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died to put an end to all that”! Cromwell's Inauguration was by the Sword and Bible ; what we must call a genuinely true one. Sword and Bible were borne before him, without any chimera: were not these the real emblems of Puritanism ; its true decoration and insignia ? It had used them both in a very real manner, and pretended to stand by them now! But this poor Napoleon mistook : he believed too much in the Dupeability of men; saw no fact deeper in man than Hunger and this! He was mistaken. Like a man that should build upon cloud ; his house and he fall down in confused wreck, and depart out of the world.

Alas, in all of us this charlatan-element exists; and might be developed, were the temptation strong enough. Lead us not into temptation'! But it is fatal, I say, that it be developed. The thing into which it enters as a cognisable ingredient is doomed to be altogether transitory; and, however huge it may look, is in itself small. Napoleon's working, accordingly, what was it with all the noise it made ? A flash as of gunpowder wide-spread; a blazing-up as of dry heath. For an hour the whole Universe seems wrapt in smoke and flame; but only for an hour. It goes out: the Universe with its old mountains and streams, its stars above and kind soil beneath, is still there.

The Duke of Weimar told his friends always, To be of courage; this Napoleonism was unjust, a falsehood, and could not last. It is true doctrine. The heavier this Napoleon trampled on the world, holding it tyrannously down, the fiercer would the world's recoil against him be, one day. Injustice pays itself with frightful compound-interest. I am not sure but he had better have lost his best park of artillery, or had his best regiment drowned in the sea, than shot that poor German Bookseller, Palm ! It was a palpable tyrannous murderous injustice, which no man, let him paint an inch thick, could make-out to be other. It burnt deep into the hearts of men, it and the like of it; suppressed fire flashed in the eyes of men, as they thought of it,—waiting their day! Which day came : Germany rose round him.—What Napoleon did will in the long-run amount to what he did justly; what Nature with her laws will sanction. To what of reality was in him; to that and nothing more. The rest was all smoke and waste. La carrière ouverte aux talens : that great true Message, which has yet to articulate and fulfil itself everywhere, he left in a most inarticulate state. He was a great ébauche, a rudedraught never completed; as indeed what great man is other? Left in too rude a state, alas !

His notions of the world, as he expresses them there at St. Helena, are almost tragical to consider. He seems to feel the most unaffected surprise that it has all gone so; that he is flung-out on the rock here, and the World is still moving on its axis. France is great, and all-great ; and at bottom, he is France. England itself, he says, is by Nature only an appendage of France ; “another Isle of Oleron to France." So it was by Nature, by Napoleon-Nature; and yet look how in fact-HERE AM I ! He cannot understand it : inconceivable that the reality has not corresponded to his program of it ; that France was not all-great, that he was not France. 'Strong delusion,' that he should believe the thing to be which is not ! The compact, clear-seeing, decisive Italian nature of him, strong, genuine, which he once had, has enveloped itself, halfdissolved itself, in a turbid atmosphere of French fanfaronade. The world was not disposed to be trodden-down underfoot ; to be bound into masses, and built together, as he liked, for a pedestal to France and him : the world had quite other purposes in view! Napoleon's astonishment is extreme. But alas, what help now ? He had gone that way of his ; and Nature also had gone her way. Having once parted with Reality, he tumbles helpless in Vacuity; no rescue for him. He had to sink there, mournfully as man seldom did; and break his great heart, and die,—this poor Napoleon : a great implement too soon wasted, till it was useless : our last Great Man!

Our last, in a double sense. For here finally these wide roamings of ours through so many times and places, in search and study of Heroes, are to terminate. I am sorry for it: there was pleasure for me in this business, if also much pain. It is a great subject, and a most grave and wide one, this which, not to be too grave about it, I have named Hero-worship. It enters deeply, as I think, into the secret of Mankind's ways and vitalest interests in this world, and is well worth explaining at present. With six months, instead of six days, we might have done better. I promised to break-ground on it ; I know not whether I have even managed to do that. I have had to tear it up in the rudest manner in order to get into it at all. Often enough, with these abrupt utterances thrown-out isolated, unexplained, has your tolerance been put to the trial. Tolerance, patient candour, all-hoping favour and kindness, which I will not speak of at present. The accomplished and distinguished, the beautiful, the wise, something of what is best in England, have listened patiently to my rude words. With many feelings, I heartily thank you all; and say, Good be with

you all!

SUMMARY.

LECTURE I.

THE HERO AS DIVINITY. ODIN. PAGANISM: SCANDINAVIAN MYTHOLOGI

HEROES: Universal History consists essentially of their united Biogra. phies. Religion not a man's church-creed, but his practical belief about himself and the Universe: Both with Men and Nations it is the One fact about them which creatively determines all the rest. Heathenism: Christianity: Modern Scepticism. The Hero as Divinity. Paganism a fact; not Quackery, nor Allegory: Not to be pretentiously explained;' to be looked at as old Thought, and with sympathy. (p. 1.)-Nature no more seems divine except to the Prophet or Poet, because men have ceased to think : To the Pagan Thinker, as to child-man, all was either godlike or God. Canopus: Man. Hero-worship the basis of ReLýion, ioyalty, Society. A Hero not the 'creature of the time:' Hero. worship indestructible. Johnson: Voltaire. (7.)—Scandinavian Paganism the Religion of our Fathers. Iceland, the home of the Norse Poets, described. The Edda. The primary characteristic of Norse Paganism, the impersonation of the visible workings of Nature. Jötuns and the Gods. Fire: Frost: Thunder: The Sun: Sea-Tempest. Mythus of the Creation: The Life-Tree Igdrasil. The modern • Machine of the Universe.' (14.)-The Norse Creed, as recorded, the summation of several successive systems: Originally the shape given to the national thought by their first 'Man of Genius.' Odin: He has no history or date; yet was no mere adjective, but a man of flesh and blood. How deified. The World of Nature, to every man a Fantasy of Himself. (19.) -Odin the inventor of Runes, of Letters and Poetry. His reception as a Hero: the pattern Norse-Man; a God: His shadow over the whole History of his People. (25.)—The essence of Norse Paganism, not so much Morality, as a sincere recognition of Nature : Sincerity better than Gracefulness. The Allegories, the after-creations of the Faith. Main practical Belief: Hall of Odin : Valkyrs: Destiny: Necessity of Valour. Its worth: Their Sea-Kings, Woodcutter Kings, our spiritual Progenitors. The growth of Odinism. (27.)—The strong simplicity of Norse lore quite unrecognised by Gray. Thor's veritable Norse rage: Balder, the white Sungod. How the old Norse heart loves the Thundergod, and sports with him: Huge Brobdignag genius, needing only to be tamed-down, into Shakspeares, Goethes. Truth in the Norse Songs: This World a show. Thor's Invasion of Jötunheim. The Ragnarök, or Twilight of the Gods: The Old must die, that the New and Better may be born. Thor's last appearance. The Norse Creed a Consecration of Valour. It and the whole Past a possession of the Present. (31.)

LECTURE II.

THE HERO AS PROPHET. MAHOMET: ISLAM.

The Hero no longer regarded as a God, but as one god-inspired. All Heroes primarily of the same stuff; differing according to their reception. The welcome of its Heroes, the truest test of an epoch. Odin: Burns. (p. 39.)—Mahomet a true Prophet; not a scheming Impostor. A Great Man, and therefore first of all a sincere man: No man to be judged merely by his faults. David the Hebrew King. Of all acts for man repentance the most divine: The deadliest sin, a supercilious consciousness of none. (40.)-Arabia described. The Arabs always a gifted people; of wild strong feelings, and of iron restraint over these. Their Religiosity: Their Star-worship: Their Prophets and inspired men; from Job downwards. Their Holy Places. Mecca, its site, history and government. (44.)—Mahomet. His youth: His fond Grandfather. Had no book-learning: Travels to the Syrian Fairs; and first comes in contact with the Christian Religion. An altogether solid, brotherly, genuine man: A good laugh, and a good flash of anger in him withal. (47.)— Marries Kadijah. Begins his Prophet-career at forty years of age. Allah Akbar ; God is great: Islam ; we must submit to God. Do we not all live in Islam ? Mahomet, 'the Prophet of God.' (49.)-The good Kadijah believes in him: Mahomet’s gratitude. His slow progress : Among forty of his kindred, young Ali alone joined him. His good Uncle expostulates with him: Mahomet, bursting into tears, persists in his mission. The Hegira. Propagating by the sword: First get your sword: A thing will propagate itself as it can. Nature a just umpire. Mahomet's Creed unspeakably better than the wooden idolatries and jangling Syrian Sects extirpated by it. (53.)—The Koran, the universal standard of Mahometan life: An imperfectly, badly written, but genuine book: Enthusiastic extempore preaching, amid the hot haste of wrestling with flesh-and-blood and spiritual enemies. Its direct

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