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brighten the darkest lot. It is not from such a people rebellion and outrage are to be feared : let the hand of love and gentleness be extended towards them, and there will be a sure return of trust and gratitude: it is only a continuation of wrong and oppression which can goad them to resistance.

Is it thus untrue that insecurity of life and property exists in Ireland ? Alas! no.

I have already asserted that it doesinsecurity is the rule, security the exception : not confined to this or that district, but overspreading the whole country. But it is not the insecurity of the capitalist or the landholder, but of the peasant, of the broken-down tiller of the soil. It is not the insecurity of a few proprietors, but of millions of the people, the great mass of those whose toil feeds a rapacious oligarchy. The farmer knows not from one season to another whether he will be allowed to till that ground which yields to him a miserable and precarious support ; nay, he knows not when he has ploughed the land, and put in the seed, and watched over it with patient longing, whether he shall dare to reap where he has sown: ay, he may reap too ; he may plough, and sow, and reap, and winnow, but he dare not eat the fruit. The old law said : “ Ye shall not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. But the new law saith to the human labourer: " Thou shalt not eat of the results of thy industry.” The curse at first was : “By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread ;” but the Irish peasant is doubly cursed, for, though the sweat drop from his brow like rain, bread he dare not eat; his corn and his cattle feed the blacksmith of Birmingham, and the weaver of Manchester,—(blessings on them both, they are fast growing into men !)—but the down-trodden peasant of Erin may roam over her green fields, and mark the young corn shoot up, and gather into ear and ripen, but it blooms not for him : by him stands the agent of his foreign landlord, to snatch from him the fruits which his toil has wrested from the worn out and overdone soil ; and if the result is not satisfactory, he turns him out to starve by the wayside, to make room for the more profitable more profitable, because more justly treated. Nay, he sends him not out alone ; his neighbour, who would have shared with him his last potato, is cast out too ; and as extermination is the object—as the beggars would be troublesome about the estate—whoever gives shelter to the desolate wanderers, even in a shealing on a barren



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moor, is visites with i!... ::!!!" I thin law, that most fearful engine of offre-androll toi!...D.....

7.-.1117: Security of lit. p.::: in ithery in Ireland; amongst the millions lire...t in 10 barel things. Do we require poroot ?- 16.vid.!!!!!!!...stl it the harrowing details; now it i- the occupants a ...cabin, 1.8 thuse of a villaye, who are rubeln. l of their all, Lil ::.!!! | Olt to riarre. Proof, - you see it in the squalid rags of :!....:::::.1. who flock to reap your own til? in the harvest ::.

is in the thousans who throng the quays of your maritime poin, to seek that Security in foreign lands, which is not ..:,: i tot,,!!! the soil which their fathers reclaimed from the 1.;.:.::. ilm ile barl'en moor, and of which, in many cases, they

wi- tl.clurds. Let lis (well a little longer on this proof of :, "mis

I mean emigration. There in 1!man on earth so ....1!.12. bis lune as the Irisliman, The Engi:-?.. :: or thes .' li'lelii-native place with comparti:

: with us :' 11.-::gule; the in-tinct of love all ("..!."; is stronger than : !...! 116!), the domestic attecti03a ali 11.6.... and Liis , 11 il... social feelings of friendl-hip, and rikti... ;, are !.«.psrrtul and binding ; hence, the clopotne of a body of Balita is one of the most harrowing .-2010 1!... eye can light 111. cson in this land of sufering : the Huililla lamentations - iles, the calai, subdued grief of others, the Britvir: ..!!. ::'..llt of !iers, put on to conceal their angl.-1. ..! cheer their os mille olie left behind, —but through which

...:'::. ill's Iluw often have I seen-trong 'll l. p... ..... 1...l' on the shoulders of their friends, impul ::.. 11 il, N... 11.1111 luni: ridler the bereavement of losing thi. 1..-1 11:!..!!!!!11.0Lt. ii families! I shall never forget one aged woman: lor'! ... then, irer straining cyes riveted upon their ini, and as it left her sight she raised one long de l'id'l !!!1!11:>!i, the clreadful music of a breaking heart. ILIR, F., S. Wisdort. Her “two fine boys" had gone to Amerika til hele liefüre, and her nicce and daughter, the la-t rentimine-out laor family, were departing, and she was left alone, with no rouge lolle the workhouse, or the charity of her neighbours. Thrun amigrants no country need be ashamed of; they are bwalthy, robust, intelligent, and industrious, careful even to parsimony, and what is of inore value, they are chaste, temperate, and virtuoll. Would -uch men

go away if there was security for life and property at home ? They are chiefly from the counties of Tipperary, Clare, Galway, and Limerick ; they leave the finest land in Ireland, some of the finest in the world, to till the deserts ; a climate where they can work the whole year, for one where they can work but six moni hs.

There is abundance of reclaimable land in Ireland in the same condition—so far as human industry is concerned—as it was left by the deluge. They carry with them, and spend in the expenses of transit, abundant capital for its redemption from waste, and they have willing hands and stalwart arms, but it neither can nor will be sold, and they dare not fix a spade in it: 3850 such emigrants left the port of Limerick this spring, as many more must have taken their departure from other ports; the whole number cannot fall short of 10,000 in the year, from Tipperary and the surrounding counties alone. What a drain is this


the industrious and virtuous inhabitants of a district containing a population of little more than 1,000,000! Suicidal landlords of Tipperary—of Ireland, ye are driving into banishment the men who would relieve you from debt and pauperism, and make the titles ye possess, not empty sounds as at present, the mockery of those amongst whom

ye flaunt them; men who would save you from the clutches of the bailiff and the money-lender. Ye are draining your lands, not of its superabundant moisture, but of its industrious and thrifty population, and retaining the idle, the imbecile, and the extravagant. I will not say, “ Go to, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you,”—for they have already overtaken ye. “ Your gold and your silver are cankered, and your garments, (the flimsy trappings of your former greatness) are worn and moth-eaten.” Ye are a scoff and a byword, the beggarly hangers on of aristocracy, watching for the shreds and droppings of pensions and sinecures, or grabbling amongst black·legs and horse jockeys, for the spoils of the silly sons of the English nobility.

Another striking proof of the insecurity of property amongst the poor in Ireland, may be drawn from the nature of the deposits in the savings banks. At present those banks hold about two and a half millions of unemployed capital—judging from the Cork banks, of which alone I know anything—and where 400,0001. are deposited. Much the largest portion of this belongs to small farmers. The average deposits are under 301.; the interest less than 3

Now it must be obvious to all, that a farmer NO, XIX,VOL. IV.

per cent.


in many

who- lanı 1.1.1

../"T10 make it fruitful, woulil not poli! I

ul...r he gets less thu 3 11 (!'. .

in his land, and make 10 or 2.!!!"

i he were

laining his own. There is no build ani

like: :1shilling and every ostri:



Sune of the scenes if one bank,

colo in condition of ociety, or highly ludicrous ; frequently .' "! .1!!.021, or une of the c!el. icalled out to some one on

...lir business ; a gaunt pinii is in waiting, who, after Merily through the (loor to that no one is

vi lii- hat, and whi-porn-!!!:, that he has a pound or two ..ochemie für bim. but add- w:l. energy,

· God bless your :...4 .!, l duu't tell anybody." He then produces the money :'..!!! ir riles: in his drapery : bout..!!... one appear it is a converted back to its place of coliemali... '. But the money :1. Birining banks forms but iz ?nall 10!!..... of the savings of ;. 1:1-11 puasintry: the greater number 17 not trust them even thirr, and prefer hiding their accum!..... :: some cranny in itir buses, the squalii comitiul on

Pied to avert suspicion. Yout how lub in miscrable

!..!!1 cained! One would think, fruit

and fears ... posters, they were the prodica vit!...' violence ; :.. :10;.. il : they are the gleanings of the moni !:)!

1.1.4.! there l'e-ults of hard, carnest, and mo-till The previous redd-oni !! :*:

Liluritello in Mr. Nichols' magic cirele.-Widt

and »..': ut comployment. Were there secowity to t... :

...! 1.101101001. in our savings bankin, and to gli

i liidus much more, which would ilo-iileille lo

"... I on or waste and half-tilled lands, giving up!! :..." our surplu- jopulation ; an employment they idi. 10,-!!! niliteit once', requiring neither training nor art- of pi'. To the other charge, of “want of industry;" thic ,c!!ili's iu larve-i-tields. the workshops and railways of Lnglalul, illed the pairies and backwoods of America give the mot plantio linal; although there is no doubt that the benumbing intluence of hopeless poverty, and the contentment produced by depair of advancement, have had their influence on the national character ;-and it would take, perhaps, a generation or two even of more wise and just government than we have ever yet been blessed with in Ireland,

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to produce that self-dependence and untiring perseverance for which the English people are remarkable.

There is but one true remedy for the evils of Ireland, and it is comprised in one word—JUSTICE ; justice to her toiling, ill-clad, ill-housed, ill-fed children. She might, with a fair claim to being heard, ask of England mercy, and a helping hand as well. From her she has received the deep wounds that yet rankle in her sides; but let her receive justice, free unstinted justice, and rapidly will the evils of her condition disappear, and plenty and prosperity visit her. This is vague: I will explain what I mean. It is security for life and property—the cant phrase of some of her doctors, but not as they mean it :-security, not for the lordling in his castle, he does not require it, but for the peasant in his cottage; not for the landowner, but from him ;-security to the poor man for the just results of his industry. There are robbers and murderers in Ireland who disturb its whole moral and physical constitution, and prevent its progress; but they are not clad iri rags or frieze, but in brocades and broad cloth, reclining in saloons, living in clubs and palaces, and received and acknowledged in the houses of the great not the puny midnight assassin doing his solitary murder, but wholesale slaughterers, who sweep away whole families by tens and hundreds at a time—not the caitiff wretch, driven by penury to snatch from the traveller his gold, and trembling for the consequences, but men of title, noblemen, as they are called, wresting from the trembling hand of penury the bread of life, from the toiling hand of industry its hard-earned profits, and doing the whole with legal sanction, according to act of parliament.

To do that justice, to effect that security, the whole system of landed tenure should be altered—it is at present most artificial and absurd. Improvements are proposed, and they show a disposition to grapple with the monster evil of Ireland, but they are but tinkerings. It is not enough that a simple form of lease should be appointed ; landholders should be obliged to give them, by decreeing that in all disputes about land, where there is not documentary evidence to the contrary, and in all doubtful cases, the occupier should be deemed to be the owner. This is the case with regard to all other property ; why is land an exception ? Thus would the granting of leases be enforced. These should be as simple as possible, and always at the expense of the landlord, as they would be for his protection, and not that of the tenant. The second improvement proposed is no doubt of value; yet is

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