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Página 7 - When put into the box the cat would show evident signs of discomfort and of an impulse to escape from confinement. It tries to squeeze through any opening ; it claws and bites at the bars or wire ; it thrusts its paws out through any opening and claws at everything it reaches ; it continues its efforts when it strikes anything loose and shaky ; it may claw at things within the box.
Página 7 - The cat that is clawing all over the box in her impulsive struggle will probably claw the string or loop or button so as to open the door. And gradually all the other non-successful impulses will be stamped out and the particular impulse leading to the successful act will be stamped in by the resulting pleasure, until, after many trials, the cat will, when put in the box, immediately claw the button or loop in a definite way.
Página 29 - The animal bends to one side ... It thus as a rule avoids the cloud of particles, unless the latter is very large. This simple method of reaction turns out to be more effective in getting rid of stimuli of all sorts than might be expected. If the first reaction is not successful, it is usually repeated one or more times...
Página 57 - dislocate' reactions, in time — that is, to delay reactions to a given stimulus. To this, it has reasonably been objected that " unconscious mechanisms could be constructed, and indeed do exist in which there is a dislocation in 'time between the action of an outer agent — and the reaction of the machine*.
Página 7 - It tries to squeeze through any opening ; it claws and bites at the bars or wire ; it thrusts its paws out through any opening and claws at everything it reaches ; it continues its efforts when it strikes anything loose and shaky ; it may claw at things within the box. It does not pay very much attention to the food outside, but seems simply to strive instinctively to escape from confinement. The vigor with which it struggles is extraordinary. For eight or ten minutes it will claw and bite and squeeze...
Página 46 - Davenport (1897, page 108) gives an example drawn from the behavior of one of the organisms at present under consideration. "When an organism has been stimulated by contact for some time, it at last becomes changed, so that it no longer responds as it did at first. Thus, Dr. WE Castle informs me that he has seen a colony of Stentors, in an aquarium, being constantly struck by Tubifex waving back and forth, yet the Stentors did not contract as they usually do when struck.
Página 25 - ... edge of the disk, nearly in the middle of what may be called the oral or ventral surface of the body. The smaller end of the body is known as the foot; here the internal protoplasm is exposed, sending out fine pseudopodia, by which the animal attaches itself. Stentor rceselii is usually attached to a water plant or a bit of debris by the foot, and the lower half of the body is surrounded by the so-called tube. This is a very irregular sheath formed by a mucus-like secretion from the surface of...
Página xxxvi - The inductorium. thus excluding the interrupter. These several connections upon the head-piece are simply arranged and are all in view ; there are no concealed wires. From the head-piece extend two parallel rods 22 cm. in length, between which slides the secondary coil, containing 5000 turns of silk-covered wire 0.2 mm. in diameter. Over each layer of wire upon the secondary spool is placed a sheet of insulating paper. Each end of the secondary wire is fastened to a brass bar screwed to the ends...
Página 78 - Gaskell1 has called attention to the fact that it is not always easy to determine when a heart has really ceased beating.
Página xxxvi - ... posts and an automatic interrupter. The core consists of about ninety pieces of shellacked soft iron wire. This core actuates the automatic interrupter. The interrupter spring ends below in a collar with a set screw. By loosening the screw, the interrupter with its armature may be moved nearer to or farther from the magnetic core. Once set, the interrupter will begin to vibrate as soon as the primary circuit is made. The outer binding posts are used for the tetanizing current. The left-hand outer...