons. Thirty thousand troops were brought faithful and loyal of his subjects had long from Britain, to defend this new Britain, desired, was now by the good providence of and an hundred colonists to repeople it. God brought about. Now when by reason And while Maximian pursued his conquests

crown.

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