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No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding an office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.
Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
ARTICLE II. Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector.
The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the Presid of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be courted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such a majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them President; and if no person have a majority, then from the
five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of
member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should re main two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President.
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No person except a natural-born citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated times, receive
his services a compensation which shall be neither increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Sec. 2. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shail have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur: and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States,
pointments are not herein otherwise pro- mies, giving them aid and comfort. No vided for, and which shall be established person shall be convicted of treason unless by law; but the Congress may by law vest on the testimony of two witnesses to the the appointment of such inferior officers same overt act, or on confession in open as they think proper, in the President court. alone, in the courts of law or in the heads The Congress shall have power to deof departments.
clare the punishment of treason, but no The President shall have power to fill attainder of treason shall work corrupup all vacancies that may happen during tion of blood or forfeiture except during the recess of the Senate, by granting com- the life of the person attainted. missions which shall expire at the end of
ARTICLE IV. their next session.
Sec. 1. Full faith and credit shall be Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give given in each State to the public acts, to the Congress information of the state of records, and judicial proceedings of every the Union, and recommend to their con- other State. And the Congress may by sideration such measures as he shall judge general laws prescribe the manner in necessary and expedient; he
may on which such acts, records and proceedings extraordinary occasions con vene both shall be proved, and the effect thereof. houses, or either of them, and in case of Sec. 2. The citizens of each State shall disagreement between them, with respect be entitled to all privileges and immunities to the time of adjournment, he may ad- of citizens in the several States. journ them to such time as he shall think A person charged in any State with treaproper; he shall receive ambassadors and son, felony, or other crime, who shall flee other public ministers; he shall take care from justice, and be found in another that the laws be faithfully executed, and State, shall, on demand of the executive shall commission all of the officers of the authority of the State from which he fled, United States.
be delivered up, to be removed to the State Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President having jurisdiction of the crime. and all civil officers of the United States No person held to service or labor in one shall be removed from office on impeach-State, under the laws thereof, escaping ment for and conviction of treason, bribery into another, shall, in consequence of any or other high crimes and misdemeanors. law or regulation therein, be discharged ARTICLE III.
from such service or labor, but shall be
delivered up on Sec. 1. The judicial power of the United
claim of the party to States shall be vested in one Supreme
whom such service or labor may be due. Court, and in such inferior courts as the
Sec. 3. New States may be admitted by Congress may from time to time ordain
the Congress into this Union; but no new and establish. The judges, both of the
State shall be formed or erected within supreme and inferior courts, shall hold
the jurisdiction of any other State; nor their offices during good behavior, and
any State be formed by the junction of shall at stated times receive for their ser
two or more States, or part of States, vices a compensation which shall not be
without the consent of the Legislature of diminished during their continuance in
the States concerned as well as of the office.
Congress. Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend
The Congress shall have power to disto all cases, in law and equity, arising un
pose of and make all needful rules and der this Constitution, the laws of the regulations respecting the territory or other United States, and treaties made or which property belonging to the United States; shall be made, under their authority; to
and nothing in this Constitution shall be all cases affecting ambassadors, other pub
so construed as to prejudice any claims of lic ministers and consuls; to all cases of
the United States, or of any particular admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to
State. controversies to which the United States
Sec. 4. The United States shall guarshall be a party; to controversies between antee to every State in this Union a retwo or more States; between a State and publican form of government, and shall citizens of another State; between citi- protect each of them against invasion, zens of different States; between citizens and on application of the Legislature, or of the same State claiming lands under of the executive (when the Legislature grants of different States, and between a
convened), against domestic State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign
violence. States, citizens or subjects.
ARTICLE V. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other The Congress, whenever two-thirds of public ministers and consuls, and those in
both houses shall deem it necessary, shall which a State shall be a party, the Su- propose amendments to this Constitution, preme Court shall have original jurisdic
or, on application of the legislatures tion. In all the other cases before men
of two-thirds of the several States, shail tioned the Supreme Court shall have ap
call a convention for proposing amendpellate jurisdiction, both as to law and ments, which in either case shall be valid fact, with such exceptions and under such to all intents and purposes, as part of this regulations as the Congress shall make. Constitution, when ratified by the legislaThe trial of all crimes, except in cases
tures of three-fourths of the several of impeachment, shall be by jury;
States, or by conventions in three-fourths such trial shall be held in the State where thereof, as the one or the other mode, cf the said crime shall have been committed; ratification may be proposed by the Conbut when not committed within any State, gress; provided that no amendment which the trial shall be at such place or places may be made prior to the year one thouas the Congress may by law have directed. sand eight hundred and eight shall in any
Sec. 3. Treason against the United manner affect the first and fourth clauses Stateg shall consist only in levying war in the ninth section of the first article; against them, or in adhering to their ene- and that no State, without its consent,
ABR. BALDWIN. Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the confederation,
This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. Done in convention by the unanimous con
sent of the States present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.
GEO. WASHINGTON, President and Deputy from Virginia. New-Hampshire
NICHOLAS GILMAN. Massachusetts
RUFUS KING. Connecticut
WM. SAML. JOHNSON,
ROGER SHERMAN. New-York
AMENDMENTS. (The first ten amendments were proposed at the first session of the Ist Congress of the United States, which was began and held at the city of New-York on March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the requisite number of States. -1 vol. Laws of U. S., p. 72.)
(The preamble and resolution following preceded the original proposition of the amendments, and, as they have been supposed by a high equity judge (8 Wendell's Reports, p. 100) to have an important bearing on the construction of those amendments, they are here inserted. They will be found in the journals of the first session of the Ist Congress.)
Congress of the United States begun and held at the city of New-York, on Wednesday, the 4th of March, 1789. The conventions (o a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added; and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled,
twoof both houses concurring, That the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of said Constitution, namely:
ARTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assembie, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II. A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
ARTICLE V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law: nor shail private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed $20, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
ARTICLE IX. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people,
ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.
ARTICLE XII. The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the persons voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest
number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President,
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
ARTICLE XIII. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
ARTICLE XIV. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Sec. 2. Representatives shall be
apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Represertatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of male citizens shall bear to the whole number of
male citizens twenty-one years of age in pressing the insurrection or rebellion, shall such State.
not be questioned. But neither the United Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator States nor any State shall assume or pay or Representative in Congress, or elector any debt or obligation incurred in aid of of President or Vice-President, or hold insurrection or rebellion against the United any office, civil or military, under the States, or any claim for the loss or emanUnited States, or under any State, who, cipation of any slave; but all such debts. having previously taken an oath as mem- obligations and claims shall be held illegal ber of Congress or as an officer of the and void. United States, or as a member of any Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power State Legislature, or as an executive or to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the judicial officer of any State, to support the provisions of this article. Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
ARTICLE XV. against the same, or given aid or comfort Section 1. The right of the citizens of the to the enemies thereof; but Congress may,
United States to vote shall not be denied by a vote of two-thirds of each house, re- or abridged by the United States or by any move such disability.
State on account of race, color or previous Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt condition of servitude. of the United States, authorized by law, Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power including debts incurred for payment of to enforce this article by appropriate legpensions and bounties for services in sup- islation.
PRESIDENTS: LAW AS TO SUCCESSION. The act of Congress approved January death, resignation or inability, then the 19, 1886, providing for the performance of Secretary of Agriculture shall act as the duties of the office of President in President until the disability of the case of the removal, death, resignation or President or Vice-President is removed or inability both of the President and Vice- a President shall be elected; Provided, President, is as follows:
That whenever the powers and duties of
the office of President of the United States "That in case of removal, death, resig- shall devolve upon any of the persons nation, or inability of both the President named herein, if Congress be not then in and Vice-President of the United States, session, or if it would not meet in acthe Secretary of State; or, if there be cordance with law within twenty days none, or in case of his removal, death, thereafter, it shall be the duty of the perresignation or inability, then the Secre- son upon whom said powers and duties tary of the Treasury; or, if there be none, shall devolve to issue a proclamation conor in case of his removal, death, resig- vening Congress in extraordinary session, nation or inability, then the Secretary of giving twenty days' notice of the time of War; or if there be none, or in case of meeting his removal, death, resignation or inabil- "Sec. 2. That the preceding section shall ity, then the Attorney-General; or if there only be held to describe and apply to such be none, or in case of his removal, death, officers as shall have been appointed by resignation or inability, then the Post- the advice and consent of the Senate to master-General; or if there be none, or in the offices therein named, and such as are case of his removal, death, resignation or eligible to the office of President under the ina lity, then the Secretary of the Navy; Constitution, and not under impeachment or if there be none, or in case of his re- by the House of Representatives of the moval, death, resignation or
inability, United States at the time the powers and then the Secretary of the Interior; or if duties of the office shall devolve upon them there be none, or in case of his removal, respectively.'
Miles. Missouri (with the Mississippi con
Orinoco, South America.
1,600 nection) 4,506 Sandeo, Hindostan.
1,600 Missouri (to the Mississippi) 3,096 Brahmapootra, Thibet.
1,500 Nile (Stanley's).. 4,100 St. Francisco, Brazil.
1,400 Nile (old survey). 3,000 Columbia, U. S..
1,090 Amazon, Brazil.. 3,994 Colorado, U. S..
1,000 Mississippi (proper). 3,200 Yellowstone, U. S.
1,000 Murray, Australasia.
980 Yang-tse-Kiang, China 2,990 Arkansas, U. S.
900 Hoang-Ho, China. 2,800 Rhine, Germany.
810 Obi, Siberia.... 2,800 Tennessee, U. S.
800 Yenesei, Siberia.
700 Lena, Siberia. 2,500 Cumberland, U. S..
600 Niger, Africa. 2,500 Alabama, U. S...
600 Mackenzie, British America.
500 Congo, Africa..
500 Amoor, Siberia. 2,300 Connecticut, U. S.
450 Parana (with Platte), Argentina. 2,130 Seine, France..
425 St. Lawrence, ('anada. 2,060 Delaware, U. S.
400 Volga, Russia.. 2,030 Potomac, U. S.
400 Madeira, Brazil. 2,000 Hudson, U. S..
325 Rio Grande, U. S. 1,800 Thames, England.
233 Indus, Hindostan.
200 Danube, Russia. 1,630 Kennebec, U. S..