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ney gave special orders that this cock should

cases, when the flame breaks out, all that be taken care of as long as he lived.”Life can be done is to remove as fast as can be of Rodney, vol. 2, p. 375.

all materials that are like to increase it, to employ all ways and methods of quenching it, to repair the breaches and losses it has

occasioned, and to bear with patience what [Tobacco introduced into Italy from Eng

could not be avoided, or cannot be remeland.]

died." A CERTAIN Dom Virginio Ursino is said by PIETRO DELLA VALLE to have been the first person who introduced tobacco from

[Derivation of Medoc.] England into Italy ; now some years ago,"

In his prolegomena concerning S. Aidasays he, writing in 1614.

nus, sive Ædanus, Edanus, Aidus, Edus, Eda; alio nomine Maidoc, Maedoc, Moedoc,

Modoc, Mædog, Moeg (to which aliases [Evil from Failure of the Wheat Crop.]

Madoc and Madog may certes be added)

BOLLAND tells us, upon the authority of “The great magnitude of our consump- Colgan, the Irish antiquarian and Hagiolotion, as compared with former periods, must gist, that all these names have the same render the pressure of any deficiency more

meaning, being in fact one: Nam diminutisevere, and the means of providing against it more difficult and more costly. A har

vorum nominum, (quod huc facit) duplex apud

veteres Scotos est nota, an et oc. vest which should be one third below an

nomini Aid sive Ed (quod ferè Gallorum aut average in wheat, would bring upon this

Germanorum Eudo, Udo, Otto responulet) country a very different degree of suffering, and would require a very different degree

an addideris, Aidan, sive Edan efficies. Si of exertion and sacrifice to supply the de

vero oc, præfixâ litterâ m (quæ sic propriis

nominibus addita, meum sonat, atque amorem ficiency, from what would have been required under a similar failure fifty years

reverentiamque indicat, quod et in Gallicis ac

Teutonicis vocabulis propriis, et sæpius apago.” Report of the agricultural Coin-pellativis, observare licet) erit Maidoc sive mittee.

Mædoc, aut Medoc."-Acta Sanctorum, Jan.

t. 2, p. 1111. [Inflammatory Causes.] “Though the beginnings of great fires are often discovered,” says Sir WM. TEMPLE, [Death from the Effects of Joy.] "and thereby others easily prevented with “ AFTER our arrivall at Santa Helena care, yet some may be thrown in from en- I Edmund Barker went on shore with foure gines far off and out of sight; others


or five Peguins, or men of Pegu, which we fall from Heaven: and 'tis hard to deter- had taken, avd our Surgion, where in an mine whether some constellations of celes- house by the Chappell I found an Englishtial bodies, or inflammations of air from man, one John Segor of Burie in Suffolke, meteors or comets, may not have a power- who was left there eighteene monthes before ful effect

the minds as well as bodies by Abraham Kendall, who put in there with of men, upon the distempers and diseases the Roiall Marchant, and left him there to of both, and thereby upon heats and hu- refresh him on the Land, being otherwise and seditions of a people who happen to be Vulgar minds, and the commotions like to have perished on shipboard: and at

our coming we found him as fresh in colour most subjected to their influence. In such and in as good plight of body, to our seem






ing, as might be, but crazed in minde and pillage becoming continually more familiar half out of his wits, as afterward we per- to them because they have nothing to lose; ceived: for whether he were put in fright and seeing in the disorders of anarchy and of us, not knowing at first what we were, the subversion of social institutions nothing whether friends or foes, or of sudden joy but the silence of the law, and impunity for when he understood we were his old con- crimes.”—KASTHOFER's Travels in the Lesser sorts and countrymen, hee became idle- Cantons of Switzerland. From an extract headed, and for eight days space, neither in the Standard, 27th July, 1827. night nor day, took any naturall rest, and so at length died for lack of sleep.”—HAKLUYT, vol. 2, part 2, p. 108.

[The Tholsel at Dublin.] THERE is a building in Dublin called the

Tholsel, i.e. Toll-Stall — being the place [Catapulta at the last Siege of Gibraltar.] where the toll-gatherers formerly sat to re

A CATAPULTA was constructed at Gibral-ceive the toll for such goods as were liable tar during the last siege, at General Elliot's

to city duties. This is probably the origin desire, under the direction of General Mel- of the word Tolsey ; the corruption is very ville, so well known for his knowledge of easy-Toll-stall, Tollstle, Tollsel— Tollsey. military antiquities. It was for throwing stones a very


way over the edge of the rock in a place where the Spaniards used to

[The Lake of Buchcinoe.] resort to the foot of it, and where neither

“The lake of Buchcinoe, according to shells nor shot could annoy them.

the testimony of the inhabitants, is endued with miraculous powers; it sometimes as

sumed a greenish hue; in our days it has [Increased Danger of Pauperism.]

appeared to be tinged with red, not univer" It is certain that the State, or the pa

sally, but as if blood flowed partially through

certain veins and small channels. Morerish, ought to provide for old age, not

over it is sometimes seen by inhabitants having any resources, for the infirm and

covered and adorned with buildings, pasnecessitous, and for young orphans; and

tures, gardens, orchards. In winter, when this will never be contested where humanity it is frozen over, and the surface of the water has not lost all its rights. It is, however, is converted into a shell of ice, it emits an difficult to decide whether taxes which are

horrible sound resembling the moans of applied to relieve all sorts of paupers are

many animals collected together, but this consistent with justice and equity ; parti- perhaps may be occasioned by the sudden cularly if it is considered that the progres- bursting of the shell and the gradual ebulsive advantages of industry are never of a nature to balance the progress of popula- nels." —Hoare's Giraldus, vol. 1, p. 39.

lition of the air through imperceptible chantion and poverty, even supposing that these advantages were exclusively dedicated to these latter. The mass of paupers among

[Informers against Christians punished.] increasing, and will at length" render the * INFORMERS against the Christians were situation of the landowners dangerous, at one time punished, though Christianity where they are surrounded by a population was at the same time regarded as treason.” destitute of all civility and virtue, jealous See EUSEBIUS, 1. 5, c. 20. Probably this of the prosperity of the rich, the idea of law came from one of the Antonines.






tique, ff. 9.

“It is formed by the river Kyso, which, [Sugar of the Canaries.]

issuing from a lake of the same name, preIf Thevet's authority may be taken, the cipitates itself through some steep and rugbest sugar, and the greatest supply of it, at ged rocks, and falls, so far as I can guess

, this time came from the Canaries. The from a height of about seventy yards. The Greek islands used to supply it, but when

water dashing from rock to rock, boils and they fell under the yoke of the Turks, every foams till it reaches the bottom, where it thing was soon neglected.”—Frana Antarc- pursues a more tranquil course, and, after

making a large circuit, loses itself again between mountainous banks, which are co

vered with fir trees. That we might have a [Short-lives the Result of hot-bed Culture.] more commanding view of the picture, we HAKEWILL says that “the Highlanders

took our station on a high ground, from and the wild Irish commonly live longer

which we had a distant prospect of a large than those of softer education, a nice and

tract of country of a varied surface, and altender bringing up being no doubt a great

most covered with woods of firs, the pleasenemy to longevity, as also the first feeding ing verdure of which, acquiring additional

lustre from the solar rays, formed an agreeand nourishing of the infant with the milke of a strange dug; an unnaturall curiosity able contrast with the snow and masses of having taught all women but the beggar

ice hanging from the margin over the cas

cade. to finde out nurses which necessity only ought to commend unto them. Whereunto “ The fall presented us with one of those may be added, hasty marriages in tender appearances which we much desired to see, yeares, wherein nature being but yet greene

as being peculiar to the regions of the and growing, we rent from her and replant north, and which are never to be met with her branches, while herselfe hath not yet

in Italy. The water, throwing itself amidst any roote sufficient to maintaine her owne

enormous masses of ice, which here and top, and such halfe-ripe seedes, for the there have the aspect of gloomy vaults, most part, wither in the bud and waxe old fringed with curious crystallizations, and even in their infancy. But above all things the cold being of such rigour as almost to the pressing of nature with over-weighty the air, had formed gradually two bridges

freeze the agitated waves and vapours in burdens, and when we finde her strength defective, the helpe of strong waters, hot

of ice across the cascade, of such solidity spices and provoking sauces, is it which im- and strength, that men passed over them in paires our health and shortens our life.”— perfect security. The waves raging and P. 169.

foaming below with a vast noise, were in a state of such violent motion, as to spout

water now and then on the top of the bridge; [Mandive Juice made to resemble Soy.] a circumstance which rendered its surface The juice of the mandive is also so pre

so exceedingly slippery, that the peasants pared as to resemble soy.—PINCKARD, vol. hands and knees."— ACERBI.

were obliged to pass it creeping on their 2, p.


[The Cataract of Yervenkyle.] “We had been extremely anxious to see a cataract in winter, and that of Yervenkyle did not disappoint our expectations.

[Block and transparent Ice.] “ HITHERTO the ice, being covered with snow of a dirty surface, and far from showing the smallest transparency, made us for

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the most part forget that we went upon wa- | might be less sensible of our danger. But ter: we were now to learn what sort of sen- when the river happened to be only a yard sation we should experience in passing over or two deep, we were amused to be able to a river, where the ice, transparent as crys- count the pebbles at the bottom of the watal, discovered under our feet the whole ter, and to frighten the fishes with our feet.” depth of the element below, insomuch that -Ibid. we could see even the smallest fishes. In the first moment of surprise, having had no previous notice of the change, we fancied

[Broken Ice-Danger of:] ourselves inevitably lost, and that we should “ You meet often in those parts with be swallowed up and perish in the awful what may be termed disruptions of the ice, gulf. Even the horse himself was startled | which form a strange picturesque appearat the novelty of his situation; he suddenly ance, sometimes resembling the ruins of an stopped short, and seemed unwilling to go ancient castle. The cause of these disrupforward. But the impulse he had acquired tions is the rocks, which happen to be at in travelling, pushed him forward in spite the depth of some feet under the surface of of himself, and he slid, or rather skated, the water. During the prevalence of the upon his four jointless legs, for the space of intense cold, the water freezes frequently eight or ten yards.

three feet or more in thickness; the eleva“I was at some pains to satisfy myself as tion of the sea is consequently diminished, to the reason why the ice was so clear and and sinks in proportion to the diameter of pellucid in particular parts of the river the ice that is formed: then those shelves only, and I think I discovered it in the and rocks overtop the surface, and break united action of the solar rays and of the the cohesion of the ice, while accident dewind. The wind having swept away the posits the detached masses and fragments in snow, and cleared the surface of the ice, a thousand irregular forms. It is extremely the sun, at the end of March and begin- dangerous to traverse the ice in those parts ning of April, having acquired considerable during night, unless you have the compass force, had melted and rendered smooth the in your hand, and even with it you are not surface, which at first is always somewhat always safe.”—Ibid. rough and uneven ; this being frozen during the night, formed a mirror of the most perfect polish. The lustre of the ice on this river is very remarkable ; had it not been [Destructive Winds in the Forests of Norfor the little shining and perpendicular fis

thern Europe.] sures, which shewed the diameter of the “ It seems wholly inconceivable in what ice's thickness, it would have been utterly manner the wind pierces through the thick impossible for us to distinguish it from the assemblage of those woods, carrying ruin and water below. Where the river happened desolation into particular districts where to be of a profound depth, we could per- there is neither opening nor scope for its raceive our vast distance from the bottom, vages. Possibly it descends perpendicuonly by an indistinct greenish colour: the larly from heaven in the nature of a torreflection that we were suspended over such nado, or whirlwind, whose violence nothing an abyss, made us shudder. Under this ter- can oppose, and which triumphs over all rifying impression, the vast depth of the ri- resistance. Trees of enormous size are ver, and dazzled by the extraordinary trans- torn from their roots, magnificent pines, parency and brilliancy of the ice, we crept which would have braved, on the ocean, along the surface, and felt inclined to shut tempests more furious, are bent like a bow, our eyes, or turn away our heads, that we and touch the earth with their humbled

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tops. Such as might be thought capable raised in the form of pyramids. On the of making the stoutest resistance are the whole, they exhibited a picture of the wildmost roughly treated; and those hurri- est and most savage confusion, that surcanes, like the thunder of heaven, which prised the eye by the novelty of its appearstrikes only the loftiest objects, passing over ance. It was an immense chaos of icy ruins, the

young, and sparing them, because they presented to view under every possible form, are more pliant and flexible, seem to mark and embellished by superb stalactites of a the strongest and most robust trees of the blue green colour. forest, which are in a condition to meet “ Amidst this chaos, it was not without them with a proud opposition, as alone wor- difficulty and trouble that our horses and thy of their rage. Let the reader fancy to sledges were able to find and pursue their himself three or four miles of forest, where way. It was necessary to make frequent he is continually in the presence of this dis- windings, and sometimes to return in a conastrous spectacle; let him represent to his trary direction, following that of a frozen imagination the view of a thick wood, where wave, in order to avoid a collection of icy he can scarcely see one upright tree; where mo tains that lay before us. all of them being thus forcibly inclined, are “ During the whole of this journey, we either propped by one another, or broken did not meet with, on the ice, so much as in the middle of the trunk, or torn from one man, beast, bird, or any living creatheir roots and prostrated on the ground: ture. Those vast solitudes present a desert everywhere, trunks, branches, and the ru- abandoned, as it were, by nature. The ins of the forest, interrupting his view of dead silence that reigns, is interrupted only the road, and exhibiting a singular picture by the whistling of the winds against the of confusion and ruin.”—Ibid.

prominent points of ice, and sometimes by the loud crackings occasioned by their be

ing irresistibly torn from this frozen ex[Journey over the Ice.]

panse; pieces thus forcibly broken off, are

frequently blown to a considerable distance. This passage over the frozen sea is, Through the rents produced by these rupdoubtless, the most singular and striking tures, you may see below the watery abyss; spectacle that a traveller from the south and it is sometimes necessary to lay planks can behold. I laid my account with having across them, by way of bridges, for the a journey more dull and unvaried, than sledges to pass over.”—Ibid. surprising or dangerous. I expected to travel forty-three miles without sight of land, over a vast and uniform plain, and that every successive mile would be in exact uni

[Rein-deer Moss, and Morasses.] son and monotonous correspondence with " AFTER We had ascended four miles, the those I had already travelled; but my asto- mountain began to assume a flattish and nishment was greatly increased in propor- naked aspect, without a single tree. It was tion as we advanced from our starting post. wholly covered with the common moss of The sea, at first smooth and even, became the rein-deer, save where this extensive more and more rugged and unequal. It as- carpet was broken and chequered with mosumed, as we proceeded, an undulating rasses, basons of water, and lakes, altogeappearance, resembling the waves by which ther forming a landscape the most dreary it had been agitated. At length we met and melancholy conceivable. There was with masses of ice heaped one upon the nothing to engage our attention, to amuse other, and some of them seeming as if they our fancy, or to console and cheer our spiwere suspended in the air, while others were rits. A vast expanse lay before us, which

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