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cultivated, well-regulated mind, in reasonable desires, in an even, contented spirit. ( It is here that we discover the secret of Horace's power over so many minds; it is not his style, with its rare union of elegance and vigor, it is not his terseness and felicity of expression,—these alone could never explain nor could they create so wide and enduring a popularity; but it is the wise thoughts, just sentiments, and genuine truths, universally applicable to the every-day lives of men, which are the staple of his work, and of which the graces of style, the felicitous expression, are the rich and finished setting,—it is these that have made him the favorite companion, not only of classical scholars, but of statesmen, philosophers, and men of the world ; the most read, the best remembered, and the most frequently quoted of all the writers of antiquity.

The fame of Horace has far exceeded the measure of his own proud prophecy.' It has outlived those solemn processions to the Capitol of pontiffs and vestal virgins, it has outlived the entire religion of ancient Rome, and ancient Rome itself, and after the lapse of ages, it still flourishes in all its early freshness; and with equal truth and beauty has it been described in an apostrophe to Horace, by an Italian poet:

Salgo la cima ombrosa, e fresco e verde
Veggio l'alloro tuo lassù tenersi,
Che per sì lunga età foglia non perde:
l'eggiol dell'immortal tua lira adorno,
E le immagini belle e i sacri versi
Con la grand' Ombra tua girarvi intorno.

"I climb the shady summit, and behold
Thy laurel there still ever fresh and green,
Which thro' long ages not a leaf hath lost:
I see it decked with thy immortal lyre,
And beauteous images and sacred verse
Still wandering round it with thy mighty shade,

10. 3, 30, 8–10.

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L. Aurelius Cotta, L. Horace is born, on the 8th of December.

Manlius Torquatus.
12 Cn. Domitius Calvinus, Horace is carried to Rone.

M. Valerius Messala.
16 C. Claudius Marcellus. Civil war between Caesar and Pompey.

L. Cornelius Lentu. Pompey leaves Italy. Caesar goes to Rome.

lus Crus. 17 C. Julius Caesar II., P. Battle of Pharsalia. Assassination of Pompey.

Servilius Vatia Isau.

19 C. Julius Caesar III., Battle or Thapsus. Death of Cato at Utica.

M. Aemilius Lepidus.
20 C. Julius IV. (without Horace goes to Athens.

colleague), Dictator.
21 C. Julius Caesar V., M Assassination of Julius Caesar.

22 C. Vibius Pansa, A. Hir. Octavianus, Antony and Lepidus form the

second triumviraie. Preparations for war between the triumvirs and Brutus and Cassius. Horace enters the army of Bru. tus, as tribune. Death of Cicero. Birth

of Ovid.
23 M. Aemilius Lepidus II, The two engagements at Philippi. Death of
L. Munatius Plancus. Brutus and of Cassius. Birth of Claudius

Tiberius Nero.
24 P. Servilius Vatia Isau. Horace returns to Rome.

ricus II., L. Antonius

Pietas. 25 Cn. Domitius Calvinus The alliance between Octavianus and Antony, II., C. Asinius Pollio. sormed at Brundusium, and called Foedus

Brundusinum. 26 L. Marcius Censorinus, Asinius Pollio is sent against the Parthini; C. Calvisius Sabinus. triumphs over them. Horace is introduced

to Maecenas. 27 App. Claudius Pulcher, Beginning of the friendship between Mae.

C. Norbanus Flaccus. cenas and Horace. 28 M. Agrippa, L. Caninius The journey to Brundusium; see Sat. 1, 5.

Gallus. 30 L. Cornificius, Sext. Phraates, the Parthian king, dethroned on Pompeius.

account of his cruelty, and Tiridates placed upon the throne.

Horace publishes the

First Book of Satires. 34 C. Caesar Octavianus Horace offers to accompany Maecenas to war,

I., M. Valerius Mes. Epod. 1. Battle of Actium; Epod. 9; 0. sala Corvinus.

1, 37. 35 C. Caesar Octavianus Horace publishes the Second Book of Satires,

IV., M. Licinius Cras- and the Book of Epodes. 36 Caesar Octavianus Octavianus returns to Rome, and celebrates V., Sex. Appuleius. a threefold triumph. The iemple of Janus

is closed.

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37 c. Caesar Octavianus Octavianus dedicates the temple of Apollo on VI., M. Agrippa II.

the Palatine ; 0.1, 31. 38 C. Caesar Octavianus Octavianus receives the title of Augustus and Aug. VII., M. Agrip

of Imperator. Preparations are made for

an expedition against Arabia ; 0. 1, 29.
40 C. Caesar Octavianus Expedition of Augustus against the Cantab-

Aug. IX., M. Junius rians. Expedition against Arabia, under

command of Aelius Gallus.
41 C. Caesar Aug. X., c. Phraates expels Tiridates from Parthia. Au-
Norbanus Flaccus. gustus, having conquered the Cantabrians,

returns to Rome, and closes for the second time the temple of Janus ; 0.3, 14; ib. 4, 15. Death of Quinctilius; 0.1,24. Horace (probably) publishes the first Three Books

of his Odes. 42 C. Caesar Aug. XI., A. Death of the young Marcellus; 0. 1, 12, 45

Terentius Varro Mu- seqq. Augustus is invested with the tri. rera.

bunician power for lise. 43 M. Claudius Marcellus, A conspiracy against Augustus discovered L. Arruntius.

and suppressed
44 M. Lollius, Q. Aemilius Augustus goes to Greece; winters at Samos.

46 C. Sentius Saturninus, Death of Virgil at Brundusium.

Q. Lucretius.
47 P. Cornelius Lentulus, Horace publishes the First Book of Epistles.

Cn. Cornelius Lentul

us. 48 C. Furnius, C. Junius Augustus celebrates the Ludi Saeculares ; Silanus.

Horace writes the Secular Hymn. 50 M. Livius Drusus Libo, Deseat of the Raeti and Vindelici by Tiberius L. Calpurnius Piso.

and Drusus; Odes Fourth and Fourteenth

of Book Fourth.
52 Tib. Claudius Nero, P. Horace publishes the Fourth Book of Odes.

Quinctilius Varus.
53 M. Valerius Messala, P. Death of Agrippa.

Sulpicius Quirinus.
57 C. Marcius Censorinus, Death of Horace (a few weeks after that of

C. Asinius Gallus. Maecenas) on the 27th of November.

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[For the details pertaining to versification, such as the names and component parts of the feet, and the terms employed for the different metres and kinds of verses, the student is referred to the Grammars : to Andrews and Stoddard's, jj 302–304, and jj 310–318, and to Zumpt's, Appendix I.]

I-Alcaic. In thirty-seven Odes, viz., I. 9, 16, 17, 26, 27. II. 1, 3, 5,

7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20. III. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 26,

29. IV. 4, 9, 14, 15. Four verses : first two greater Alcaics, third an Iambic dimeter hyper

meter, fourth a smaller Alcaic. 2:{S-IV-1-1-vul-vo 3. こ-|--|--|--|

4. muuluul-ul-u

II.-SĄPPHIC AND Adonic. In twenty-five Odes, viz., I. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22,

25, 30, 32, 38. II. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16. III. 8, 11, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27. IV. 2, 6, 11

Four verses: first three Sapphic, fourth Adonic.

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IU.-GLYCONIC AND AsclepiadIC. In twelve Odes, I. 3, 13, 19, 36. III. 9, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28. IV. 1, 3.

Two verses: first Glyconic, second Asclepiadic.

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