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Tulip Transparency

seats for an opinion as to which child gave the stanza in the

SECOND GRADE best manner. Often, the children will enjoy the plan of Little Brown Hands — Krout. having a selected boy or girl give the first stanza, the school

Beautiful Things. the second, etc.

3 The Seed - From Lovejoy's Nature and Verse. Drill is always more interesting and, as a result, more 4 How the Wind Blows. valuable to the little ones, if the teacher, as far as possible, 5 The Tree. leaves its conduct to the pupils themselves. As soon as 6 Pussy Willow. affairs are set going, the wise instructor will make haste to 7 Sunshine. efface herself from the proceedings. It is an excellent plan 8 September. to select a day, at stated intervals throughout the year, and 9 Goldenrod, turn the Language time over to the pupils, by saying,

Ιο The Child and the World. are going to give a little program to-day, instead of our

regular lesson. You may choose the stories and poems that we will

LIST OF SOURCES FOR PRIMARY POEMS have on this program.” As soon as the schedule is made out,

Celia Thaxter — “Poems for Children.” allow the affair to go on, entirely through the efforts of those

The Scarecrow. selected to take part in it. After this plan has been carried

b Piccola. through several times, the little folks will have gained an

Frank Dempster Sherman - "Little Folk's Lyrics." astonishing amount of self-confidence as well as a goodly

3 Eugene Field Book. stock of executive ability and ingenuity that will prove to be

4 Lucy Larcom. a kindly aid in the dramatization work.

a Spring and Summer.

b Childhood Songs. For bringing the rhythmic sense into prominence, the following “rhythm game” is extremely helpful. Stand before

5 Whittier - "Child Life.” the pupils and say, "Listen carefully and tell me which of

a Pumpkin. our poems you hear.” Then clap, exactly and with marked

b Little Red Riding Hood.

6 Robert Louis Stevenson rhythm, the first stanza of one of the selections already

“Child Verses." committed to memory. As soon as there is evidence of a

7 James Whitcomb Riley. (Select very carefully.) growing rhythmic discrimination, select two or three opening stanzas of several of the familiar poems, clap one after the other, and have them named in order. This device, simple as it is, affords a large amount of enjoyment besides materially

EMMA A. MYERS improving the rhythm of the poems repeated by the pupils. Materials required for each child

Many of the selections in the lists designed for presentation A piece of thin black mounting paper (or paper that has in primary rooms contain choice bits that are well worth been washed with ink) 7" x 31"; a square of dark red or de calling attention to. In fact, these should receive strong yellow tissue paper 24" x 24"; a strip of light green tissue emphasis and that to such an extent that the fragments will paper 2" x 4". Trace the tulip design on the dark paper. remain in the memory long after the remainder of the poem Have the children prick the tulip flower and cut out the design has been forgotten. One way of impressing the line or two Paste the red square over the flower and the green strip that seems to contain the rarest touch in the poem is furnished

over the stem and leaf. by the guessing game described below.

When hung in the windows the tulips make an effective As each poem is presented, the teacher must search for room decoration, especially if some tulips are made of each time

, short sections, worth retaining permanently, and keep a list of of the two colors — gold and crimson. them. After quite a number of selections have been learned, begin the game by quoting one of these little fragments and asking the children to name the poem from which it was taken. Ask them to repeat the entire line or stanza. played now and then in the course of the work, these choice poetic bits will be fixed indelibly upon the minds of the pupils and the teacher will have sown some valuable seed for the future.

Below are given lists of poems, submitted by several primary teachers. From these lists, it is possible to evolve a plan of work that cannot fail to attract and develop the first grade pupil. For the sake of the teacher's own interest, a very necessary factor in successfully kindling a love of the poetic in her pupils, it is not wise to teach the same poems year after year. On this account, several different outlines are given.

POEMS FOR FIRST GRADE How the Leaves Came Down - Susan Coolidge. 2 Sleep, Baby, Sleep. 3

What Does Little Birdie Say? - Alfred Tennyson. 4 Seven Times One-From Songs of Seven by Jean Ingelow. 5 Come, Little Leaves. Ő The Children's Hour Longfellow. 7

The Hush-a-by Lady Eugene Field. Ś The Three Little Bugs — Cary.

MORE ADVANCED I September - Helen Hunt Jackson. 2. Selections from Hiawatha - Longfellow. 3 The Snowfall - Longfellow. (First few stanazs.) 4 The Arrow and the Song - Longfellow. Ś The Rock-a-by Lady - Eugene Field. Ő The Night Wind — Eugene Field. 7 The Shut Eye Train - Eugene Field. Ś Wynken, Blynken and Nod - Eugene Field. 9 Waiting to Grow. 1o The Village Blacksmith - Longfellow.

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And this is the


All rights reserved
Two Pictures

“Henry, how many people is this little story about, think

“Henry says, "Two.

“Yes. Who do you think they are?” Noon time, and two small boys of six are sitting in the shade

Henry says, “I think they are two little boys.” of their schoolhouse, eating what is left of their lunches, after

“Yes. What are they talking about?” the morning recess. Coats and caps off, they half recline

Henry says they are talking about their dogs. against the banking that served to keep out some of the cold

“Yes. What does the first little boy say?" Look in your of winter. As they eat, they fall to talking about their pets, as small boys will do. They were talking about dogs. This book and find out, then tell me.”

Henry says, "Have you a dog?is what was heard.

The superintendent says, "Has who a dog? Tell me once Have you a dog?

more what the boy said.” Yes, I have a dog.

"Have you a dog?" What is the name of your dog?

“That's better. What did the other little boy say? Read." The name of my dog is Fido. What is the name of your

“Yes, I have a dog." dog?

“Good. What did the first boy say next? Read." The name of my dog is Bruce.

“What is the name of your dog?”

“Yes. And what was the answer? Read the next and The school bell rings. The boys hurry on with their coats

tell us.” caps; put the lids on their empty dinner pails, and scurry into the house.

“The name of my dog is Fido. What is the name of

your For opening exercise the school sings. “Old Black Joe," dog?” after which the teacher says, “Take your books.” As the

"Good, all but the last. What does the little boy ask his

friend? Read the last part again." primer class can do no studying, or little, they are at once called to class.

“What is the name of your dog?”

“Good. What was the answer ? Read." Opening their little thumb-marked primers at page 20 (where they had been for several days) precisely the same

“The name of my dog is Bruce." language confronts them as that to which they gave oral expression — and so natural, so child-like – in the picture above.

Every Tongue of Nature Sings Without further formalities, the teacher says, "Henry,

The busy nuthatch climbs his tree, may read." And what do we hear?

Around the great bole spirally, Have you dog?

Peeping into wrinkles gray, Yes I bave uh dog.

Under ruffled lichens gay, What is thu (the)


Lazily piping one sharp note -dog?

From his silver-mailed throat; The

of my dog is - what is the


And down the wind the catbird's song your

| dog?

A slender medley trails along.

dog is

Here a grackle chirping low,

There a crested vireo; The county superintendent was sitting in the rear of the

Every tongue of nature sings, room during this time. He comes forward and engages

The air is palpitant with wings! Henry in conversation.

- Maurice Thompson

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A Japanese Tea Garden


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A IN for the

IC 10 added something to the flavor of the occasion, a part of it is


IST WI HE children of the present generation have a joy in the I have gone out with haste to obey your most honorable commands.

da place early days of their education that their parents know

I have found as follows: eight small Japanese ladies, at 5 cts., four not of — the joy of the sand board.

parasols at 21 cts., one very honorable (and I pray not too large) lady
at 15 cts., one most imperial sitting and head-turning person at 15 cts,

De steppi In one school this winter the little folks of grades one two fans at 21 cts., one wee white bunny at 5 cts., a total of 90 cts. I am and two, have been revelling in the preparation of a Japanese most glad and humbly proud to do this for your honorable nobility and tea-garden. The teacher's plans were ambitious, but by mak

to gain thereby so nobiy distinguished a friend. ing the children feel that she depended largely upon them for

Very obsequiously your servant, success she inspired them with much of her own enthusiasm. Before the preparation of the sand board was begun the Of course the sacred mountain must be made the main feature children were made interested in Japan and its people. This of any Japanese scene, and a generous pile of sand plentifully was done by means of talks and stories read by the teacher, sprinkled with chalk dust-was made to do duty for Fuji-Yama. taking the place of the regular “Morning Talk” or a Geog.

From working drawings made by the teacher, the children raphy lesson. The children were delighted with these stories constructed a tea-house from brown construction paper and for they are always interested in little folks of other lands

. decorated it with Japanese lanterns cut from bits of pretty Many were the devices used to keep up their interest. Days wall paper. Within was the tiny tea-table holding its dimin- were set apart for imaginary trips to Japan, these trips the utive outfit of cups and saucers, all made from heavy draw'- children enjoyed very much and asked to have them repeated ing paper.

again and again. The little stream was made of blue paper with common win- Pictures of Japanese in characteristic attitudes were bekdow glass laid over it; and on this placid water could be seen tographed by the teacher and colored and cut out by the two of the boats so characteristic of any Japanese picture. children. Some of these were taken home to show to their These were made by the children from the teacher's design parents, while others were pasted upon a blackboard where of brown construction paper with white cloth sails. Across a Japanese picture had been previously drawn. the rivulet extended a bamboo bridge made from white card- collection of post cards of Japan and its people were obtained board.

from the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. These The inevitable cherry tree was achieved by means of a dead proved especially helpful, giving the children a fine idea of geranium plant with a disguise of pink paper blossoms and the people, their dress, the flowers, the temples, the homes green leaves cunningly fastened to the branches.

and gardens. The population of the village had next to be provided, and By this time the children were deeply interested; so much for this the teacher called in outside help. She wrote to a so that they began to ask for stories of their own accord to read friend in the city describing her needs and asking her to pro- at home. Many of them have begun taking books from the cure from a Japanese shop such dolls and other properties as Public Library in order to be able to tell something new about might be appropriate to the landscape.


Of course the teacher took advantage of their interest and marvellous clothes, some gay parasols and fans, a Geisha girl some of the best language work of the year was produced the lessons

The friend proved obliging and sent various tiny ladies in
with nodding head sitting in characteristic attitude, and a wee Each day a list of eight or ten words referring to Japan were

In the language period the children used name of T white bunny with pink eyes and ears. On some of the dolls placed on the board. the teacher changed the costume to that of Coolies, and these these words in oral or written

sentences; some of the best at det vil the

the oral sentences were written on the board to be used the fun, for the were set to drawing wonderful jinrikishas made by the children

next day as a writing lesson. Occasionally a list of words Path abide. from oak tag and containing each a Japanese lady. In the foreground appeared a Coolie bearing over his shoulder bas- was so arranged that when good oral sentences were given kets of oak tag holding tissue paper flowers.

it would form a complete story. Accompanying the articles sent by the teacher's friend was How the children would vie with each other as to who woch nical Japanese post card, written in mock-Japanese style, make the best story. ontaining the prices paid for the various articles: as it

Some years ago the PRIMARY EDUCATION printed stories a

A beautiful

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For the Japanese Sand-Table


Geography Stories

"Little Folks of Far Away Lands”; these stories the teacher “Peeps at Many Lands." "Japan" Beatrix Jungman cut up into paragraphs, mounted them on oak tag and used “Little Folks of Many Lands"- Lulu Maude Chance as supplementary reading.

“Little Folks of Far Away Lands”- Lizzie Whittum PubNow the time seemed ripe for preparing the different ob- lished by Educational Publishing Company. jects for the tea garden. Every one was allowed some little National Geographical Magazine, November, 1911. share in the work, however small. The summer house was made by several children, but the hardest part was done by a small Armenian boy, who has only been in this country about a year

and a half. He proved equal to the task and did the work so well, that he instantly became an object of envy. Then other children were chosen to make the jinrikishas and

J. E. HODGES other accessories needed for the completion of the tea garden. Then came the crowning point when the children were allowed First of all — Do all teachers have a sand-table? Then to spend the last half hour of the afternoon in modelling the

have a sand box. sand. A picture of the sacred mountain was placed before

Procure a large wooden box, such as shoes are shipped in them; with only this as a guide and a suggestion here and Have the janitor cut down the sides until they are four or five there from the teacher, it was soon modelled to everyone's inches high. Fill this with sand and set on a table, box or satisfaction. Then with their own tiny hands, that fairly

between desks.

1 trembled with eagerness, they arranged the various objects I prefer a sand box or tray to a sand table, for when I finish where they would show to the best advantage, placed the

a certain lesson I empty the sand into a sack and carry tray little Japanese in the jinrikishas and here and there on the

and sack to the store room. Then they are ready for future sand board. And Eureka! the Tea Garden was completed. use and are not taking up extra space in the school-room. There are those who might ask, “Did all that labor pay?"

When the fruit blossoms have been forced from the twigs Was it worth while for the teacher to spend all that time in

which were put in water, we studied about Japan. A regular planning and designing patterns ?”

Japanese garden was laid in the sand tray. "And spending so much time on this--did it not detract Raffia mats were woven and used, pictures were cut and from the regular routine work?”

drawn of the people, a'rice field was planted and flooded, etc. In this case it surely did pay. The children's regular work

The corrugated straw-board (that used in packing bottles not only did not suffer, but improved, for well did each child containing fluids) was used for houses, roofs, garden gates, know that unless his work and behavior were the very best be

bridges, etc. could not hope to do any of this fascinating work.

Then when the jars of fruit blossoms were placed in the These children have from the day they entered the First

background and tiny lanterns strung under these imitation Grade been allowed to make things with their hands, beginning

trees we had a Japanese garden in reality.
at first with the very simplest things, until now they have come
to a place where they can do something which to the outsider
seems worth while, but it must be remembered that without
the stepping stones they never could have accomplished what
they have.
The children were taught a most delightful Japanese song:

If I could but visit the sunrise land

That lies away over the sea,
Perhaps I could very well understand

ITTLE Yam-Yam lives in Japan. Do you know
Some things that seem strange to me.

where that is, children? Well, it is a group of islands

just across the sea from China and rises out of the blue
In the land of Japan o'er the seas

Pacific Ocean like a beautiful water-lily, each petal
Lives the wise little Japanese,

an island, and all held together in the center by a wise and
He waves a large fan as he gracefully can

powerful ruler, the Mikado. And reads backward his A B C's.

Yam-Yam loves his country, and well he may, for it is the

"land of flowers," beautiful, wonderful flowers, sparkling
They sit on the floor instead of a chair,
With both their feet under them curled.

fountains and little love birds that fly here and there gather-
They make not a bit of a noise anywhere,

ing the honey and kissing each flower tenderly before seeking That's the hardest thing in the world.


It is almost time for that great holiday, the “Feast day of
Together the children all love to recite

the flowers." There are many holidays in Japan; there is
And brothers and sisters will play

the “Feast of the dolls," most dear to the tender little doll With the dear little babies from morning till night, mothers; the "Feast of Flags," on which day a flag flies before And so they are happy all day.


the house in which a boy lives; and many, many other“ feast”

days; but it is the "Flower Day" that is longed for, worked Their houses are made of clean yellow straw,

for, and loved by every one.
And they leave their shoes outside the door,

No one in Japan is too poor to own a garden plot of some
For never a mark or a spot is the law
That keeps bright the beautiful floor.

sort, even though it is sometimes hardly large enough for more
Chorus than one plant; but oh! the care and love that one little plant

may receive, always with the fond hope that it will blossom This song they sang with the greatest enthusiasm and the atmosphere of the Grove School was for many days permeated

in time to carry to the “Carnival of Flowers.

If little Yam-Yam should ask you to go to this wonderful with the real spirit of that most interesting island empire.

“Feast” with him, you would like to go, wouldn't you? So, The lessons these little people learn in this fascinating way will form a permanent part of their general information. And

suppose we leave our own country behind us and go to this

wonderful home of the flowers. the name of Japan years hence will recall the hours lovingly

In Yam-Yam's home, there is one large room and this is spent with their teacher in the creation of this miniature tea

divided into a sort of kitchen and living-room by a large screen garden, for the things which we learn with joy are the things which abide.

on which are painted lovely flowers and gay birds. There are

no stairs, for the houses are seldom more than one story high. A list of books that were used in connection with these

There are no tables, chairs, or beds, for the Japanese sit, eat talks is added:

and sleep on the floor. When it is time for little Yam-Yam to "Our Little Japanese Cousin"-H. Lee M. Pike

have his dinner, his mother goes to a cabinet in the corner of “Big People and Little People of Other Lands" -- Edward the room and brings out a little tray on which she places his Shaw

dinner, and down he sits on the floor with his feet crossed


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with the velvet petals. The air is sweet with their fragrance. White flowers, red ones, pink ones, yellow ones - a wonderful rainbow of color.

At last silence falls. The judges have arrived and every heart beats high with hope, for the most perfect flower of each kind is given a prize. Little Yam-Yam's hand trembles in ours as he hears his name called and knows that the beautiful chrysanthemum he has cared for and loved so tenderly has received a prize.

Silently he leaves us, passes noislessly to the judge's seat, and bowing his head to the ground thanks the "most honorable men for noticing his most humble plant."

We must go now back to our home in America and leave you, little Yam-Yam, in your beau’iful land of many flowers

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Human Types

The Japanese and Chinese

under him, When night-time comes she goes to the same
cabinet and brings out a soft straw mat, a woolen quilt and

AY shone over all the land, and Room 2 was abloom a little hard pillow, and this is his bed on the floor. In the

with Chinese lilies. The bulbs had been purchased winter time, when the nights are cold, he takes a little stove

by the children and planted in shallow dishes with to bed with him and once he set himself and the house on

plenty of water and pebbles. They served as a fire, but this often happens in Japan and the people don't

beautiful lesson in Nature Study on the storage of food for the seem to mind it at all; the neighbors help them and in a few plant. They were also used for brush exercises, and some days they have a nice new home.

water colors truly Japanese in character were thus produced. Yam Yam's mother is very pretty. She has a small oval

From the front window corner of the room hung two charmface and glossy black hair, in which she places little fans or ing baskets constructed by the children from matting, strawpins. She wears a gaily colored kimono, fastened with a pale board mat-edges and raffia, and swung by their braided cords blue sash, tied like a huge butterfly in the back, and on her from a bamboo pole. These were filled with hepaticas. Tilo dainty feet she wears sandals in summer and clogs in winter. matting is a product of Japan, being made from the shavings Her little son loves her dearly. As soon as he is dressed in

of fir trees and work done with it, even in primary grades

, is the morning he runs to her, touches his forehead to the ground peculiarly effective. A dark corner of the room had been at her feet and wishes his“Most

honorable and gracious parent brightened by a row of lanterns made by the pupils as seat a happy day.” He minds her because he never heard of doing work, and every boy and girl boasted a kite made by his or her otherwise, for he has been taught love, respect and obedience

own hands. from his babyhood.

The sand-table represented the home and school life of the There is no country in the world where the children are so Orient. The lower half of the school-house was made of bamhappy as in Japan. Their parents love them dearly, they boo and the upper half paper. A matting was laid on the floor sacrifice time and money, and even endure poverty, that their

and some of the little girls brought squares of padded silk “far boys and girls may have learning. They invent wonderful the children to rest their knees upon while studying." There toys for them; they dearly love to play games with them and were two other buildings one, taken from a blackboard 1a father is never too busy to help fly the new kite, nor a mother lustration in the November, 1911, PRIMARY EDUCATION, the to cut patterns for the new doll's dress, and the children give children fondly called their "Tea House." The tree that in return for such love unquestioning obedience.

flourished by its side was covered with cherry blossoms and The Japanese children believe that every unkind or untrue the Cherry Festival was dwelt upon at the time of its construcword is a little seed that turns into a dark and ugly weed and

tion. Several dead branches were covered with blossoms that to keep their houses and gardens sweet they must drop

made by tearing six thicknesses of pink paper with one tearing only seeds of kindness and love wherever they go. Is it strange, The petals were then joined together on the branch with a then, that Japan is called the “Flower of the Ocean ?drop of teacher's sealing wax, though paste might have been

Yam-Yam has a little sister that is to be what we would call used and the flowers arranged according to the pupils' sense christened to-morrow. He can't tell us what her name is yet, of the artistic. In the water were placed the Japanese water for the priest must first throw three pieces of paper with a flowers, so easily procured at any curio shop. The other name on each into the air and the one that falls to the ground building was made of matting and before it was a string of first is to be her name. The little brother told me that the paper fish which proclaimed the Feast of the Flags, and as the paper with his name on it touched the floor twice and so he breezes occasionally sent them gaily floating, a small boy whose was named “Yam-Yam!”

fish were making these strange movements, would be heard to But we must hurry to the “Festival” or we shall be late, and remark that "he would go through life easily.” Of course that at any time is a disgrace in Japan. What strange houses many dolls in Japanese attire were brought by the children

, we see! Almost like bird houses they seem. In front of each and the teacher was fortunate in having many fine Japanese there is a white board nailed on a post and on this is written prints and other articles purchased on a trip to Chinatowa. the street and number of the house, the name of the family and The burlap bulletin board above the table was covered with the names and ages of the children. Such beautiful gardens, pictures dealing with the life of the Orientals. sweet with cherry blossoms and nodding with glorious poppies The pupils became so imbued with the study that the teacher and tall hollyhocks, and everywhere song birds! Along the had some difficulty in suppressing a low, hissing sound, pre roadside, under the purple wistaria trees, we see tea-tables sumably a mark of respect and awe at her appearance waiting for the hot and tired traveller and everywhere are Chinese and Japanese games were played at recess, a laner groups of pretty dark-eyed girls with their tiny brothers or ite being the Water Sprite. In this game, one child ocupied sisters strapped on their backs, for no one stays at home in a central position while the others took places on each sided Japan to "mind the baby”; no, indeed, for at the age of one the pretended stream. They crossed and recrossed three times month he starts out on his little pilgrimage in the great world. singing: And now we have come to the market-place, to the real

Years glide along and the third one is here; Carnival of the Flowers." Flowers, flowers everywhere!

Whom will the water sprite take this year? With baskets full, hands full and skirts full the children dart here, there and everywhere covering the ground and each other and the sprite endeavored to catch any who attempted to create

They then assumed their former positions upon the banks

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