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568

JONATHAN CARVER.

p. 450.

or climbs up into a tree, and taking his sta

[The Wakon Bird.] tion on some of the branches, waits till one

"The Wakon bird, as it is termed by the of them, driven by an extreme of heat or cold, takes shelter under it ; when he fas- Indians, appears to be of the same species

as the birds of paradise. tens upon his neck, and opening the jugular

“The name they have given it is expresvein, soon brings blood and drags his prey to the ground. This he is enabled to do sive of its superior excellence

, and the veby his long tail, with which he encircles the neration they have for it: the Wakon bird

being in their language the bird of the body of his adversary; and the only means they have to shun their fate is by flying Great Spirit. It is nearly the size of a immediately to the water. By this method, swallow, of a brown colour, shaded about as the carcajou has a great dislike to that the neck with a bright green; the wings

are of a darker brown than the body; its element, he is sometimes got rid of before he can effect his

tail is composed of four or five feathers, purpose.” ."-Ibid.

which are three times as long as its body, and which are beautifully shaded with green

and purple. It carries this fine length of The Whipper-Will, or, as it is termed by

plumage in the same manner as a peacock the Indians, the Muckawiss.

does, but it is not known whether it ever

raises it into the erect position that bird “This extraordinary bird is somewhat

sometimes does. I never saw any of these like the last-mentioned in its shape and co

birds in the colonies, but the Naudowesie lour, only it has some whitish stripes across the wings, and like that is seldom ever seen

Indians caught several of them when I was till after sunset. It also is never met with

in their country, and seemed to treat them but during the spring and summer months.

as if they were of a superior rank to any

other of the feathered race.”—Ibid. p. 473. As soon as the Indians are informed by its notes of its return, they conclude that the frost is entirely gone, in which they are seldom deceived; and on receiving this assu

[The Swift Lizard.] rance of milder weather, begin to sow their

“THE Swift Lizard is about six inches It acquires its name by the noise it long, and has four legs and a tail

. Its makes, which to the people of the colonies

body which is blue, is prettily striped with sounds like the name they give it Whipper

dark lines shaded with yellow; but the end Indian ear Muckawiss. The

of the tail is totally blue. It is so remarkwords it is true are not alike, but in this

ably agile that in an instant it is out of manner they strike the imagination of each ;

sight, nor can its movement be perceived and the circumstance is a proof that the

by the quickest eye; so that it might more same sounds, if they are not rendered cer

justly be said to vanish than to run away. tain by being reduced to the rules of or

This species are supposed to poison those thography, might convey different ideas to

they bite, but are not dangerous, as they different people. As soon as night comes

never attack persons that approach them, on, these birds will place themselves on the

choosing rather to get suddenly out of their fences, stumps, or stones that lie near some

reach.”—Ibid. p. 488. house, and repeat their melancholy note without any variation till midnight. The Indians, and some of the inhabitants of the back settlements, think if this bird perches

The Yellow Ash, which is only found near upon any house, that it betokens some mis

the head branches of the Mississippi. hap to the inhabitants of it." _ Ibid. p. 467. “This tree grows to an amazing height,

corn.

Will; to an

JONATHAN CARVER - RODRIGUEZ.

569

and the body of it is so firm and sound, that low, the most remarkable of which is a small the French traders who go into that country sort that grows on the bank of the Missisfrom Louisiana to purchase furs, make of sippi, and some other places adjacent. The them periaguays; this they do by excavat- bark of this shrub supplies the beaver with ing them by fire, and when they are com- its winter food; and where the water has pleted, convey in them the produce of their washed the soil from its roots, they appear trade to New Orleans, where they find a to consist of fibres interwoven together like good market both for their vessels and car- thread, the colour of which is of an inexgoes. The wood of this tree greatly re- pressibly fine scarlet ; with this the Indians sembles that of the common ash, but it tinge many of the ornamental parts of their might be distinguished from any other tree dress.”—Ibid. p.

506. by its bark; the ross or outside bark being near eight inches thick, and indented with furrows more than six inches deep, which make those that are arrived to a great bulk

[The Elder.] appear uncommonly rough ; and by this

“The elder, commonly termed the poipeculiarity they may be readily known.

sonous elder, nearly resembles the other The rind or inside bark is of the same thick- sorts in its leaves and branches, but it

grows ness as that of other trees, but its colour is much straiter, and is only found in swamps a fine bright yellow; insomuch that if it is and moist soils. This shrub is endowed but slightly handled, it will leave a stain on with a very extraordinary quality, that the fingers, which cannot easily be washed renders it poisonous to some constitutions, away; and if in the spring you peel off the which it effects if the person only approaches bark, and touch the sap, which then rises within a few yards of it, whilst others may between that and the body of the tree, it

even chew the leaves or the rind without will leave so deep a tincture that it will re

receiving the least detriment from them : quire three or four days to wear off.”—Ibid.

the poison however is not mortal, though it operates very virulently on the infected person, whose body and head swell to an

amazing size and are covered with erup[The Whickopick or Suckwick.]

tions, that at their height resemble the con“ The Whickopick or Suckwick appears fluent small-pox. As it grows also in

many to be a species of the white wood, and is of the provinces, the inhabitants cure its distinguished from it by a peculiar quality venom by drinking saffron tea, and anointing in the bark, which when pounded and the external parts with a mixture composed moistened with a little water, instantly be- of cream and marsh mallows." — Ibid. p. comes a matter of the consistence and na- 508. ture of size. With this the Indians pay their canoes, and it greatly exceeds pitch or any other material usually appropriated

[First Sugar Cane in Hayti.] to that purpose; for besides its adhesive ONE Aquilon, a Canarian, planted the quality, it is of so oily a nature, that the first sugar canes in Hayti. — M. RODRIwater cannot penetrate through it, and its GUEZ, Ind. Chron. repelling power abates not for a considerable time.”-Ibid. p. 499.

The Akancéas on the Mississippi.

“ Their cottages are built of cedar, all [Species of the Willow.]

matted within. They have no determined “ THERE are several species of the wil- | worship; they adore all sorts of animals, or

P. 498.

570

HERRERA – THOMAS GAGE.

rather they worship but one Divinity, which | night season to talke with a woman, and discovers itself in a certain animal, such as clyming over a wall whyche was of weake it shall please their Jongleur, or priest, to foundation, both he and the wall fell togipitch upon; so that it will be sometimes an ther : so that with the noyse of hys fall, and ox, sometimes a dog, or some other. When ratling of his armoure which he ware, came this visible God is dead, there is an univer- out a man newly married, and findyng him sal mourning, but which is presently changed fallen at hys dore would have slayne hym, into a great joy, by the choice they make of suspecting somewhat of his new married a new mortai Deity, which is always taken wife, but that a certaine olde woman, being from amongst the brutes.”—DE LA SALLE. his mother in lawe wyth great perswasions

stayed him from that fact.”The Pleasant Historie of the Conquest of the Weast India,

now called new Spayne, atchieved by the [Aboriginal Testudo, or, the Yucatan Instru- worthy Prince Hernando Cortes

, Marquez of ment of the Tortoise-shell.]

the Valley of Huaracre, most delectable to In Yucatan they made a musical in

reade : translated out of the Spanishe tongue strument of the tortoise-shell, preserved by T. N. Anno 1578. whole. Its sound was melancholy.-HER- The author's name does not appear, the

translator is Thomas Nicholas.

RERA, 4. 10. 4.

[Burial at Sea.]

[Consecration of an Idol.] “His burial was as solemnly performed “THERE was another godde who hadde a as could be at sea, his grave being the whole greate image placed uppon the toppe of the ocean; he had weighty stones hung to his Chappell of Idols, and he was esteemed for feet, two more to his shoulders, and one to a speciall and singular god above all the his brest; and then the superstitious Ro- rest. This god was made of all kinde of mish dirige and requiem being sung for his seedes that groweth in that countrey, and soul, his corpse being held out to sea on the being ground they made a certain paste, ship side, with ropes ready to let him fall, tempered with children's bloud and virgins all the ship crying out three buen viaja, sacrificed, who were opened with their rathat is a good voyage, to his soul chiefly, zures in the breastes, and their heartes and also to his corpse ready to travel to taken out to offer as first fruites unto the the deep to feed the whales; at the first | idoll. The priestes and ministers doe concry all the ordnance were shot off, the ropes

secrate this idoll with great pomp on a suddain loosed, and Juan de la Cueva, ceremonies. All the comarcans and citizens with the weight of heavy stones plunged are presente at the consecration, with great deep into the sea, whom no mortal eyes triumph and incredible devotion. After the ever more beheld.”—GAGE, THOMAS, New consecration, many devoute persons came Survey of the West Indies, g'c.

and sticked in the dowy image precious stones, wedges of gold, and other jewels. After all this pomp ended, no secular man

mought touche that holye image, no, nor [Conquest of the Weast India, g'c. by Her

yet come into his chappell, nay scarcely re

ligious persons, except they were Tlama“ WHILE that the fleet was preparing for caztli, who are priestes of order. They doe India, it chaunced, Hernando Cortez pre- renue this image many times wyth new tended to go unto a certaine house in the dough, taking away the olde, but then

and many

nando Cortez, &c.]

CONQUEST OF THE WEAST INDIA, ETC.

571

blessed is hee that can get one peece of the ed with foule and divilish gestures, with old ragges for relikes, and chiefly for soul- great teeth and gummes wrought, whiche dyers, who thought themselves sure there- was a thinge to feare those that should enwith in the warres.

Also at the consecra- ter in thereat, and especially the Christians tion of this idoll, a certayne vessell of water unto whom it represented very Hel, with was blessed with manye wordes and cere- that ougly face and monsterous teeth."monies, and that water was preserved very Ibid. religiously at the foote of the altar, for to Gage's account of Mexico, which he preconsecrate the king when he should be tends to have collected on the spot, is copied crowned, and also to blesse any captayne verbatim from this old translation. In this generall, when he should be elected for the passage he has retained the literal error in warres, with only giving him a draught of the name of the God, and written it with a that water."-Ibid.

c instead of z, which the ç of the original represents.

[The hollow Idol that spake, as Idols have done before.]

[The Images of Mexitli and Tezcalipoca.] “ The body of this idol was great and

The images of Mexitli and Tezcalipoca hollow, and was fastened in that wall with were made of stone in ful proportion as lime: hee was of earth; and behinde this bigge as a gyant. They were covered with idols backe was the vesterie, where was kept

a lawne called Nacar. These images were ornaments and other things of service for besette with pearles, precious stones, and the temple. The priests had a little secret peeces of gold, wrought like birds, beasts, dore hard adjoyning to the idol, by which fishes, and floures, adorned with emeralds, dore they crept into the hollow idol, and turquies, calcedons, and other little fine answered the people that came with prayers

stones, so that when the lawne Nacar was and peticions. And with this deceit the taken away, the images seemed very beausimple soules beleved al that the idol spake, tifull to beholde. The image had for a girand honored that god more than al the dle greate snakes of gold ; and for collors rest with many perfumes and sweete smelles, or chaynes about their neckes ten hartes of and offered bread and fruite, with sacrifice men made of gold, and each of those idolles of quayles bloud, and other birds, and had a counterfaite visor with eies of glasse, dogges, and sometime man's blood. And and in their necks death painted.”—Ibid. thro the fame of this idoll and oracle many pilgrimes came to Acumasil from many places."-Ibid.

[Cortes' Ensign.] “ The device of Cortes' ensign or aun

ciente, was flames of fire in white and blewe, [The Idol Quecaleovatl :-Thomas Gage a

with a redde crosse in the middest, and Copyist from this old History.]

bordred round with letters, in the Lattine “THERE was one rounde temple dedicated and Spanishe tongues, which signified this to the god of the ayre, called Quecaleovatl, in effect; friends let us follow the crosse, for even as the ayre goeth rounde about and with lively faith with this standerde we the heavens, even for that consideration shall obteyne victorie.”—Ibid. they made his temple rounde. The entraunce of that temple had a dore made lyke unto the mouth of a serpent, and was paynt

572

M. DE LA SALLE - HERRERA - SMITH-DEPONS.

dead ;-the next year when the rains com[The Cibolas.]

mence they revive again.”—HERRERA, 2. “We saw in all their ponds and rivers 10. 22. vast quantities of water fowl, geese, ducks, and teal, moor hens, &c. and in the woods and fields, partridges, pheasants, quails, and

[The Calumet.] other kinds of fowl; of four-footed crea

“The pipe part of the Calumet is two tures all sorts, especially one large sort of feet long, made of strong reed or cane—but oxen which they call Cibolas ; these are

amongst these people, the Esquimaux, of raised like a camel from the chine to the juniper, adorned with feathers of all comiddle of the back; they feed among the lours, interlaced with locks of women's hair. canes, and go together sometimes no less in They also add to it two wings of the most number than 1500.”—M. De La Salle's curious birds they can find for colour. The Expedition, by CAVALIER Toutı into Eng- head or bole of the pipe is of a red stone lish, &c.

polished like marble, and bored in such a manner as one end is for the tobacco and

the other end fastens to the pipe. This is [Nlinois Village.]

the general description of it, but they adorn “ The first village of the Illinois consisted the Calumet variously, according to their of above 500 cabins, which are made with genius and the birds they have in their great pieces of timber, interlaced with country.”—Smith's Voyage. branches, and covered with bark. The inside is more neat, the walls or sides, as well as the floor, being finely matted. Every cottage has two apartments wherein several

[The Cavern of Guacharo.] families might lodge, and under every one

“ In this mountain (Tumeriquiri in Cuof them is a cave or vault wherein they pre- mana) is the cavern of Guacharo, famous serve their Indian corn.”—Ibid.

among the Indians. It is immense, and serves as a habitation for millions of nocturnal birds, (a new species of the Capri

mulgus of Linnæus,) whose fat yields the [The Mud of the River Ozages.] oil of Guacharo. Its site is majestic, and “The river of the Ozages carries so great adorned by the most brilliant vegetation. a quantity of mud along with it, as to There issues from the cavern a river of some change the water of the Mississippi, and make magnitude, and within is heard the mournit all muddy for more than twenty leagues. ful cry of the birds, which the Indians atIts brinks are bordered with great walnut tribute to the souls that are forced to enter trees. One sees there an infinite number this cavern in order to go to the other of footsteps made by the beavers, and the world. But they are enabled to obtain perhunting for them there is very great and mission for it only when their conduct in common.”—Ibid.

this life has been without reproach. If it has been otherwise, they are retained for a shorter or longer time, according to the

heinousness of their offences. This dark, [Æstivation of the Humming Birds,

wretched, mournful abode, draws from them according to Herrera.]

the mournings and plaintive cries heard HERRERA says of the humming birds, without. The Indians have so little doubt that when the dry season begins, they cling of this fable, supported by tradition, being to the trees by the bill, and there remain a sacred truth, that immediately after the

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