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adorned with wreaths of mogrees, and cool. | nobleman, intended for sale ; among them ed with rose water. Here the voluptuous was a diamond of the first water, shaped Indian retires to smoke his hookah, or waste like a prism, weighing an hundred and his time with a favourite from the haram. seventeen carats, and estimated at twentyThis apartment is sometimes decorated with five thousand pounds. The proprietor inobscene paintings in a wretched style, suit- formed me of a diamond, then in the royal ed to their depraved appetites.”—Ibid. vol. treasury at Ispahan, which weighed two 3, p. 268.

hundred and sixty-four carats, and was va

lued at four hundred and twenty thousand [The Bees in the Caverns of Salsettetheir mentioned by Tavernier, at that time in

pounds. This is probably the same stone inconvenience.]

possession of the Mogul emperor, which “ The bees are sometimes very trouble- weighed two hundred and seventy-nine casome and dangerous, and often annoyed us rats, and its value was estimated at half a in our visits to the caves at Salsette and million sterling. The variation in the weight the Elephanta ; where they make their and price in a gem of such magnitude, may combs in the clefts, and the rocks, and in be easily allowed between a Persian and a the recesses among the figures, and hang European traveller. This imperial diamond in immense clusters: I have known a whole is a brilliant of beautiful shape, called by party put to the rout in the caverns of Sal- way of eminence Kooi Toor, the Hill of sette, and obliged to return with their cu- Lustre,' alluding to Mount Sinai, in Arabia, riosity unsatisfied, from having imprudently where God appeared in glory to Moses. fired a gun to disperse the bees, who in their Another diamond of a flat surface, nearly rage pursued them to the bottom of the

as valuable as the former, is denominated mountains.”—Ibid. vol. 1, p. 46.

Doniainoor, 'the Ocean of Lustre.' These magnificent jewels formed part of Nadir

Shah's plunder at Delhi in 1739; when the [Sujaat Khaun's Mosque at Ahmedabad.]

riches he carried off exceeded seventy milSUJAAT Khaun's Mosque at Ahmeda

lions sterling. The most superb article of bad, of the purest white marble, surrounded this imperial spoil was the Fucht-Taoos, or by the dark foliage and glowing scarlet of of the peacock, in its natural size, was imi

peacock-throne, in which the expanded tail pomegranate blossoms, says Mr. Forbes, tated in jewellery, composed of the most had an uncommon effect. Another here, built of white marble, is lined with costly diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, ivory, and inlaid with a profusion of gems derful effect. This throne was valued at

topazes, and amethysts, producing a wonto imitate flowers, bordered by silver foliage on mother-of-pearl. During the hot

ten crore of rupees, upwards of twelve milwinds at this place the heavens were as

lion sterling. After the assassination of brass, and the earth like heated iron, and

Nadir Shah this plunder was transported we were obliged to confine ourselves in dark

into various countries, and since the late

revolutions in Persia has been more widely rooms, cooled by batties or screens of mat

dispersed. ted grass kept continually watered.— Ibid. vol. 3, p. 126.

“ The magnificent prismatic diamond I have just mentioned, was lost in a dreadful storm in a few months afterwards, at Surat

bar, where the ship in which it was freighted, [Splendid Diamond.]

with a number of other vessels, foundered “I saw a valuable assortment of precious | at their anchors.”—Ibid. vol 3, p. 84. stones at Cambay, belonging to a Persian

KNOX - PURCHAS - CHRISTIANI FRANCISCI PAULINI.

419

[Novel Agriculture.]

This being kindled in the potsheard, flames,

and gives an exceeding light. They carry " They plough twice before they sow. it

upon

their heads with the flame foremost; But before they begin the first time, they the basket hiding him that is under it, and let in water upon their land, to make it those that come behind it. In their hands more soft and pliable for the plough. After they carry three or four small bells, which it is once ploughed, they make up their they tingle as they go, that the noise of their banks. For if otherwise, they should let it steps should not be heard. alone till after the second ploughing, it “ Behind the man that carries the light, would be mere mud; and not hard enough go men with bows and arrows. And so they to use for banking. Now these banks are go walking along the plains, and by the pond greatly necessary, not only for paths for the sides, where they think the deer will come people to go upon through the fields, who out to feed. Which when they see the otherwise must go in the mud, it may be, light, stand still and stare upon it, seeing knee-deep; but chiefly to keep in and con- only the light, and hearing nothing but the tain their water, which by the help of these tingling of the bells.”—Ibid. p. 26. banks they overflow their grounds with.

“ These banks they make as smooth with the back side of their Houghs, as a bricklayer can smooth a wall with his trowel. For in

[Maldive Notions relative to the World.] this they are very neat. These banks are The inhabitants of the Maldives believe usually not above a foot over.

" that the world is flat, and not round; and " After the land is thus ploughed, and that there is a wall of copper about it, the banks finished, it is laid under water which hinders the world from being overagain for some time, till they go to ploughing whelmed with the waters which environ it; the second time. Now it is exceedingly and that the devil seeks every night to muddy, so that the trampling of the cattle pierce through and undermine this wall, that draw the plough, does as much good as and by daybreak he wants very little to the plough, for the more muddy the better. have made a hole thorow; for this cause Sometimes they use no plough this second all the men from fifteen years

old time, but only drive their cattle over to point of day to their moschs, to make prayers, make the ground the muddier.

saying that without their prayers all the “ Their lands being thus ordered, they world would perish.”—PYRARD DE LAVAL. still keep them overflowed with water, that Purchas. 1667. the weeds and grass may rot.”— Knox's Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon,

[Eastern Trees with Worms for Roots.]

“ NARRANT in orientalis Indiæ insula [Deer Catching in Ceylon.]

Sombrero reperiri arbores, quæ radicum “For the catching of deer or other wild loco magnos habent vermes ; qui crescenbeasts they have this ingenious device. In tibus arboribus, decrescunt; et nisi hi plané dark moons, when there are drisling rains, absumti, inque arbores mutati sint, haud they go about this design. They have a bas-figenit illæ radices altius." - CHRISTIANI ket made with canes, somewhat like a funnel, FRANCISCI PAULINI de Morte Verminosa, p. into which they put a potsheard with fire 29. Seyfried medull. mirab. nat. 1. 2, c. 5, in it, together with a certain wood which § 27, p. 670. they have growing there, full of

sap

like pitch, and that will burn like a pitch-barrel.

goe at the

p. 10.

420

GUTHRIE – EVLIA — SIR THOMAS HERBERT.

p. 357.

[Large Cocoa-Nut.]

[Unreasonable Demand, and Zertoost's “ THERE is a very large species of cocoa

Reply.] nut which is found only in the islands of “ The King (either stimulated by his Madura and Baly, and which the Malay churchmen, or judging Zertoost able to do princes procure at an exorbitant price. The anything) calls for him, professing his probody makes a fiddle.” — Sketches of Java, pensity to be of his religion, conditionally

he would grant him four things: first, that he might never dye; secondly, that he might

ascend heaven, and descend as often as he [Naphthathe Fuel of the Everlasting Fire listed; thirdly, that he might know what of the Persians.]

God had done and intended; fourthly, that

his body might be invulnerable. “ NAPHTHA is the mineral oil which sus

Zertoost, amazed at these unreasonable tained the everlasting fire of the Persiąns, demands, and perceiving it otherwise imand does so still in some places where the possible to have his dogmata received, tells old adorers of that element still exist; but

the King, that for one man to have all the progress of knowledge has now done those properties was to be God more than away the marvellous from this natural phe- man ; that the King should have the liberty nomenon ; as we know that in any piece of to choose any one for himself; and the other ground where springs of naphtha or petro- three should be distributed to any other leum obtain, by merely sticking an iron three he should please to nominate. Which tube in the earth, and applying a light to being accepted, Gustasp makes the second the upper end, the mineral oil will burn till his choice, that he might ascend and descend the tube is decomposed, or for a vast num- at pleasure; to know the secrets of heaven ber of years. This kind of tube the Per

was granted to the King's Church-man; to sian idolaters inclose in a stone hut open live for ever was conferred upon Pischiton, at top, as the temple of their God.”

(the King's eldest son) who (they say) lives GUTHRIE's Tour through the Taurida.

yet upon Damoan's high mountain, guarded by thirty spirits to forbid others the en

trance, and lest by setting foot upon that [The Fire Temple of Erdeshir.]

holy ground, they also should live for ever:

to be free from hurt was granted Espan“ To the south of Mossool, and at a day's diar, the King's youngest son : after which journey distance, near the bath of Ali, was the Zundavastaw was opened, the newformerly the fire temple of Erdeshir, where broached doctrine read, and universally acthe fire, ever kept since the time of Nimrod, cepted of.”—Sir Thomas HERBERT. was extinguished on the birth-night of the Prophet. Since then it has been rekindled many times by talismanic power, and the caravans see it in dark nights at a journey's [Wood consumed at Funerals in Ispahan in distance. As in the year 1059 (A. D. 1649)

proportion to the Wealth of the Deceased.] I passed here with Melek Ahmed Pashaw, “ The quantity of wood consumed at then removed from Bagdad, I saw this fire, these funerals is in proportion to the rank and marched eight hours in its light. Some and wealth of the deceased, and the honour say it is sulphur, and some say it is naphtha which his relatives pay to his memory. which burns in this manner. Be that as it Wood is exceedingly dear at Hispahan, and may, these are the remains of the fire temple the friends of a Banian who died there, of Erdeshir."- Evlia, vol. 4.

wept as if they thought him disgraced, be

K.7. 1.

PIETRO DELLA VALLE — LITTLEBURY – PURCHAS.

421 cause they could only procure six or seven into the sea, which go floating till they be camels' loads for his funeral pile; whereas burned, for they put fire in them, to the half one would have been sufficient to con- end, they say, that the king of the winds sume the body.”—PIETRO DELLA VALLE. may accept them. Also they set not wil

lingly their ships and gallies afloat, but

they kill hens and cocks, and cast them in The Walls of Ecbatana, built by Deioces.

the sea, before the ship or boat which they

will use. They believe also that there is a 'Olkooouéel teixea péyada te kai kaptepa, king of the sea, to whom in like sort they They are of a circular form, one make

prayers and ceremonies in their naviwithin the other, and each gradually raised gation, and when they go on fishing, fearing just so much above the other as the battle upon every error and offence, the kings of ments are high. The situation of the ground, the winds and of the sea. So that being rising by an easy ascent, was very favour- on the sea, they dare not spit on the windy able to the design. But the thing chiefly side, nor cast any thing overboard, for fear to be considered is, that the King's palace that they should be angry with them; also and treasury are built within the innermost they never look behind them. All the boats, circle of the seven which compose this city. barks and ships are devoted to the powers The first and most spacious of these walls of the winds and of the sea, and surely they is equal in circumference to the city of respect them as if they were their temple, Athens, and white from the foot of the bat- keeping them neat, and never committing tlements. The second is black, the third of any filthy and dishonest thing in them.”— a purple colour, the fourth blue, and the PURCHAS. 1658. fifth of a deep orange. All these are coloured with different compositions ; but of the two innermost walls, one is painted on the battlements with a silver colour, and [Siamese Notion of the End of the World.] the other is gilded with gold."--LITTLE

“ The Siamese say, that at the end of the BURY's Herodotus. Clio. c. 98.

world, seven eyes of the sun will be opened in heaven, each successively will dry up

something, till at the fifth the sea will be [The Maldives and the King of the Winds.] parched up, and by the two last the whole

earth will be set on fire and consumed. In the Maldives, which are not less Two eggs, however, male and female, are to storm-vexed than the Bermudas, and where

remain
among

the ashes, and from these the thousand currents render navigation shall all things be reproduced.”—JOAM DE particularly dangerous, the superstition of

BARROS, 3. 2.5. the people (the Mahommedans) has grown out of their peculiar situation.“ There is no isle,” says PYRARD DE LAVAL (the only traveller, I believe, who has ever lived among them), “ where is not found a sidre, [An Elephantthe Hindoo Name for a as they call it, which is a place dedicated to

Hurricane.] the winds, in a desolate corner of the isle, “ The Hindoos call a hurricane an elewhere they which have escaped danger, phant, on account of its force.”—DELLON, make offerings daily of little boats and vol. 1, p. 13. ships, made purposely, full of perfumes, gums, flowers, and odoriferous woods. They burn the perfumes, and cast the little boats

422

TENNANT

- FORBES

BAYLE.

NANT.

1, p. 72.

nation is made up by patching different [Encroachment of Rivers in the East

, and leaves together, which forms a substitute the Roots of the Ficus Indica, destructive for a plate at the Hindoo meals.”—Texto Buildings.

“The encroachments of the Ganges, and even of small rivers, soon effect the destruction of the strongest buildings; since the

[Leaf-Plates.] immense quantity of rain, which in this

“ Turir plates and dishes are generally country falls in the space of a few hours

formed from the leaf of the plaintain tree, gives them a degree of force and rapidity which defies all resistance. The rapid

or the nymphæa lotos, that beautiful lily

which abounds in every lake. These are growth of trees proves a very powerful

never used a second time.”-FORBES, vol. source of decay to Indian buildings. The seeds of the peeple tree, (Ficus Indica) as often as they fall upon an old edifice, spring up into trees with great rapidity. The roots you may observe spreading along

[Olympias and the Serpent.] the front of a wall in search of nourishment, According to Justin, the commerce of for twenty feet; wherever these find an in- | the serpent with Olympias was only a sterstice, they penetrate, while their en- dream. The Queen dreamed that a great largement gradually loosens and shatters serpent enjoyed her that night that she the most sufficient buildings. Thus a town conceived Alexander. One of our best in India suffers as much in the course of critics, commenting upon this passage of fifty years, as in Europe it would do in two Justin, observes, that there were serpents centuries."— TENNANT.

in Macedonia which grew so tame and familiar, that the women put them round

their arms and necks, like bracelets and [Superstition of not passing over a Shadow.] necklaces, either for diversion or to cool

“Let him not intentionally pass over the themselves. He alledges upon this the aushadow of sacred images, of a natural or

thority of Lucian. “Hoc autem non abs re spiritual father, of a King, of a Brahmin fuerit meminisse (nam ex nihilo, ut aiunt, who keeps house, or of any reverend

nihil) reperiri in Macedonia serpentes, qui

personage, nor of a red-haired or copper-co

tam facile mansuefieri possint, ut ex iis loured man, nor of one who has just per- sibi monilia facerent, vel ut animulas suas

olim et puellæ et matronæ sibi armillas, formed a sacrifice.”Instit. of Menu.

oblectarent, vel ad corpusculum frigerandum. Hujus rei auctorem ciere possum

Lucianum in Alexandro, sive Pseudomanti." [The Preparation of Leaves for Hindoo

Lucian speaks neither of these bracelets nor Plates.]

necklaces, but he says what is equally “The trade of Barbi is to prepare dishes strange. He affirms, that the women of of leaves from which the Hindoos eat their Pella brought up great serpents so very food. In Bengal the plaintain leaf is so tame, that they suckled them, and let them common, and from its size so commodious lie with their children. He conjectures for this purpose, that the object is attained that the vulgar traditions about Olympias at once without the intervention of profes- were grounded upon this reason. sional skill; but in the upper provinces «« 'Ενταύθα ιδόντες δράκοντας, παμμεγέthere is no single leaf which can supply the | θεις, ημέρους πάνυ και τιθαρτους, ως και place of the plaintain; an artificial combi- | υπό γυναικών τρέφεσθαι, και παιδίοις συγ

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