Country Roads

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Isaac B. Potter
I.B. Potter, 1894 - 64 páginas
 

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Página 43 - ... of the road has kept the surface well drained, and, therefore, dry and free from ruts. These wide tires and varying gauges excited a good deal of attention at the outset, and conflicting opinions were expressed regarding their utility.
Página 18 - ... liable to become broken up and destroyed by frost and the wheels of vehicles. Therefore, where the road runs through low wet lands or over certain kinds of clayey soils, surface drainage is not all that is necessary. Common side drains catch surface water and surface water only. Isaac Potter says: "Many miles of road are on low, flat lands and on springy soils, and thousands of miles of prairie roads are, for many weeks in the year, laid on a wet subsoil. In all such cases, and, indeed, in every...
Página 32 - In building new roads with a machine first mark out your ditches the full width, plowing a light furrow with the point of the blade, carrying the rear end well elevated. On the second round drive the wheels in line with the point along the hollow made the first round, plowing a full furrow with the advance end of the blade, dropping the rear end somewhat lower than before. The third time round move over towards the middle of the road the earth previously plowed. Then return to the ditch and plow...
Página 18 - Many miles of road are on low, flat lands and on springy soils, and thousands of miles of prairie roads are, for many weeks in the year, laid on a wet subsoil. In all such cases, and, indeed, in every case where the nature of the ground is not such as to insure quick drainage, the road may be vastly benefited by under drainage. An under drain clears the soil of surplus water, dries it, warms it, and makes impossible the formation of deep, heavy, frozen crusts, which are found in every undrained road...
Página 13 - Vermont, whose urban element has increased but little. In Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, and New York the numerical increase in the urban element is greater than the increase of the total population, so that in these states the rural population has actually diminished in number.
Página 15 - ... practically water-tight, and the water which falls or forms on the surface must either remain there or be carried away by surface ditches at the sides of the road. " A side ditch should have a gradually falling and even grade at the bottom, and broad, flaring sides to prevent the caving in of its banks. It can be easily cleared of snow, weeds, and rubbish; the water will run into it easily from each side, and it is not dangerous to wagons and foot travelers. It is therefore a much better ditch...
Página 14 - ... the right way. Very few people know how great an amount of water falls upon the country road, and it may surprise some of us to be told that on each mile of an ordinary country highway three rods wide within the United States there falls each year an average of twenty-seven thousand tons of water. In the ordinary country dirt road the water seems to stick and stay as if there was no other place for it, and this is only because we have never given it a fair opportunity to run out of the dirt and...
Página 14 - ... is only because we have never given it a fair opportunity to run out of the dirt and find its level in other places. We cannot make a hard road out of soft mud, and no amount of labor and machinery will make a good dirt road that will stay good unless some plan is adopted to get rid of the surplus water. Water is a heavy, limpid fluid, hard to confine and easy to let loose. It is always seeking for a chance to run down a hill ; always trying to find its lowest level.

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