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the malignant spirit as was thought, and | Moreover this Robin Hood desired the King the stones of the pavement all about were and Queen with their retinue to enter the cast in the streets and into divers houses, green wood, where in arbours made with so that the people were sore agast at the boughs and decked with flowers, they were great tempests."

set and served plentifully with venison and wine by Robin Hood and his men to their

great contentment, and had other pageants Easter Tree.

and pastimes, as ye may read in my said “In the week before Easter, had ye great author. shows made, for the fetching in of a twisted " I find also that, in the month of May, tree or with, as they termed it, out of the the citizens of London, of all estates, lightly woods, into the king's house; and the like in every parish, or sometime two or three into every man's house of honour or wor- parishes joining together, had their several ship."

Mayings, and did fetch in May-poles, with divers warlike shews, with good archers,

morice dancers, and other devices for pasMay Day.'

time all the day long; and towards the “ In the month of May, namely on May- evening they had stage plays and bonefires day in the morning, every man, except im- in the streets."-Ibid. pediment, would walk into the sweet meadows and green woods, there to rejoice their spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet

Festival Bonfires. flowers, and with the noise of birds, prais

" In the months of June and July, on ing God in their kind.

the vigils of festival days, and on the same “ And for more notable example hereof Edw. Hall hath noted, that King Henry setting, there were usually made bonefires

festival days in the evenings after the sunVIII. as in the 3rd of his reign and divers

in the streets, every man bestowing wood other years, so namely in the 7th of his reign,

or labour towards them. The wealthier sort on May-day in the morning, with Queen also before their doors, near to the said Catharine his wife, accompanied with many

bonefires would set out tables on the vigils, lords and ladies, rode a maying from Greenwich to the high ground of Shooter's Hill; and on the festival days with meat and

furnished with sweet bread and good drink, where as they passed by the way they es

drink plentifully; whereunto they would pied a company of tall yeomen clothed all

invite their neighbours and passengers also in green, with green hoods, and with bows and arrows to the number of 200. One miliarity, praising God for his benefits be

to sit and be merry with them in great fabeing their chieftain was called Robin Hood, who required the King and all his company fires, as well of good amity amongst neigh

stowed on them, these were called boneto stay and see his men shoot, whereunto bours, that being before at controversie, the King granting, Robin Hood whistled and all the 200 archers shot off, loosing all

were there by the labour of others reconat once. And when he whistled again, they friends; as also for the virtue that a great

ciled, and made of bitter enemies loving likewise shot again. Their arrows whistled

fire hath, to purge the infection of the air." by craft of the head so that the noise was

-Ibid. strange and loud, which greatly delighted the King, Queen, and their company.

Vigil of St. John Baptist, -c. · See some striking remarks in ESPRIELLA'S Letters, Letter xiii. vol. i. p. 147, third edit.

“On the vigil of St. John Baptist, and J. W. W.

on Saint Peter and Paul the Apostles, every man's door being shadowed with green birch, of the city; their bows bent in their hand long fennel, St. John's wort, orpin, white with sheafs of arrows by their sides ; pike lillies, and such like, garnished upon with men in bright corslets, burganets, &c. Halbeautiful flowers, had also lamps of glass, bards, the like the billmen in almain rivets, with oil burning in them all the night. and aprons of mail in great number. Some hung out branches of iron curiously “ There were also divers pageants, morwrought, containing hundreds of lamps ris dancers, constables, the one half which lighted at once, which made a goodly shew." was 120 on St. Johns eve, the other half -Ibid.

on St. Peters eve, in bright harness, some over gilt and every one a jornettof scarlet thereupon and a chain of gold, his hench

man following him, his minstrels before him Midsummer Watch.

and his cresset light passing by him, the “Besides the standing watches, all in waits of the city, the maiors officers, for his bright harness, in every ward and street in guard before him, all in a livery of woosted this city and suburbs, there was also a march- or sea jackets party-coloured; the maior ing watch, that passed thro the principal himself well mounted on horseback, the streets thereof; to wit, from the little conduit sword bearer before him in fair armour, by Pauls gate, through West Cheap, by the well mounted also, the maiors footmen and Stocks, through Cornhill, by Leaden Hall to the like torch bearers about him ; hench Aldgate; then back down Fen Church street men twain upon great stirring horses foland by Grasse Church, about Grasse Church | lowing him. The sheriffs watches came conduit, and up Grasse Church street into one after the other in like order, but not Cornhill, and through into West Cheap so large in number as the maiors; for again, and so broke up. The whole way

where the maior had besides his giant, three ordered for this marching watch extended pageants, each of the sheriffs had besides to 3200 Taylor's Yards of a size, for the their giant but two pageants; each their furniture whereof with lights, there were

morris dance and one hench man, their appointed 700 cressets, 500 of them being officers in jackets of woosted, or sea partyfound by the companies, the other 200 by coloured differing from the maiors and each the chamber of London. Besides the which from other, but having harnessed men a lights, every constable in London, in num- great many, &c. ber more than 240 had his cresset; the “ This Midsummer watch was thus accharge of every cresset was in light 28. 4d. customed yearly, time out of mind, until and every cresset had two men, one to bear the year 1539, in which year on 8th May or hold it, another to bear a bag with light a great muster was made by the citizens at and to serve it. So that the poor men the Miles end, all in bright harness with pertaining to the cressets taking wages, be- coats of white silk or cloth and chains of sides that every one had a strawen hat with gold, in three great battles to the number a badge painted, and his breakfast, amount- of 15,000; which passed through London to ed in number to almost 2000. The march- Westminster, and so through the Sanctuary, men; part of them being old soldiers, of The reader will find many of these terms skill to be captains, lieutenants, serjeants, but he candidly confesses his ignorance of “ al

explained in Thom's edition of Stow's Survey; corporals, &c. Whifflers, drummers and fifes, main rivets.” It is easier to conjecture the standard and ensign bearers, demilaunces meaning than to supply authority for it.

J. W. W. on great horses, gunners with hand guns or

2 “De l'Italien giornata. Et ce mot Italien half hakes, archers in coats of white fustian, signifie proprement une veste militaire pour un signed on the breast and back with the arms jour de bataille.” Menage in v.-J. W. W.

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and round about the Park of St. James, | Lord Maior, and his brethren the Aldermen, and returned home through Oldborn. containing the manner and order of a march

King Henry then considering the great ing watch in the city upon the even accuscharges of the citizens for the furniture of tomed, in commendations whereof, namely, this unusual muster forbad the marching in times of peace to be used, he hath words watch provided for at Midsummer that to this effect. The artificers of sundry sorts year; which being once laid down, was not were thereby well set awork, none but rich raised again till the year 1548, the 2nd of men charged, poor men helped, old soldiers, Edward VI. Sir John Gresham then being trumpeters, drummers, fifes and ensign Maior, who caused the marching watch both bearers, with such like men, meet for the on the eve of St. John Baptist and of St. princes service, kept in ure, wherein the Peter the Apostle, to be revived and set safety and defence of every commonweal forth, in as comely order as it had been ac- consisteth. Armour and weapons being customed, which watch was also beautified yearly occupied in this wise, the citizens had by the number of more than 300 demilances of their own, readily prepared for any nced ; and light horse men, prepared by the citi- whereas by intermission hereof, armorers zens to be sent into Scotland, for the rescue are out of work, soldiers out of ure, weaof the town of Haddington.

pons overgrown with foulness, few or none “This watch affording a great cavalcade good being provided,” &c.—Ibid. and splendid show, brought abundance of all degrees together, and not a few of the lighter sort, such as rogues, pickpurses, quarrellers, whoremongers, and drunkards,

Bartholomew-tide Sports. which was found to have much inconve- “ In the month of August, about the feast nience. Therefore in the year 1569, Sir of St. Bartholomew the apostle, before the Thomas Row, Maior, with the universal con- Lord Maior, Aldermen and Sheriffs of Lonsent of the aldermen, agreed to lay it aside, don, placed in a large tent near unto Clerkfor that year at least, and in the room enwell, of old time were divers days spent thereof to have a substantial standing watch in the pastime of wrestling; where the offifor the safety and preservation of the city. cers of the city, namely, the sheriffs, serThe Maior himself also being at this time geants, and yeomen, the porters of the so weak that he could not go in his own King's beam or weigh house (now no such person, the Recorder acquainted the Queen men) and other of the city were challengers and council with this resolution. But it of all men in the suburbs to wrestle for was signified back that the Queen disliked games appointed, and on other days beit, and that it was her pleasure to have a fore the said Maior, Aldermen and Sheriffs going watch. Whereupon the Maior sent in Fensbury field to shoot the standard, the Recorder to Sir William Cecyll the sec- broad arrow and flight, for games. But now retary, earnestly desiring his interest with of late years the wrestling is only practhe Lords that this order might at least that tised on Bartholomew day in the afternoon; year take place, and from henceforth it and the shooting some three or four days began to be laid aside.

after in one afternoon and no more. What " The like marching watch in this city should I speak of the ancient daily exerhath not been used, though some attempts cises in the long bow by citizens of this city, have been made thereunto, as in 1583 a now almost cleanly left off and forsaken? I book was drawn by a grave citizen,' and by overpass it, for by the means of closing in him dedicated to Sir Thomas Pullison, then of common grounds, our archers for want of

room to shoot abroad, creep into bowling " Margin, John Mountgomery.

alleys, and ordinary dicing houses, near home, where they have room enough to hazard their money at unlawful games,


Easter Water-tilts. I leave them to take their pleasures.”—Ibid.

“ In Easter holydays, they fight battles This was one of the great uses of publick on the water ; a shield is hanged on a pole, houses in former time, namely, for game and fixed in the midst of the stream. A boat exercise, rather than for drinking excessive, is prepared without oars, to be carried by ly; but now of a long while the pleasure and violence of the water, and in the forepart pastime of these houses is chiefly fuddling thereof standeth a young man ready to give and devouring vast quantities of wine and charge upon the shield with his lance; if so ale, and stout, and brandy.

be he break his launce against the shield, and doth not fall, he is thought to have

performed a worthy deed; if so be without Shrore Tuesday.

breaking his launce he runneth strongly

against the shield, down he falleth into the “ EVERY year on Shrove Tuesday, the water, for the boat is violently forced with school boys do bring cocks of the game to the tide. But on each side of the shield their master, and all the forenoon they de- ride two boats, furnished with young men, light themselves in cock-fighting. After which recover him that falleth, as soon as dinner all the youths go into the fields to they may. Upon the bridge, wharfs and play at the ball

. The scholars of every houses, by the river side, stand great numschool have their ball or bastion in their bers to see and laugh thereat.”—Ibid. hands. The antient and wealthy men of the city come forth on horseback, to see the sport of the young men and to take part of the pleasure in beholding their agility.”—

Summer Holiday Evenings. FITZSTEPHEN in Stow.

“ In the holydays all the summer the youths are exercised in leaping, dancing,

shooting, wresting, casting the stone, and Lent Fridays.?

practising their shields. The maidens trip

with their timbrels, and dance as long as “ EVERY Friday in Lent, a fresh company they can well see. In winter, every holyof young men comes into the field on horse-day, before dinner, the boars prepared for back, and the best horsemen conduct the brawn are set to fight, or else bulls or rest. Then march forth the citizens sons, bears are baited.”—Ibid. and other young men with disarmed lances and shields, and there they practice feats of war. Many courtiers likewise when the King lyeth near, and attendants on noble- Whittington's Epitaph, St. Michaels, men do repair to these exercises, and while

Ventrie Ward. the hope of victory doth inflame their minds,

“Ut fragrans Nardus they shew good proof how serviceable they

famâ fuit iste Richardus, would be in martial affairs."—Ibid.

Albificans ? villam

qui juste rexerat illam. | The reader will find these extracts sub

Flos mercatorum joined to Stow's Survey.-J. W. W.

Fundator presbyterorum. ? So SOUTHEY has headed it from Stow; but in the original Latin of Stephanides, or Fitz.

Sic & egenorum, Stephen, it is “Singulis diebus dominicis in Quad

testis sit cetus eorum. ragesima."-J. W. W,

· Anglicè Whittington, i. e, whiting-town.


Omnibus exemplum,

the buck to baking, and had the head fixed barathrum vincendo morosum.

on a pole, born before the cross in their Condidit hoc templum

procession, until they issued out at the Michaelis, quam speciosum !

west door, where the keeper that brought Regia spes & pres :

it blowed the death of the buck, and then divinis res rata turbis.

the horners that were about the city prePauperibus Pater extiterat

sently answered him in like manner; for Major quater urbis,

the which pains they had each man, of the Martius hunc vicit,

dean and chapter, 4d. in money and their En! annos gens tibi dicit.

dinner. And the keeper that brought it, Finit ipse dies,

during his abode there, for that service, sis sibi Christe quies. Amen." meat, drink, and lodging, at the dean and

Stow. chapters charges, and 5d. in money at his

going away, together with a loaf of bread,

having the picture of St. Paul upon it. St. Paul's Buck.

“ There was belonging to the church of “ Sir William Baud, knight the 3rd of St. Paul, for both the days, two special Edward I., 1274, on Candlemas-day, grant- suits of vestments, the one imbroidered ed to Harvey de Borham, Dean of Pauls, with bucks, the other with does."— August and to the chapter there, that in considera- 16, 1798, Hereford. tion of 22 acres of ground or land, by them granted within their manor of Westley, in Essex, to be inclosed into his park at Curingham, he would for ever, upon the feast

Ostrich-eggs, how hatched. day of the Conversion of Paul, in winter, “ We read in an old Arabian manuscript give unto them a good doe, seasonable and that when the ostrich would hatch her eggs, sweet : and upon the feast of the Comme

she does not cover them as other fowls do, moration of St. Paul, in summer, a good but both the male and female contribute to buck, and offer the same at the high altar; hatch them by the efficacy of their looks the same to be spent among the canons re

only ;- and therefore when one has occasion sidents. The doe to be brought by one man, to go to look for food, it advertises its comat the hour of procession, and through the panion by its cry, and the other never stirs procession to the high altar; and the bringer during its absence, but remains with its eyes to have nothing. The buck to be brought fixed upon the eggs, till the return of its by all his meyney in like manner, and they mate, and then goes in its turn to look for to have paid unto them by the church 12 food. And this care of theirs is so necespence only, and no more to be required.

sary, that it cannot be suspended for a mo“ Now what I have heard by report and

for if it should, their eggs would imhave partly seen, it followeth : On the feast mediately become addle."—Harris's Colday of the Commemoration of St. Paul, the

lect. of Voy. P. VANSLEBE, Relat. d'Egypte, buck being brought up to the steps of the high altar in Pauls Church, at the hour of

This is said to emblem the perpetual atprocession, the dean and chapter apparelled tention of the Creator to the universe. in coaps and vestments, with garlands of roses on their heads, they sent the body of I The note book which furnishes these ex.

tracts has been kindly lent to me by Mrs. | This epitaph is not in the copy of Srow

Southey.-J. W. W. before me. These lines are evidently defective. ?“ Oh! even with such a look, as fables say, WEEVER, in his Funeral Monuments, calls it The mother ostrich fixes on her egg,” &c. “ crazed and imperfect," p. 407.–J. W. W.

Thalaba, book iii. p. 24.-J. W. W.


p. 103.

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