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serpents,” are “inhabitants of the Valley of Achor,” and are “the Poor of this world.” There may be significance in his assertion: "It is remarkable to see that when the Unchurched Villages, have been so many of them, utterly broken up, in the War, that has been upon us, those that have had Churches regularly formed in them, have generally been under a more sensible Protection of Heaven." "Sirs," he says, “a Church-State well form’d may fortify you wonderfully!” He recommends abstention from profane swearing, furious cursing, Sabbath breaking, unchastity, dishonesty, robbing of God by defrauding the ministers of their dues, drunkenness, and revels, and he reminds them that even the Indians have family prayers! Like his successors who solicited missionary contributions for the salvation of the frontier in the Mississippi Valley during the forties of the nineteenth century, this early spokesman for New England laid stress upon teaching anti-popery, particularly in view of the captivity that might await them.
In summing up, we find many of the traits of later frontiers in this early prototype, the Massachusetts frontier. It lies at the edge of the Indian country and tends to advance. It calls out militant qualities and reveals the imprint of wilderness conditions upon the psychology and morals as well as upon the institutions of the people. It demands common defence and thus becomes a factor for consolidation. It is built on the basis of a preliminary fur trade, and is settled by the combined and sometimes antagonistic forces of eastern men of property (the absentee proprietors) and the democratic pioneers. The east attempted to regulate and control it. Individualistic and democratic tendencies were emphasized both by the wilderness conditions and, probably, by the prior contentions between the proprietors and non-proprietors of the towns from which settlers moved to the frontier. Removal away from the control of the customary usages of the older communities and from the conservative influence of the body of the clergy, increased the innovating tendency. Finally the towns were regarded by at least one prominent representative of the established order in the east, as an undesirable place for the re-location of the pillars of society. The temptation to look upon the frontier as a field for investment was viewed by the clergy as a danger to the "institutions of God." The frontier was "the Wrong side of the Hedge."
But to this "wrong side of the hedge" New England men continued to migrate. The frontier towns of 1695 were hardly more than suburbs of Boston. The frontier of a century later included New England's colonies in Vermont, Western New York, the Wyoming Valley, the Connecticut Reserve, and the Ohio Company's settlement in the Old Northwest Territory. By the time of the Civil War the frontier towns of New England had occupied the great prairie zone of the Middle West and were even planted in parts of the Pacific Coast. New England's sons had become the organizers of a Greater New England in the West, captains of industry, political leaders, founders of educational systems, and prophets of religion, in a section that was to influence the ideals and shape the destiny of the nation in ways to which the eyes of men like Cotton Mather were sealed.
Mr. ALBERT MATTHEWS made the following communication :
TENTATIVE LISTS OF TEMPORARY STUDENTS
AT HARVARD COLLEGE, 1639–1800 Having in preparation an account of temporary students at Harvard College in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, tentative lists of such students are now submitted in the hope of obtaining additional names. The remissness of the College authorities during that period in regard to matriculations is at once extraordinary and inexplicable. It was not until 1725 that, so far as is known, the names of members of the entering class were recorded, beginning with the Class that graduated in 1729; with the Class graduating in 1732, the residence and year of age at entrance were first given; and with the Class graduating in 1741, the residence and full date of birth were first given. But often the names were not recorded until the Freshman Class had been in College for many months, occasionally for almost a year, and if meanwhile a Freshman died or left College, his name was not included in the list. Again, if a student entered a certain class after the names of the members
1 These lists are in the Faculty Records. Cf. Publications of this Society, xiv. 315 note 3.
of that class had been recorded, his name was not inserted. And it was not until 1823 that a student was compelled to sign a book at entrance. Hence, singular as it may seem, a complete list of Harvard students previous to 1801 cannot be compiled. The names in the present lists have been obtained from various sources most of them, of course, from the manuscript records of the College, but not a few (some of which do not appear in the College records themselves) from letters, diaries, journals, epitaphs, genealogies, probate files, and newspapers.
The term “temporary student” is not a precise one, hence it is necessary to state exactly what names are or are not to be found in the present lists. Temporary students may be divided into the following five groups:
(a) Students who died while undergraduates.
(6) Students who left College, either voluntarily or involuntarily, who never returned, and who never received degrees either out of course or honorary.
(c) Students who left Çollege, for whatever reason, who never returned, who never received degrees out of course, but who did later receive honorary degrees. Thus, George Cabot entered in 1766 with the Class of 1770. Two years later President Holyoke recorded:
Cabot (a Sophimore) came to me this Day Mar. 19. 1768,
telling me he came to deliv'r up his Chamber, in order to ye College leave the College, & asking wt Right he had to do this, seeing he was a Minor, he answer'd, That his Guardian (M: Goodale) tho't it might be best for him.3 In 1779 George Cabot received the honorary degree of A.M.
(d) Students who left College, for whatever reason, but later returned either to the same class or to a subsequent class, and who duly graduated. Thus, Edward Bates entered in 1732 with the Class of 1736; left College in 1733; returned September 10, 1735, being admitted to the Sophomore Class; and duly graduated in 1738 as of the Class of 1738. Again, Jonathan Whitaker entered in 1793 with the Class of 1797; left College September 12, 1793;
Cabot delivrs up his Chamber, & leaves
1 The names of such students, however, generally after 1760, and sometimes before that date, were recorded in the Faculty Records at the time of their entrance.
· For this information I am indebted to the Recorder, Mr. George W. Cram. 8 Faculty Records, iii. 72. The square brackets are in the original.
returned the following December; and duly graduated with his Class in 1797. Once more, of seven students who entered in 1766 with the Class of 1770, three were rusticated and four were expelled; but all seven were later readmitted into the Class of 1771 and duly received their degrees in 1771 as of the Class of 1771.
(e) Students who left College, for whatever reason, and later received degrees out of course. Thus, Thomas Lee entered in 1794 with the Class of 1798; left College April 17, 1797; never returned; and in 1866 was given the degree of A.B. as of the Class of 1798. Again, Edmund Trowbridge Dana entered in 1795 with the Class of 1799; left College in April, 1799; never returned; died May 6, 1858; and in 1879 was given the degree of A.B. as of the Class of 1799.
Students who come under groups (a), (b), and (c), are included in the present lists; but those who come under groups (d) and (e) are not included in the present lists. The reason why those in group (c) are included in, while those in group (e) are excluded from, the present lists, is as follows. No one can receive a degree out of course who has not at some time been an undergraduate. Consequently, the inclusion of a man's name in the Quinquennial Catalogue under the heading “Bachelors of Arts” shows that the man must at one time have been a student, even though - as in the case of Thomas Lee the degree was conferred out of course no less than sixty-eight years later. On the other hand, the inclusion of a man's name in the Quinquennial Catalogue under the heading “Honorary Degrees” conveys no information as to whether the man was or was not a temporary student at Harvard College.
In most cases the exact class to which a student belonged is known with certainty; but in some cases, especially in the seventeenth century, the class to which a student belonged is uncertain. It has seemed best to assign a definite year - which is not likely to be more than three or four years out of the way — and this has been done in every instance; but in both lists a question mark indicates that the class is approximate only.
Against more than one name in the Faculty Records is written “Never came,” or words to that effect; nevertheless, such names are included in these lists. There are also included the names of several persons whose right to be regarded as temporary students is questionable; but such names have been found in genealogies or
elsewhere, and, as the title of this communication shows, these lists are merely tentative.
The compiler will welcome information in regard to any of the persons - of whom there are about four hundred 2 — mentioned in the lists, and will be grateful for additional names.3
An asterisk denotes that a student died while an undergraduate.
I. List by Classes.
LIST BY CLASSES
1644 John Newton?
1651 Goodyear? Swineoke?
Prince? John Weld?
1646 Josiah Winslow? Samuel Winthrop?
1647 John Ames?
1 A word should be added in regard to the spelling of certain names. Where there is no doubt about the identity of a student, his name is spelled in the usual form ; but where uncertainty exists - as, for instance, in the cases of Mutie, Swineoke, etc. the original spelling is followed.
2 Among these are at least two Indians Eleazar, of the Class of 1679; and Benjamin Larnel, of the Class of 1716. It would be of interest to recover the names of other Indians who were students in the seventeenth century, of whom there must have been several, though only one graduated (Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, in the Class of 1665). So far as the writer is aware, Larnel, who died while an undergraduate, was the only Indian student at College after 1700.
3 In the Harvard Alumni Bulletin of January 14, 1914 (xvi. 265–266), the writer suggested “the urgent need of a volume . . . which ... should include not merely every graduate, but every person who was ever a student at Harvard." Other colleges and universities, both in Europe and in this country, have published catalogues of the kind indicated; and Harvard University ought to have done so long ago.