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Holloway. Under date of May 15, 1672, Major John Pynchon makes a report in pursuance of an order of the General Court, May 31, 1671, to run the south line of the patent, in which he says: “I went from Springfeild to Windsor the 31, day of October, 1671, having M: James Taylor with me for the artist.” 2 The Court in approving the return thanks Major Pynchon "for his great pajnes therein, and that the artist, M: James Taylor, be desired to make a plat of what he hath donne in parchment, protracting the ljne formerly draune by Nathaniel Woodward & Solomon Saffery.” 3 None of the handiwork of Mr. Taylor, identified as his, has come to light.
Nearest in date to the Taylor map of the country is one by Cotton Mather. Nathaniel Mather, his uncle, in a letter to Increase Mather, dated at Dublin February 26, 1676, writes:
I much rejoyce in God's great mercy begun in your son Cotton. I heartily thank him for his map of New England It helps mee much in understanding your & other narratives. One defect or two I observe in it, there is wanting a scale of miles & a compass, & if I have not forgotten (which it is like I may) the Blew hills are misplaced, for hee placeth them south from Dorchester, whereas according to my defaced idea of the Countrey, they were rather northward from it.
Cotton Mather at this time was only fourteen years of age, and then in his sophomore year at Harvard College. No trace of this map has been found. In the same letter Nathaniel Mather thanks Increase for "3 of your historyes of the late war with the Indians," which but a short time before had been issued from the press of John Foster. In the same month William Hubbard signed the dedication of his forthcoming “Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians" (Boston, 1677), printed by John Foster also, which contained a map of New England, the first here cut. The three maps — Taylor's map of the country, the bill for which was rendered January 11, 1676–7; the Cotton Mather map, a copy of which was received in Dublin by February 26, 1676–7; and the so-called Foster-Hubbard map, engraved a few months later — were made at so nearly the
1 Massachusetts Colony Records, vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 494.
same time that the question is naturally raised as to the probable connection between them.
There is among the Blathwayt Papers in the John Carter Brown Library a manuscript map which "was copied out of an Original Cut by M: Stoughton & Bulkeley Agents of Boston,” said on the back of the parchment to be “exactly Copied about 1678 from an Original Cut S. Robert Southwell by M Stoughton and M. Buckley." It shows the “Northmost Paralel Line” of the Bay Colony, at 43° 44', crossing Lake Winnepesaukee, and the “Southermost Paralel Line,” at 41° 553, making the coast line run from the mouth of the Kennebec River to the southern part of Plymouth Harbor. The map also indicates the settlements on the Connecticut River, the Charles, the Merrimac, and along the coast from Stamford, Connecticut, to the mouth of the Kennebec. William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley were chosen agents of the Colony in September, 1676, to go to England to defend our interests against the claims of Gorges and Mason. Can this be a copy from the Taylor map of 1676, or from the original from which he made his copy?1
An earlier map 2 than these, presumably of a good part of New England, was made in 1665. It was requested by the Commissioners, Colonel Richard Nicolls, Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, who arrived in Boston on July 23, 1664, under orders from the King, one of whose objects was to settle all differences “which are arisen betwixt our seueral colonjes vpon the bounds & limits of their seueral provinces.” 3 In a letter 4 dated at Newport May 15, 1664, they say:
That wee may prevent all mistakes in the King's business, through Colonell Niccolls in July, & ourselues in February last, desired that a map of your jurisdiction & limits might be made ready, wee now send you our desires & the Kings instructions to vs in that particcular vnder our hands. Wee hope to be wth you in the beginig of May at the furthest, (if God blesse vs,) against woh time wee desire the map of yo' limitts may be ready. We shall not trouble yow to send any to
1 I am indebted to our associate Mr. Frederick L. Gay for the reference to this map.
? My attention was called to this by Mr. John H. Edmonds.
shew us yop southerne bounds, they being vncontrouerted, & at so great a distance from you. [In a postscript] This mapp or draught wthin mentioned wee desire may be made with all exactnes possible, & wth all speed convenient deliuered to us.
Edward Rawson, Secretary, in his reply, May 5, 1665, says of the map:
For a mapp of the ljmitts of our jurisdiction, vpon first notice of yo? desires first made knoune to the Gouerno" & council by ye letter from Road Island, dated March 13, 1664, care was then taken, & now such further provision is made by this Court, that wee doubt not that you will spedily receive satisfaction therein.1
On May 24, 1665, Rawson writes to the Commissioners: “Wee haue sent heerewith sent yow a map of the lands wee conceive to be granted vs by our charter." 2 Hutchinson says that before the General Court had an opportunity to answer the King's instructions, the Commissioners acquainted the Deputy-Governor and the rest that a map of the Colony must be laid before the Commissioners, "that they might hear and determine all claims made by such as bordered upon it.”3 This map has not been found.
Two earlier manuscript maps of a part of New-England are extant: one in 1642, made by Woodward and Saffrey, of that part of the southern boundary line of the Bay Colony from the angle tree near the present north-eastern corner of Rhode Island to Windsor, Connecticut, in the State Archives; and the other the so-called WatersWinthrop Map, made a few years earlier, in the Sloane Collection in the British Museum. Of the latter, Mr. Justin Winsor, in 1890, said after a careful examination of the map that the paper has no water-mark, that there is written on the back in Governor John Winthrop's hand, “Massachusetts in N: Englande,” and that the paper shows the creases, which indicate that it was folded to be enclosed in a letter. This is the earliest manuscript map extant, following the settlement of the Bay Colony.
1 P. 187. 2 P. 214. 3 History of Massachusetts, i. 236. * 2 Proceedings Massachusetts Historical Society, vi. 259, 260.
Mr. FREDERICK L. Gay spoke as follows:
Robert F. Roden in his Bibliographical List of the Issues of the Cambridge Press mentions, under the year 1643, the title “Capital Laws of Massachusetts Bay. Cambridge, Stephen Daye, 1643.” In his note to this issue he says:
This is the “Body of Liberties,” the first Code, prepared by Nathaniel Ward. The Cambridge edition is referred to in the preface of “New England's Jonas,” London, 1647; but no copy is extant."
Roden errs in calling it the “Body of Liberties.”2 It was simply the Capital Laws. On June 14, 1642, “It is ordered, that such lawes as make any offence to bee capitall shall fourthwth bee imprinted & published, of weh lawes the Secretary is to send a coppey to the printer, when it hath bene examined by the Govinor or M Bellingham wth himselfe, & the Treasurer to pay for the printing of them.”3
Hitherto we were forced to rely on the reprint of these Capital Laws that is found in Major John Child's New-Englands Jonas Cast up at London, printed in London in 1647. They were introduced in the body of the text, and there was no way to determine the extent and limits of Day's original edition. This uncertainty, however, is removed by the discovery of an earlier London reprint. It is in the form of a single-sheet, and is entitled "The Capitall Lawes of New England, as they stand now in force in the Common-Wealth. ... Printed first in New-England, and re-printed in London. for Ben. Allen in Popes-head Alley 1643.” This early single-sheet reprint confirms the correctness of the Capital Laws as given in NewEnglands Jonas, and reproduces Day's original edition, perhaps in the same outward form.
1 The Cambridge Press, 1638–1692 (1905), p. 146.
2 The Body of Liberties was first printed, from a manuscript owned by the Boston Athenaeum, in 1856 in 3 Massachusetts Historical Collections, viii. 191– 237; and the same manuscript was reproduced in facsimile in 1890 by W. H. Whitmore in his Bibliographical Sketch of the Laws of the Massachusetts Colony From 1630 to 1686, pp. 32–61. Of the one hundred Liberties constituting the Body of Liberties, the Capital Laws form the 94th. Originally there were only twelve Capital Laws, and twelve only are found in the above-mentioned manuscript (p. 54 of Whitmore's facsimile) and in New-Erfglands Jonas Cast up at London (pp. 9–11). Three others were added on June 14, 1642 (Massachusetts Colony Records, ii. 21-22).
3 Massachusetts Colony Records, ü. 22.