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about £2 per head, approximating closely to the ratio for the United Kingdom. Yet England is burthened with the pay of the troops and ordnance. Disgraceful, indeed, has been the neglect of our colonies and the extravagance of their establishments. Mr. Pridham has given an account of the natural history of the island, which will be read with interest, generally extracted from the French. Among the birds at the Isle Rodriguez is that remarkable one, the “ Solitaire," a large fowl the size of a turkey, of a very peculiar character. The vegetable productions of the island are also fully detailed and interesting to all who are curious in the beautiful productions of the tropics at once so profuse, various, and splendid.
The climate of the Mauritius is remarkably salubrious for one situated in the tropics. The temperature ranges from 770 to 96° of Fahrenheit in December, the hottest month, and in the coldest from 71° to 75° ; but this is at Port Louis, which is extremely warm ; in the interior, and on higher ground it is 7° or 8° lower, with a remarkably pure atmosphere. There are no peculiar maladies in the island. Those of Europe prevail ; locked jaw more commonly than in Europe. Gout and paralysis attack those who are intemperate in diet. The small-pox has been very fatally felt, and cholera has fearfully visited the island. The mortality among the troops is very little above that of Europe, or between three and four per cent. annually. Those who drink arrack and spirits die of delirium tremens. There is much of interest to be found in this work which might be abridged to great advantage. We do not wish to discourage the continuance of such a publication, far from it, but we know that there are certain conditions under which alone it can be successful. We are very certain, too, that there are no obstacles in the way of suecess more weighty than those which we have pointed out and recommended for removal during its future progress.
GERMAN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION : or, THE PROFESSORS AND STUDENTS OF
GERMANY ; to which is added, a brief Account of the Public Schools of Prussia, with Observations on the Influence of Philosophy on the Studies of the German Universities. By WALTER C. PERRY, Phil. Dr. of the
University of Gottingen. Longman and Co. This is a well-timed publication, and redeems the German character in several of the states from the charge of neglecting popular education, In this good work Prussia stands prominent; then comes Bavaria, which, within a mere trifle, expends in education among three millions and a half of population as much as all the German States of Austria ; even in Hanover, under her existing despotism, a large sum in proportion to her revenue is laid out in education. But Prussia is far in advance of the rest. Out of a revenue of eight millions and a half she expends £127,648 sterling in education, and of her youth nearly all must receive the benefit of her fostering care, since out of fifteen millions
or nearly that number of population in her different high and low schools, or in her “Gymnasia, “ Real Schools,” “Middle Schools,” and“ Elementary Schools,” upwards of two millions and a quarter of her popu’ation are well instructed. Without giving freedom, all is done which can be done. Prussia mainly owes her superiority in education to the reign of Frederick the Great, and an order given by him in 1779 ; but it was not until 1809, that the system was begun which is at present in full force. It commenced under the auspices of such distinguished men as Humboldt, Niebuhr, Nicolovius, &c. The schools are all under the control of the Minister for Ecclesiastical, Educational, and Medical Affairs, in the same manner as the universities, but more indirectly, through subordinate provincial authorities. In every province there is a provincial consistory, to which is committed the charge of the ecclesiastical, medical, and other institutions of its province. This body acts as a sort of privycouncil to the minister, and has a section called the Provincial-school Collegium for Affairs of Education, having a president, vice-president, and two school councillors, one for the Protestant, the other for the Catholic schools. These last are called Consistorial Councillors, and this body watches over the whole course of instruction in the province. The schools are either wholly Protestant, Catholic, or mixed. In the two first the teachers must be all of the respective creeds, and none but Catholic or United Evangelical Ministers are allowed to give religious instruction in them, which the scholars thus receive from the clergymen of their own church. The officials are, a head director, appointed by the King, who lays down annually the plan of study given out from the central government; he is the censor morum of the other teachers, and can make secret reports upon their conduct; he enrols new scholars, and examines their testimonials and the scholars themselves. The money affairs of the schools are managed by a standing committee, elected by the local government, whether the funds are from a private foundation or by royal grant. The Director is himself expected to give instruction besides his other duties, from eight to fourteen hours every week. The teachers are of two classes, "Ober Lehrer,” or Upper Masters, and those who attend to the lower or middle forms, " Ordentliche Lehrer." There are also assistant masters, or supernumerary teachers. The salaries are very moderate. The scholars are divided into six classes, which they pass through in nine years. The surveillance exercised over the scholar is very strict, even to criticism upon dress, should it be too smart. No corporal punishment is permitted. Obedience and industry are pretty certain to be procured where the youth well knows that to set his master at defiance he defies all the authorities up to the King himself, and he may be left without testimonials of good conduct which will be ruinous to his views in after-life. The chief evil of the system seems to be that the boys are rendered too serious among a people like the Germans, who have naturally enough of phlegm, and that the happy thoughtlessness of childhood is too soon brought
to sustain its load of care, consequently that a constitutional effect prejudicial to the development of the bodily energies may be produced. We have often observed an extraordinary sedateness about German youth, which perhaps has arisen from a maturity thus too early forced. The Gymnasia are day-schools, and in these all the youth designed for the learned professions are educated. The cost is but from £1 16s. to £2 8s. per annum, for an education very far superior in scope to that of our public schools. Latin, Greek, French, German, mathematics, arithmetic, physics, mental and moral philosophy (the head class), history and geography, natural liistory, writing, singing, drawing, and for future clergymen and schoolmasters the Hebrew, are all well taught. Scholars designed for commercial pursuits are sent to a class of schools somewhat dearer than the above, where Greek always, and Latin frequently, are omitted, and modern languages substituted, with instruction analogous to the pursuit of business.
We have not space to notice the account of the German universities, nor the other subjects treated of relative to education in this little volume, which cannot but be interesting to those who desire to extend their knowledge upon a most important topic.
FAREWELL TO The Pope : or, REASONS FOR RENOUNCING THE CHURCH OF
ROME. By J. J. MAURETTE, late Priest of the parish of Serre (Ariége.)
Edmonds. The able Maurette, late a Catholic clergyman in France, having come over to Protestantism, gives in this little brochure his reasons for the change of his sentiments. In an introduction by Dr. Cumming it is stated that the publication has caused a great sensation on the Continent, and it is recommended here on account of the Protestant divines who are apostatizing to the Church of Rome, in order to show that in other places the tide is taking an opposite direction.
Price's MODERN GARDENER; with the proper Mode of using Guano as a
Manure. Dean and Co. A CONDENSED and practical little work, put together by one who evidently understands the subject upon which he treats, well adapted for such as are their own operators in the shrubbery, kitchen, or. flower garden, plainly written, and valuable more particularly to those who are novices in the pursuit.
THE HISTORY OF ST. GILES AND ST. JAMES, *
BY THE EDITOR.
CHAPTER XXXIII. SNIPeton liked to be duped. He hugged himself in the knowledge of his weakness, mightily enjoying it. And so, he suffered his wife to nestle close to his chair—to place her hand upon
his shoulder-to look with earnest, pleading eyes upon him—to talk such fluent sweetness, melting his heart ! And whilst Clarissa assured him that, in a playful moment, she had placed the miniature about the housekeeper's neck, that it was a wickedness, a calumny, to think otherwise,—that, in very truth, it would cause her-his wife, the wife he so professed to love-such pain and remorse to think suspiciously of Mrs. Wilton,- Snipeton, that learned man as he deemed himself in the worst learning of the world—that sage, who picked his way through the earth as though its fairest places were all the closelier set with gins and snares,—he would not see the sweet deceit in his wife's face ; he would not hear the charitable falsehood flowing from her lips ; no, he would be filled with belief. He would commit a violence upon his prudence and blindfold her. She might rebel and struggle somewhat; nevertheless, she should wear the bandage.
This wise determination still grew in his heart ; in truth, the soil was favourable to the deceit ; and therefore next morning, enjoying the amenities of breakfast, Mr. Snipeton assured his wife that—whatever his thoughts had been-he now felt the
* Continued from page 300, Vol. IV. NO. IXIII.-VOL. IV.
deepest, sweetest confidence in Mrs. Wilton, She had shown herself a most considerate gentlewoman, and he should ever respect her for it.
“ Poor thing! I never knew anything of her private history-for private histories, my dear ”—this tenderness had become almost familiar to the husband—“ private histories are very often like private wasps' nests ; things of danger, withi no profit in 'em ; nevertheless, she always appeared to me too good-yes, too good for her situation. That's always a pity;" and Snipeton continued to breakfast very heartily.
" True, husband, truc,” said Clarissa ; “such inequalities of fortune are very sad.":
" Very inconvenient,” cried Snipeton ; “ for you see, my dear, people who are too good for their employment are generally too bad for their employers. There is no such lumber in the world as broken down gentility. Always out of place-never fit for anything. A decayed gentleman as he 's called is a nuisance ; that is, I mean, to a man of the world—to a man of business. For you see, there's always impertinence in him. He always seems to be thinking of what he bas been—you can't get him to think of what he is. IIe becomes your clerk, we'll say. Well, you tell him to call a hackney-coach, and he sets about it in a manner that impudently says to you-- Once I kept my own carriage ! You order him to copy a letter or what not ; and he draws down the corners of his mouth to let you know that— Once in his day, he used to write cheques !' Now this is unpleasant. In the first place one doesn't like any insolence from anybody; and in the next, if one happens to be in a melancholy, thinking mood, one doesn't like to be reminded by the bit of decay about one, what, for all one knows--for it's a strange world- -one may drop down to one's self. A decayed gentleman to a rich man is-well—he's like a dead thief on a gibbet to the live highwayman. Ila! ha! What's the matter ? ”-asked the mirthful man, for he saw Clarissa shudder at the illustration, though so very truthful and excellent to the maker. “ To be sure, I 'd forgot; you've a tender heart I love you all the better for it—and don't like to hear about such matters. And then again I'd forgot—to be sure, what a fool I am !”—And then Mr. Snipeton remembered that, in his virtuous denunciation of bankrupt Plutus, he had forgotten-led away by the dazzling light of simile—the condition of Clarissa's father: had, in the heat of speech, failed to remember that he had bought. the bridal victim of the necessities of her parent. But, Mr.