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which hath also suffered somewhat by the | all be ruined if they made war with the fury of this flame, though not considerable | English, as it since came to pass. Howto what the other colonies have under- ever, the good hand of God was seen in so gone.”—Ibid.

ordering things, that the Narhagonsets were, for the present, kept from breaking out into open hostility against the English,

at that time when Philip began; which, if [Treachery of Ninigret, the old Sachem of they had then done, according to the eye of the Narhagonsets.]

reason it would have been very difficult, if “ It hath already been declared what possible, for the English to have saved any hath been done for the security of the Nar- of their inland plantations from being uthagonsets : those that were sent as messen- terly destroyed. gers on that errand, always reported, that “ Thus hath God, in his wisdom, suffered the elder people were, in appearance, not so much of the rage of the heathen to be only inclinable to peace, but very desirous let loose against his people here, as to bethereunto, insomuch as the two elder Sa- come a scourge unto them, that by the wrath chems expressed much joy when it was con- of men, praise might be yielded to his holy cluded. But, as since hath happened, all name; yet hath he, in his abundant goodthis was but to gain time, and cover their ness, restrained the remainder, that it should treacherous intents and purposes, that they not consume.”—Ibid. might, in the next spring, fall upon the English plantation all at once, as some prisoners lately brought in hath confessed, nor

[The Burning of Springfield.] have

any of these Indians, with whom the “The Indians gathered together in those present war hath been, ever regarded any parts, appearing so numerous, and as might agreement of peace made with the English, justly be supposed, growing more confident further than out of necessity or slavish fear, by some of their best successes, and the they were compelled thereunto, as may be number of our men being after this sad rate seen by the records of the colonies, from diminished; recruits also not being sudthe year 1643, to the present time, notwith- denly to be expected, at so great a distance standing their fair pretences, for Ninigret, as an hundred miles from all supplies, the the old Sachem of the Narhagonset, who commander in chief, with his officers, saw alone, of all that country Sachems, disown- a necessity of slighting that garrison at ed the present war, and refused to have Dearfield, employing the forces they had to any hand therein; yet was it proved to his secure and strengthen the three next towns face, before the commissioners, in the year below upon Connecticut river. And it was 1646 and 1647, that he had threatened they well that counsel was thought upon ; for would carry on the war against the Mohe- now those wretched caitiffs began to talk of gins, whatever was the mind of the com- great matters, hoping that by degrees they missioners, and that they would kill the might destroy all the towns thereabout, as English cattle, and heap them up as high they had already begun. as their wigwams, and that an Englishman " Their hopes, no doubt, were not a litshould not stir out of his door to p—8, but tle heightened by the accession of Springthey would kill him; all which they could field Indians to their party, who had, in apnot deny; yet did this old fox make many pearance, all this time stood the firmest to promises of peace, when the dread of the the interest of the English, of all the rest in English, ever since the Pequod war, moved those parts; but they all hanging together, them thereunto, foreseeing, as he is said to like serpents' eggs, were easily persuaded have told his neighbours, that they would I to join with those of Hadley, (there being

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so near alliance between them; for the Sa- courage, he kept his horse till he recovered chem of Springfield Indians was the father the next garrison-house. His companion of Hadley-Sachem,) not only by the suc- they shot dead upon the place; by this cess of their treacherous and bloodthirsty, means giving a sad alarm to the town of but by the same inbred malice and antipa- their intended mischief, which was instantly thy against the English manners and reli- fired in all places where there were no gargion.

risons. “ The inhabitants of Springfield were not “ The poor people, having no officer to insensible of their danger, and therefore had, guide them, being like sheep ready for upon the first breaking out of these troubles, slaughter, and no doubt the whole town had been treating with these Indians, and had been entirely destroyed, but that a report received from them the firmest assurances of the plot being sent over night, Major and pledges of their friendship and faith- Treal came from Westfield time enough in fulness that could be imagined or desired, a manner for a rescue, but wanting boats both by covenant, promises, and hostages for his men, could not do as much good as given for security ; so as no doubt was left he desired. Major Pinchon coming from in any of their minds. Yet did these faith- Hadley, with Captain Appleton and what less and ungrateful monsters plot with Phi- forces they could bring along with them, lip's Indians to burn or destroy all Spring- thirty-two houses being first consumed, prefield, as they had done Brookfield. To that served the rest of the town from being into end they sent cunningly, and enticed away ashes, in which the over-credulous inhabifrom Hartford, where they were, perhaps, tants might now see, (what before they too securely watched the day or two before: would not believe, at the burning Major then receiving above three of Philip's In- Pinchon's barns and stables, a few days bedians into their fort, privately in the night- fore, to a great damage of the owner,) the time, so as they were neither discerned nor faithless and deceitful friendship of these suspected, yea, so confident were such of perfidious, cruel, and hellish monsters. the inhabitants as were most conversant Amongst the ruins of the said dwelwith the Indians at their fort, that they lings, the saddest to behold was the house would not believe there was any such plot of Mr. Pelatiah Glover, minister of the in hand, when it was strangely revealed by town, furnished with a brave library, which one Toto, an Indian at Windsor, better af- he had but newly brought back from a garfected to the English, (about eighteen or rison where it had been for some time betwenty leagues below Springfield, upon the fore secured; but as if the danger had been same river,) and so by post, tidings thereof over with them, the said minister, a great came to Springfield the night before, inso- student, brought them back, to his great much that the lieutenant of the town, Coop- sorrow, fit for a bonfire for the proud iner by name, was so far from believing the sulting enemy. Of all the mischiefs done stratagem, that in the morning, himself by the said enemy before that day, the burnwith another would venture to ride up to ing of this town of Springfield did more the fort, to see whether things were so or than any other discover the said actors to

The fort was about a mile from the be children of the devil, full of all subtlety town. When he came within a little there- and malice, there having been, for forty of, he met with these bloody and deceitful years, so good correspondence between monsters, newly issued out of their Equus them, i.e. the English of that town and the Trojanus, to act their intended mischief; neighbouring Indians; but in them is they presently fixed upon him, divers of made good what is said in the psalm, that them, and shot him in several places 'though their words were smoother than oyl, through the body; yet being a man of stout yet were their swords drawn.'” — Ibid.


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ders; they are only three inches broad, but [Aleutian Islanders and the Sea-Dog, or

are sewed together with so much ingenuity, Phoca-Vitulina.]

that though ornamented with goats' hair or “ The sea-dog, Phoca-vitulina. This ani- small feathers, the water never penetrates mal indeed forms such an essential article through the seams. At the back part of to the subsistence of the Aleutians in a va- the collar is a cape or hood, which in a riety of ways, that it may truly be said they heavy rain or storm is drawn over the head, would not know how to live without it. Of and tied fast under the chin ; the sleeve its skin they make cloths, carpets, thongs, is fastened close round the waist. Thus shoes, many household utensils ; nay, their clothed, any one may be out for a whole canoes are made of a wooden skeleton with day in the heaviest rain without finding any the skin of the sea-dog stretched over it. inconvenience, or being wetted in the slightThe flesh is eaten, and of the fat an oil is est degree.”—Ibid. p. 37. made, which, besides being used as an article of nourishment, serves to warm and light their huts. The æsophagus is used for [Labour Question :-Use of the Quern or making breeches and boots, and the large Stones for the grinding of Corn.] blown-up paunch serves as a vessel for

“ The most laborious employment, which storing up liquors of all kinds. Of the en

is grinding the corn, is left almost entirely trails are made garments to defend them

to the women: it is rubbed between two against the rain, and they also serve instead quadrangular oblong stones till ground to of glass to admit light into the habitations; meal; the bread made of it is very white; the bristles of the beard are used like ostrich

but hard and heavy. The excellent and feathers in Europe, as ornaments for the friendly La Perouse, with a view to lessenhead: there is consequently no part of the ing the labour, left a hand-mill here, but it animal that is not turned to some use. The

was no longer in existence, nor had

any fat of the whale is another favorite species

been made of it as a model from which to of food among the Aleutians. These mon

manufacture others. When we consider sters are sometimes killed by them, but are

that there is no country in the world where more frequently thrown on shore by the

windmills are more numerous than in Spain, When this fat grows old and rancid, it seems incomprehensible why these very it serves equally with that of the sea-dog useful machines have never been introto light and warm the houses." Anne duced here; I learnt, however, that in prePlumptre's Langsdorff, vol. 2, p. 34.

ferring the very indifferent meal produced
by the mode of grinding abovementioned,

the good fathers are actuated by political
[Sea-Dog Mackintoshes.]

motives. As they have more men and wo

men under their care than they could keep “ To a nation which depends so much

constantly employed the whole year, if upon the sea for its sustenance, and which

labour were too much facilitated, they are is situated in such a damp and rainy climate, atraid of making them idle by the introthe possession of a sort of cloathing which

duction of mills."—Ibid. p. 169. S. Franshall be proof against water is a point of the

cisco, N. California. utmost importance, and necessity is the mother of all invention, and to her these islanders are most probably indebted for their Kamluka, or rain garment. This is

[Indian Fire Eaters.] made of the entrails of the sea-dog, which “ ANOTHER party of the Indians were in quality have a great resemblance to blad | dancing round a large fire, from which seve



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ral of them, from time to time, apparently some of this bark embroidered with horsefor their pleasure, took a piece of glowing hair, upon which a Jakutschian woman had ember as big as a walnut, which, without been occupying herself for a whole year. further ceremony, they put into their mouths To make the bark more durable as well as and swallowed. This was no deception. I pliable, so that it may be sewn together, it observed them very closely, and saw it per- must lie for a whole day in water that has formed repeatedly, though it is utterly in- been boiled, or perhaps must be prepared comprehensible to me how it could be done still further ; but of this I could not make without burning their mouths and stomachs: myself sure; and the Jakutschians assured instead of being a matter of pleasure, I me, that when it has undergone this proshould have conceived that they must be cess, it will last sixty or seventy years. A putting themselves to exquisite torture."— carpet, or hangings for the wall, or bed N. California, Ibid. p. 197.

furniture, of this work, are handed down from one generation to another as family

inheritances."-Ibid. p. 358. [Phosphoric Properties of the Urine of the

Viverra Putorius.]
The urine of the Viverra Putorius, with

[Sand Cherries.] which it defends itself, and which is said to “ NEAR the borders of the lake grow a exceed all imaginable stinks, is exceedingly great number of Sand Cherries, which are phosphoric, and, if put into a glass, retains not less remarkable for their manner of the phosphoric appearance a very long growth than for their exquisite flavour. time.—Ibid. p. 213.

They grow upon a small shrub not more than four feet high, the boughs of which

are so loaded that they lie in clusters on the [Moulting Time.]

sand. As they grow only on the sand, the

warmth of which probably contributes to On the way from Oonalashka to Kam- bring them to such perfection, they are schatka, Langsdorff sometimes saw a con- called by the French Cerises de Sable, or siderable track of sea strewed over with Sand Cherries. The size of them does not feathers : probably it was the moulting time

exceed that of a small musket ball, but they of the numberless birds who inhabit these

are reckoned superior to any other sort for regions.-Ibid. p. 246.

the purpose of steeping in spirits."-JONAthan CARVER, Travels, fc. p. 30.

[Uses to which the Birch Tree Bark is applied.]

[The Sumack.] “I was particularly struck with the great “ Sumack likewise grows here in great variety of uses to which the bark of the plenty ; the leaf of which, gathered at birch tree is put among these people. Be- Michaelmas, when it turns red, is much sides being used to cover their boats and esteemed by the natives. They mix about houses, they make of it drinking-cups, milk- an equal quantity of it with their tobacco, pails, and vessels for carrying water: the which causes it to smoke pleasantly. Near divisions in the inside of the houses are also this lake, and indeed about all the great made of bark; it is even converted into lakes, is found a kind of willow, termed by screens and curtains for the bed, which are the French bois rouge; in English, red ornamented in various ways. I was shewn wood. Its bark, when only of one year's


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growth, is of a fine scarlet colour, and ap- thousand men. Its form was somewhat cirpears very beautiful; but as it grows older,cular, and its flanks reached to the river. it changes into a mixture of grey and red. Though much defaced by time, every angle The stalks of this shrub grow many of them was distinguishable, and appeared as regular together, and rise to the height of six or and fashioned with as much military skill eight feet, the largest not exceeding an inch as if planned by Vauban himself. The ditch diameter. The bark being scraped from was not visible, but I thought on examining the sticks, and dried and powdered, is also more curiously, that I could perceive there mixed by the Indians with their tobacco, certainly had been one. From its situation and is held by them in the highest esti- also, I am convinced that it must have been mation for their winter smoking. A weed designed for this purpose. It fronted the that grows near the great lakes, in rocky country, and the rear was covered by the places, they use in the summer season. It river; nor was there any rising ground for is called by the Indians Segockimac, and a considerable way that commanded it; a creeps like a vine on the ground, sometimes few straggling oaks were alone to be seen extending to eight or ten feet, and bearing near it. In many places small tracks were a leaf about the size of a silver penny, worn across it by the feet of the elks and nearly round; it is of the substance and deer, and from the depth of the bed of colour of the laurel, and is, like the tree it earth by which it was covered, I was able resembles, an evergreen. These leaves, to draw certain conclusions of its great andried and powdered, they likewise mix with tiquity. I examined all the angles and their tobacco; and, as said before, smoke it every part with great attention, and have only during the summer. By these three often blamed myself since, for not encampsuccedaneums the pipes of the Indians are ing on the spot and drawing an exact plan well supplied through every season of the of it. To shew that this description is not year; and, as they are great smokers, they the offspring of a heated imagination, or the are very careful in properly gathering and chimerical tale of a mistaken traveller, I preparing them.”—Ibid. p. 30.

find on enquiry, since my return, that Mons. St. Pierre and several traders have, at different times, taken notice of similar appear

ances, on which they have formed the same [Question of Indian Entrenchments and

conjectures, but without examining them so Fortifications.]

minutely as I did. How a work of this kind One day having landed on the shore of exists in a country that has hitherto (accordthe Mississippi, some miles below the Lake ing to the general received opinion) been Pepin, whilst my attendants were preparing the seat of war to untutored Indians alone, my dinner, I walked out to take a view of the whose whole stock of military knowledge adjacent country. I had not proceeded far has only, till within two centuries, amounted before I came to a fine level, open plain, on to drawing the bow, and whose only breastwhich I perceived at a little distance a par- work, even at present, is the thicket, I know tial elevation, that had the appearance of not. I have given as exact an account as an intrenchment. On a nearer inspection possible of this singular appearance, and I had greater reason to suppose that it had leave to future explorers of these distant really been intended for this many centuries regions to discover whether it is a producago. Notwithstanding it was now covered tion of nature or art. Perhaps the hints I with grass, I could plainly discern that it have here given might lead to a more perhad once been a breast-work of about four fect investigation of it, and give us very feet in height, extending the best part of a different ideas of the ancient state of realms mile, and sufficiently capacious to cover five that we at present believe to have been

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