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Devices Used in the First Grade “How many books did you lend us?” I answered, “Twenty

one.” “Well,” she said, “I have twenty-two. One day'a BESSIE F. DODGE

lady brought a book, saying it was found on a wood-pile. i

supposed one of my class had left it there.” HE season is here for snow, rain, sleet and thaw, and We examined the books and found there were two numbered we hope all children are supplied with rubbers.

3 the titles and numbers both being in my hand-writing. Now the question is, What shall we do with these At first I couldn't understand it. Then it came to me. À during school hours?

member of the class of two years before had lost his book. Some will say, “If the children keep them on they make As it was not found at the close of the year, he had paid for it. less noise whether walking, standing, or sitting; there are no Recalling his seat and number the mystery was solved. When rubbers kicking about the floor, and no time wasted removing, the lost book had been paid for, another was numbered 3. remating, and replacing them."

Unless the first grade books are very carefully graded, try But aren't the child's health and comfort to be considered? reading the first half of several primers before attempting the How many teachers keep on rubbers during a school session? last half of any. In some series, the first part of the first We all know how hard it is to accomplish much with extremely reader is easier than the last part of the primer. We used to restless children. So, for this reason as well as for others, hear over and over in our normal days: “Proceed from the have rubbers removed in school.

known to the unknown - from the easy to the difficult.” If you have rubber boxes, or can get there, this is the best If we give considerable thought to the order, as we


many arrangement. If not, try this device for them.

books to use, many hard places may be smoothed. At a convenient place on the floor make chalk lines from the We find bookmarks (protruding at the top of the book) a wall toward the center, about ten inches long and eight inches great help for marking the page for the beginning of the readapart. Each apartment is numbered, on the wall, that each ing lesson. Much wear and tear of the books and valuable child may readily find his own. One child said, “They look time are saved. The children cut the bookmarks, using like horse stalls.” “Oh, no,” said another, “they are rubber pictures from magazines, circles, oblongs, and so forth, of stalls."

colored paper, tracing around a pattern. If the crayon is soaked a few hours, or over night, in diluted One little beginner once said, “My teacher is not stingy of mucilage (using equal parts of mucilage and water) it will paper." Let them be able to say the same of bookmarks, for not easily rub off.

they will look very shabby in a short time, but the children I use the floor space under the windows on which are wide will keep the supply good if allowed to. They will be more shelves for plants, as there is no convenient place in the hall. careful about the cutting if making something for a definite This is a neat, orderly arrangement which we have found very satisfactory.

My children enjoy so much collecting and passing material I divide my school into two classes according to ability, and doing helpful work about the room that I try to let each putting the brighter, more mature children and those who are

one do his share. the best workers together in one class, and the slower children, Sometimes I appoint each night several helpers for the next who have to be taught the same thing over and over, into the day, choosing those who have been especially good and who other. This class is always smaller. With a very large have tried very hard. Effort counts even if the results have school of course it is necessary to have three or more divisions, not been all that could be desired. At another time they and changes from one class to the other are frequently made. take turns, one child from each class being the helper for a

The children who sit in the south part of the room I call half day. the Sunshine class. The other is the Star class, so named But my old “stand-by" is to select helpers from the front from the fact that our music supervisor puts a colored star seats on Monday, second seats on Tuesday, and so on during on the board when all do their best for him and I plan to have the week, so all are sure of a chance. a board on the north side used for this. I prefer these names When collecting material, one child is appointed for each to A and B, first and second, for several reasons.

two rows. Teach the children just where and how you

wish On the right end of each desk I place a number beginning everything placed. To do this takes time at first, but more with i at the front left corner of the room. The desk behind time is saved later on. is back desk, 5; the first desk in the second row is 6, back Those in the first, third and fifth rows may place papers desk, 10; third row, 11 to 15, etc. It seems best in my school (name at top) on the upper left corner of desk. Those in the to duplicate these numbers on the other side of the room second, fourth and sixth rows place them on the upper right for the other class.

corner of desk. This will avoid reaching. Our reading books, which are in sets of from twenty to The collector begins at the back. Using both hands he twenty-five, are numbered with colored crayon both inside lifts a paper, taking hold of the two sides, and places it on the and outside on the paper cover.

Each child has the book

paper across the aisle. These two he places on the third: of the same number as his desk.

the three papers on the fourth, and so on. If both divisions are using the same set of readers at the When collected in this way, the papers will be in an orderly same time, the books must be collected and passed several pile for correcting, right side up with care, and any

child's times a day, but by planning to avoid this, each child has his easily located. own book to keep at his desk until it is finished or a certain Let each child have his own box of colored crayons to use portion of it completed.

through the


If a careless child breaks a crayon, he has When there are cases of contagious disease, such as scarlet to use the pieces, so may be more careful in the future. A fever, it is necessary to destroy only the infected books careful child is repaid by having crayons in good condition. and not the whole set, as would have to be done if the books Of course accidents sometimes happen, but crayons are were not numbered and were collected after each recitation, usually broken through carelessness. for there would be no knowing which book any child had. The child's number is placed on the cover of the box. Should

Even first grade children can be taught to study and will he change his seat during the year, he keeps his box and use their readers to advantage when seat work is completed, crayons — simply changing the covers, taking the one of the if they are in their desks.

same number as his new desk. Sometimes books will be exchanged. Perhaps a boy who The boxes for the different rows are held together by rubber left his at home will unconsciously pick up another's. Then bands. the trouble begins. We shall hear, “I took my book home, Does all this sound like extra work? It really is not and we but I brought it back. I put it down while I took off my seldom hear, “My red crayon is broken,” “My orange crayon coat and now it is gone.”

is too short,” or, “I haven't any green.”

Children do not All books may be placed on the desks and probably the usually make complaints about themselves, and if there is any offender will discover that he has not his own. And for that trouble they know whose fault it is. There are sanitary one he is held responsible.

advantages and the responsibility of having the sole care of A short time ago, some of our books were reviewed in the

i definite part of school property is good for children. next room. When they were returned, the teacher asked A line on each desk against which to place the paper of


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writing book is a great help in getting the correct slant in all depends on the width of paper usually used. I use chalk written work.

which has been soaked in mucilage. I have a piece of cardboard of the same width as the desk. Perhaps permission might be obtained to make a pin The left side is vertical and the right slanted at the proper scratch, which would be permanent, but most of the children angle. I place this on the desk at the left, corners even, and take pride in keeping the chalk line as clear as possible and it mark by the right side.

takes only a few minutes to replace it when needed, which is The distance of this line from the left side of the desk

not very often.

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Knights and Castles on the

för a ceiling on which to erect the second floor. The cylinders

gave a colonnade effect and open court. Triangular prisms Sand-Table

finished off the roof, while larger cylinders and cones presented

an imposing effect at the entrance. Circular plinths were ETTA MERRICK GRAVES

inserted in the wet sand for steps up the hill to the door and HE children's patriotism is stirred by tales of soldiers' knights in black and white pranced up the driveway and bravery and of their sacrifices for their country. Yet

around the embankment. Around the base of the hill was a we cannot hold up the soldier as an ideal type of

deep “mont" dug to the level of the zinc table for water level, manhood for the child to emulate, as the soldier is to “protect the castle.” Over this was a "drawbridge” too near our time and his faults are often glaring. We,

(wooden box cover) with a "tower" at each corner consisting
therefore, need the perspective of years which effaces the of a square prism with a triangular prism on top. Large
faults and leaves only the gallantry and chivalry as ideal vir- half cylinders bordered the driveway. This approach was
tues of manhood. This we find in the far-off Mediaeval certainly worthy of the knights' castle.
knights, serving their king, defending the poor and weak,
enduring hardship and riding erect in gorgeous apparel on

spirited horses.
The subject of the knights and their search for a good child

Of course the king's palace must be even more imposing. is found in Froebel's Mother Plays, translated by Susan

A large sized set of models was therefore brought from secluBlow. We spoke of the hard steps through which a boy had sion and made to do service that would have shocked the to pass in order to learn to become a knight. This was em

old-time drawing for which they were originally intended. bodied in Mrs. Harrison's story ("In Storyland”) of "How

This palace was built of larger plinths for foundation on which Cedric Became a Knight." He loved to see the knights ride he agonal prisms were placed for walls, finished with plinths, down the hill from their castle and was delighted when his cylinders and hemispheres for turrets.' Pillars in front were acts of kindness and chivalry evoked comment from these

built of square prisms and pyramids. Although the palace knights — that he was “brave, kind or courteous enough to

was built on level ground, the larger material gave it greater be a knight, some day.” At last he went to the castle to learn

size and height. The unstable nature of the blocks instilled the steps to knighthood, and was finally sent to the king's followed a careless jarring of the table,

caution as the children played with it, especially as dismay palace to be "dubbed a knight.” This was the basis of our sand-table work. It alsɔ shows the possibility of working represented by red cedar twigs, which being dark showed off

A stretch of woods through which Cedric passed was Posters of knights riding down a hill from a castle were first

well in contrast to the light blocks.
made and extra hektographed units saved for the sand-table.


Patterns of mounted knights were hektographed on black
The sand was scooped out from the lower end of the table and white cutting paper 5 x 5. The black is coated on only
and piled up to form a hill on which to erect a castle for the one side ready for hektographing. Splints were glued on
. This consisted of an old stock of one-inch cubes

, the back of the units the entire length to keep them from Wooden box covers were used curling. The king was cut from the King Arthur flour

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out a story

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plinths, prisms, cylinders, etc.


trade-mark and stood beside his palace to welcome the companies.

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SOLDIERS Following the subject of the knights came the celebrations of Lincoln and Washington, therefore soldiers were needed. Cavalrymen were hektographed on gray and infantry on white. The latter were colored blue. Toothpicks were glued to the backs to help them form in orderly ranks as they marched toward their post of duty. For patterns of soldiers and knights, see "A Year of Primary Occupation Work,” Term II.

Neither the names of Washington nor Lincoln were referred to in connection with the soldiers on the sand-table, as knights and king were not of their period. The soldiers were merely "soldiers,” neither American nor English being applied to them. A child's idea of time is limited and a hundred or five hundred years makes very little difference in his mind. It is the spirit only, which one aims to instill by such representations of chivalry and duty.

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LINCOLN AND WASHINGTON Special exercises for Lincoln and Washington were the culmination of our patriotic celebrations. The room was decorated with flags brought by the children, and a large chalk flag was made by the teacher on the board. Tiny white paper stars were given to each child to be brought in turn and pasted on the blue field. The right number of stars were counted as placed.

The February blackboard border consisted of white silhouettes of flags hektographed and cut. These were crossed

ind pasted on a blue chalk "sky."

The blackboard calendar was ornamented with a shield in colored chalk, in the center of which was pasted in turn a picture of Lincoln, then of Washington.

As the children played soldier" the virtues of soldierly bearing, order, promptness and obedience were instilled and its effect has been a lasting one.

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Are ye the ghosts of fallen leaves,

O flakes of snow, For which, through naked limbs, the winds

A-mourning go?

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Or are ye angels, bearing home

The host unseen
Of truant spirits to be clad
Again in green?

- John B. Tabb

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5 Pinch up the ears.

See a in illustration No. 1.

6 Pinch out and twist a little of the thigh material for a tail, but do not make the tail the full length at this time, else it will break in the handling

7 Round up and smooth the back.

8 (See illustration No. 2 a.) Smooth and round the hollow between the thighs. (Have a real mouse to model by, if possible.)

Draw a line with a toothpick or pointed stick around the top and sides of the thigh-bone region.

Mousie has big, strong thighs compared with his size, so that he may leap away into the dark.

9 Smooth and round the thigặs and the lines by stroking with the finger, think always of the work the thigh must do; of its muscles; its bone. Draw down some of the material to indicate hind legs.

10 Round and smooth the shoulders, drawing down some of the material to indicate the


fore legs.


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II Hollow out the ears; make little openings in the ears

Seat Work that is a Joy to let the sound in to mousie's brain. 12 Make hollows for eyes.

ALICE P. ROBINSON 13 Lengthen the tail; put a real live twist in it.

HERE is no better occupation for seat work than

drawing, and frequently the very best results in exTHE TOAD

pression are obtained when pupils are left alone to 1 Mold the ovoid. See b in illustration No. 1.

tell a story in their own way, unaided. 2 (Toad rests on his haunches.) Make the base of sup Last year a teacher of a first grade stressed that form of port as in b, illustration No. 1.

seat work with surprising results, as the illustrations here 3 In this way you will find the centre of gravity, the point plainly show. The children had been drawing objects, en of support, and learn how to balance the parts so that toad masse, for some time before they were left alone to work out will not "tip over” when you set him down.

problems and to tell stories. During the regular drawing 4 Model the head by rounding the top and pointing the period they had learned to express their thoughts and to make end of your figure. Make toad's eyes bulge so he can see a picture with as few lines and objects as possible. in all directions without turning his head. Make his mouth While one section was reciting, paper and crayons were broad to catch insects. Make his throat round out so he can quietly distributed by two or three pupils to the other sections, fill it with air and make it swell out like a bagpipe when he the teacher having given instructions for the work by simply is in the mood for music.

designating the story to illustrate. Soon busy fingers were

working away to finish the drawing before the recitation was completed.

The simplest stories, such as “Jack Be Nimble,” two boys running a race or something of the kind, were used, in which few objects or figures were required in the drawing. There was a tendency at first to use more than one sheet of paper; some children would begin to draw and spoil that side, turn on the other and do the same thing, then ask for a fresh sheet. That fault was overcome in the very beginning by allowing each child only one sheet, with the privilege of using the other side if the first one was spoiled. It was not long before all the children prided themselves on being able to use just one side for a story.

It was found that the best results were obtained through the reproduction stories already developed, the poems that had been learned, and favorite games, with soft black crayons as

the medium of expression. 5 Round up that big, strong, curiously folded thigh of his, In the very beginning the teacher suggested that each child so that he may leap a good wide leap after the insects in your illustrate the story in his own way, so each one would be garden. (See b in illustration No. 2.)

different, to prevent copying, as some children are inclined to 6 Model the sleeping kitty in the same way. (See illustra do. The papers were collected by the children and placed tion No. 3.)

on the teacher's desk, and at recess, or after the day's work, THE CHICKEN

three or four, sometimes more, of the best drawings were

selected and pinned on an oblong piece of dark green burlap, 1 Mold the egg shape.

tacked on the wall, to encourage and to stimulate the success2. From the smaller more pointed part of this mold chick's ful ones as well as those less successful. It required only a head.

short time to do this. 3 Indicate legs at centre.

The illustrations were selected one day after the "ildren 4 Find the centre of gravity by setting chick up: if he falls had finished the story of “Chicken Little.” One little girl, forward, you have too much material in the head and breast who drew a large hen with two chickens, had taken a bit parts; if backward, too much in the hind parts. See illustra of red crayon from her desk of her own accord and colored

their combs red to make them more realistic. So good was 5 Carry chick a little farther by indicating wing, bill, breast, the work for a child of six years and told in such an unusual tail and by deepening the eye. See illustration, No. 5, a. way that the teacher asked her about it. She said the old

6 As chick grows older, the bulk of her form is still the egg mother hen and “Chicken Little," with her little sister, had shape, but her neck is longer, her tail grows larger and stands just started to the woods. During the conversation it was up. Her comb grows. See b in illustration No. 5.

discovered that the little girl had a hen with two little chickens

at home of which she was very fond, and it was plain that she had put them in her story.

In illustrating the poem, “The Swing,” a little boy made a picture that would have been a credit to any grammar grade pupil. It was so good that the drawing teacher sent it to one of the art journals. Yet that little fellow in the beginning thought he could not draw, and his efforts were exceedingly crude, until one day he chanced to cut a boy running that showed splendid action. The teacher commented on it as she placed it on the burlap. “I just thought I couldn't do it, but I can, can't I?” he said, he proudly surveyed his work occupying the place of honor.

After that his efforts were surprisingly good, on days when he felt well, but occasionally there were times when his "fingers just would not do right," as he aptly expressed it.


tion No. 4.



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