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Put a model letter on the blackboard as follows:
Writing Letters


Jan. 1, 1912

DEAR HENRY, NTRODUCE the subject of letter-writing by a short

We are having a vacation. It has been very cold here. The ponds talk about the post-office.

are all frozen. We have been skating every day. I wish you could How many have ever been to the post-office?

come and visit me. We could skate, play games, and make candy.

Come soon if you can. Where is it? Describe it.

Your cousin, What did you go to the office for?

DICK FOSTER (Perhaps to post letters, perhaps to call for mail.) Who has charge of the post-office?

Study with the class, the parts, their significance, and ar(The postmaster.)

rangement. Children should copy the letter under the direcÎn the villages and towns people go to the post-office to get tion and supervision of the teacher. Give special attention their mail. In cities, how do people get their mail ?

to the arrangement of the parts, punctuation, and capitaliza(The letter-carriers or postmen take them to the houses.) tion. Question about the parts of the letter. How are letters carried from one town or city to another?

Where was the letter written? (On trains.)

When was it written? In what are they taken from the office to the train and from

What is the name of the part that tells these facts? the train to the office ?

Where on the paper is this written? (In mail-bags.)

To whom was the letter written? When they reach the office what is done with them?

What part tells this? (They are sorted and delivered.)

Read the greeting. What do we have to put on a letter before it can be sent?

Where is it written? (A stamp.)

What mark of punctuation follows it? What do we have to pay for the stamp?

What message does the letter contain ? Where does this money go?

What is this part called ? Who pays the postmaster, the letter-carriers, and the clerks

What relation is Dick Foster to Henry? (Cousin." who work in the post-office ?

What tells this? (The ending.) Why do we write letters ?

Read the name of the boy who wrote the letter. (To send messages.)

What name is given to this part of the letter? How were letters carried before there were any trains?

When the letter has been copied again by the class, the (By stage-coach.)

spelling and punctuation studied more carefully, give the How often did people write or receive letters in those days ? letter as a dictation exercise. Compare with the conditions now.

For the next step lead the class to write a composite letter What other ways of sending messages have we?

to some person, heading it from the school. Perhaps they (Telephone, telegraph, cable, wireless telegraphy.)

will choose to write to some absent member of the class. When we wish to send a long message, what do we do? As the parts are given, the teacher writes the letter on the (Write a letter.)

blackboard. The pupils tell the position of each part, spell Now teach the form and parts of a letter.

all the words giving the capitalization and punctuation, A letter carries a message. It must tell where and when it

Here is a sample of this kind of class exercise. The chilwas written, also to whom and by whom it was written.

dren decided to write to a boy who had been absent a long The first part of the letter tells where and when the letter time on account of illness. Each sentence was given by a was written. This part is called the heading. The heading different pupil. is written in the upper right corner of the sheet of paper, with

PRACTICE SCHOOL, a margin all around it. If you are writing a letter from your

SALEM, Mass., school the heading should look like this:

Jan. II, 1912
Blank School,

We are sorry that you have been absent so long. The school vard

is covered with ice. It is fine skating. We wish that you were here. Salem, Mass.,

It is too bad that you have missed the skating and coasting. We hope Jan. 10, 1912 that you will be back to school soon.

Your friends, The next part of the letter tells to whom the letter is written.

THE THIRD GRADE CHILDREN This is called the greeting.

If you are writing to your mother the greeting should be:
My dear Mother,

This was copied and studied by the class and then given This should be written below the heading at the left of the

as a dictation exercise.

Drill on writing different headings should be given. It may

be both oral and written. Write on the board such sentences The next part of the letter contains the message. This

as the following: part is called the body of the letter. After the body of the letter comes the ending. This con

John lives at 12 Fairmount St., Salem, Mass. sists of some polite or friendly phrase. In writing to your

Paul lives in Beverly, at 16 Ocean St.

What will be the heading of a letter written from each of mother or father the ending would be: Your loving daughter,

these boy's homes?

Give much drill of this kind. Ask each child to learn to

spell correctly the name of the street on which he lives. Your loving son,

When the form of the letter is well-fixed, the children. The ending is to be written below the body of the letter in are ready to write original letters. They may write at the the middle of the line. In writing to friends the following teacher's suggestion, letters to parents inviting them to visit endings may be used:

the school; letters to playmates asking them to spend SaturYours sincerely,

day with the writer; letters to the teacher each telling his Yours very sincerely,

greatest wish; others telling what each would like to be when Yours with love,

grown up; and still others telling what each would like to be Yours cordially,

if he could be a flower, or a bird, or an animal. Let each For business letters:

imagine he is a boat, an automobile, or some other chosen

object and write a letter telling where he travels, what he Yours truly,

does, and some of the things he sees on his journeyings. Yours respectfully,

Following are some original letters by third grade children. The ending of the letter is followed by the signature. The

The They are exact copies in spelling, punctuation, and wording signature is the name of the person who wrote the letter. of the first drafts.




SALEM, Mass.,

March 24, 1911

SALEM, Mass.,

May 23, 1911
My greatest wish is a revolver that costs four dollers.

Your pupil,




I would like to be a fairy because I would have wings and I could fly around the country. I would have a fairy wand. I would do things to people. I would be dressed in gold things and silver things. I would turn myself into a pig and a goat, and into a flower. If people were bad I would turn them into bad things or I would make them good.


Your puple,

SALEM, Mass.,

March 15, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES,

I would like to have a diamond ring with four diamonds in it for my birthday. A diamond ring is the best thing in the world.

Your loving pupil,



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March 24, 1911 DEAR MISS JAMES,

I would like to be a fairy or a cat. I would like to be a cat because I could go out in the sunshine and stay behind the stove.

Your Pupil,


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March 24, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES,

I would like to be a owl because owls sleep all day and at night they are hooting in the moonlight. Owls are wise.

Your pupil,


SALEM, Mass.,

May 23, 1910 DEAR Miss JAMES,

My greatest wish is that I want a little runabout ottumoobeel that I can run myself and I want it to have one of the best musheens there is and have a covering over it.


SALEM, Mass.,

May 23, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES,

I would like a wishing coat and then I could wish anything I wanted. But if I had more than one wish I would wish for a watch and pony and cart.

Your loving friend,




March 26, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES

When I grow up I'm going to be a lawyer. I'm going to be a lawyer because there are good pay in it. I'm going to be one like Abraham Lincoln.

Yours Sincerely,



SALEM, Mass.,

May 23, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES,

My greatest wish is to be promoted and I want to be good and I want a bicicle.

Yours truly,



Jan. 12, 1912
I want to be married because there is nothing else to do.

Your pupil,


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SALEM, Mass.,

March 26, 1911



March 26, 1911 DEAR Miss JAMES,

I am going to be a soldier when I grow up. I will go through the marine. Then I will go to war and fite. Then I will come home if I am alive.

Your loving Soldier Boy,



I am going to be a mayor.

Sincerely yours,


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Primary Geography


If space permits, a line may be drawn on the floor from

north to south, and another from east to west, but that is not CHRISTIANA MOUNT

always possible, as many rooms are very much crowded. (Book rights reserved)

Send the pupils to the north, south, east and west sides of the F pupils are to comprehend and enjoy geography, they

rooms. Each may say, “This is the north side of the room, must have a thorough knowledge of the four cardinal

or “I am standing at the east side of the room.” Or another points, and must be able to apply this knowledge.

may say, “Mary is standing at the north side of the room, It is surprising to note the number of children and

etc. adults who have only a very vague idea of the side of the

Pupils must learn the following: When my right hand is. street on whch they live, the direction in which their houses

pointing to the east and my left hand to the west, the north

will be in front of me and the south will be in back of me. face, or which way to turn if they are directed to the east, west, etc. Tell your friend to meet you on the north side of

(In every case the actions must accompany the repetition of the building and the chances are she will wait patiently on

the statement.)

ORAL DRILL the east side. It is impossible for the pupils of the third grade to take up

Which is the north side of the room? The east side ? the lesson on the city unless they are familar with the chief The south side? Who sits north of you? West of you? points of the compass. Usually the work on direction is In what direction do the pupils face? On which side of taken up in the second grade and reviewed in the third before the room is the door? The teacher's desk? Which sides 'beginning the city lesson. As there may be some who do not

have no windows? Which sides have no doors ? know how to go about it, the regular second grade lesson is What street or road is north of the school? Which one is given below.

west ? East? South? REVIEW

Repeat the drill in the school yard and if possible in the

street. Point to the right side of the room. Who sits at your right? in the room will become confused as soon as they are ques

It will be found that pupils who are letter perfect Show me your left hand. Your right hand. Walk to the

tioned out-of-doors. right side of the room. Who sits at your left? Show me your right ear.

The lessons may be made more interesting by introducing Your

the North Star; the compass. right eye. Your left ear. Name some of the things on the right side of the room. On the left side.

THE NORTH STAR On which side of the room is the door? The blackboard?

Questions similar to these will suggest themselves. The Draw the Dipper. How many have ever noticed a group work must be rapid or the interest will be lost.

of stars looking like this? If you draw a line through the two

bright stars farthest from the handle it will point to another EAST

star not quite so bright. This star is called the North Star

and is always in the north. If you find it, how will it help Send a pupil to the teacher's desk to find the right and left

you to find the other directions? Of what use is it to sailors? sides. Change her position. Tell her to point to the right and left

THE COMPASS sides again. Class note the difference.

Place two children facing each other. Tell them to go to Show a compass. Ask how many know what it is. Notice the right. Call attention to the fact that each moved in an the little needle. In what direction does it point? Turn the opposite direction.

compass. In what direction does it still point? Carry it Send a pupil to the board. Ask him to point to the rignt. to another part of the room. Notice the needle. Infer that Change his position. Tell him to point to the right again. it always points in one direction. What is the name of that Notice the difference. Give many illustrations and lead direction? How will the compass help you to find the other pupils to conclude that right and left depend upon the position directions? You may name and point to each one. They in which they stand, and that there must be certain fixed are called the cardinal points. Cardinal means chief points. terms in order to determine the location of places.

Children are always interested in the fact that the Chinese Speak of the early morning in winter -- the darkness. The were the inventors of the compass, although they did not perreason for the darkness. After a while it becomes light. fect it. This affords an opportunity for the teacher to impress Why? How many have ever seen the sun rise? How many upon the children that other countries besides their own have can point to the place? If they cannot the teacher must contributed to the world. There is a tendency among a show them. Give the name East if they are unable to do great many children to decry people of other nationalities, SO. Drill on it.

and it is for the teacher to let down the bars of prejudice in Pupils point to the east, saying, “We are pointing to the order to give the pupils a wider point of view. east” or “I am pointing to the east.”

The semi-cardinal points may be developed in connection Walk to the east saying, "I am walking towards the east.” with this lesson. Ask the pupils to point to the north and

They may also name some of the things on the east side of east. Tell them northeast lies between these two. Do not the room, the pupils sitting on the east side or face the east. teach that it lies just half way between the two points as the

Continue the drill until the majority of the pupils are pupils are apt to form a wrong conception. reasonably certain of the term, and can readily find the east Teach the other points in the same way. Drill by asking not only in the school-room, but the school yard and the the pupils to find the north with the compass. The southstreet.

west, the east, etc. WEST

Place a child in the middle of the room. Tell another West is usually developed in the same way as the east.

to look at the compass and stand north of him.

Place two children in definite positions and ask another to determine NORTH

their positions as regards to each other, after examining the

compass. Point to the east. To the west. Point to the east with

Determine the position of the playground as regards to your right hand and the west with your left. The north is

school, the post-office and other buildings. in front of you. You may point to the north. Point to the

On pad backs draw the lines and place the cardinal points east. What is the direction opposite the east? It is a good in their proper places. For the next lesson put in the semiplan for the teacher to point in an opposite direction, that is,

cardinal points. when she requires the pupils to point east she must point west,

REVIEW QUESTIONS or vice versa. This will make the pupils depend upon them

e selves. If the north is in front of you what is in back of you? If you were asked by a stranger to tell the way to (There

do? you

What is another name for way? be some children who are familiar with the terms library, what would north and sou.h, but in the majority of cases they will have The way to a place is direction. to be told.)

Name the chief points of the compass. The semi-cardinal


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points. How can you find the north at night? On a pleasant Place a chair at the southwest side of the room. day? On a rainy day? In what direction do the birds fly John may stand northeast of Mary. in the fall? Why? Where does the sun seem to rise ? Point In which direction does your house face? In which direcand make a complete statement. If you stand with your tion do you walk when you come to school? On which side back to the sun in the morning, in what direction does your of the street is your house? In what direction do you walk shadow fall? Where does the sun seem to set ? Walk as you return from school?

On which side of the school does towards the west and tell me where you are going. Make the sun shine in the morning? What must we know about a complete statement. If you stand with your back to the a place besides direction ? Elicit the fact that we must know sun when it is setting, in what direction will your shadow the distance. By distance we mean how far it is. What fall? What do we call 12 o'clock in the daytime? Where measure do we use for cloth? If you are going to take a long is the sun at noon? What can you say about your shadow walk or run a race, what measure do you use? About twenty then? (These questions may be asked and answered on a blocks make a mile. How long would it take you to walk clear sunny day at recess.)

that distance ? Time as a measure is more easily comprePlace your pencils on your papers so that the points are hended than space. In fact it is commonly used in many toward the north, the east, the west, etc.

sections of the country.

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Two Number Games tions, thus repeating each problem, since the child has already

given it once when playing: ALMA M. HUDSON

6 + 2 = 8

9 + 6 = 15 O much repetition is needed to fix combinations in the

4 + 3

7 + 2 = -7

9 minds of children that any device which will do this, especially if it be in the nature of play, seems a great

If desired, further drill may be secured by visualizing each help. These two number games are great favorites in my second grade room, and perhaps other children may enjoy

problem as erased from the board. them too.

On a strawboard rectangle 1' x ' paste 2 inch squares of

Move on any two adjoining red squares. Add.

Move on any three adjoining red squares. alternate black and red. Let the children draw, cut and paint these for seat work. This forms the checker-board. In the

Move on any two adjoining red squares. Subtract. center of each colored square, paste or print figures according

Move from bottom to top of the checker-boardon red squares


Add. to the above diagram.

Move from right to left. Add. Each child is given a counter to play with and the game Move from corner to corner.

Add. may be played in several ways. Individual scores may be Give black squares a value, as 1, or 10, and play on alterkept on the blackboard, or sides may be chosen and the side nate red and black squares. Add. having the greatest number of correct combinations wins.

Give black squares a value, as 2. Multiply. Or answers to the different problems may be added for each side, and the side scoring highest wins. As each child plays Seat Work and gives his combination it is recorded (without the answer) on the side for which he plays, as:

Let children make a duplicate of the above checker-board using one inch squares on paper 6" x 9" and play at seats

recording combinations on paper.
North Side
South Side

is not the only color scheme possible, green and black being 6 + 2 =

just as good. The Bradley kindergarten squares make a very 4 + 3

7 + 2 = At the close of the game answers to the combinations are

from black tailor paper, though the latter is more trying to exact board. Black squares may be either painted or cut

the eyesight. All the numbers needed for one board will be called for again and written on the board to finish the equa- found on one month's leaf from a small calendar pad which

Of course red and black

9 + 6 =


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