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of the leading articles. When his soft grass; it was known as “Saliscode was ready, Nicolls summoned a bury Plain." The race-course deputation from all the towns on called “Newmarket,” after that famLong Island to meet at Hempstead

scene of license in England. on the last day of February and lis- Nicolls gave a cup to be run for at ten to the new plan of government. the annual meeting in June. NewThe deputies, full of expectation, market has long passed away, but came punctually to the meeting. Long Island has always been famous There were Dutch from the Holland for its fine horses and its bold riders, towns, English from the east end,-a male and female; they may well trace respectable list of names, many of their origin to the sport-loving goverwhose descendants are still known in nor of the seventeenth century. their ancient seats. Nicolls, as gov- Besides the conquest of New Nethernor, began the proceedings by read- erland, the four commissioners were ing his commission and distributed intrusted with a duty almost equally among the deputies his code of laws. ignoble. They were to take away, if They no doubt received it with eager possible, the charters and liberties of interest. But great was the disap- New England. Two separate instrucpointment of those who had lived tions had been given them,--one to under the Connecticut charter and be shown publicly, the other to be elected their own rulers. They asked known only to themselves. In the to be allowed to choose their own first the King expressed his warm afmagistrates, but Nicolls showed them fection for New England subjects, the Duke's instructions by which all directed his commissioners to consult officers of justice were to be selected their wishes, win their regard, and by the governor alone. The deputies act as arbiters of their differences found that they had only assembled and disputes. In the second and to hear the laws of

autocrat. secret one they were instructed to inThey passed a loyal address to the duce them to give up their charters, Duke of York and separated. Nicolls to allow their governors and officials proceeded to appoint sheriffs and to be appointed in England, and to other officers for the various towns; reduce them to an entire and perfect but the people murmured; they felt obedience to the crown. It seems that their liberty was gone.

that by some unknown means the To amuse them or himself the gove Massachusetts officials had obtained ernor introduced the favorite sport copies of both papers, and were well of the English, and founded the acquainted with their secret purpose. Hempstead race-course. The broad And hence, when on a fair Sabbath plain around the town offered a level, eve in July the English frigates sailed convenient site, well covered with into Boston harbor, they were met


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with no eager welcome. The stern the Massachusetts rulers. His vioPuritan officials received the commis- lent temper was roused by disapsioners with cold civility. Never be- pointment; he suffered from the gout, fore had an English frigate sailed in- and he left America in no pleasant to Boston harbor; the event was om- mood. But, fortunately for Massainous of change, and Endicott and chusetts, he was captured by a Dutch Bellingham saw with alarm the first privateer and carried into 'Spain. footsteps of European tyranny. A His papers were lost, and when at second time Maverick and Cartwright last he reached England the dangers now went to Massachusetts. They of the war engaged all the attention had gone through Connecticut and of the English ministers. Rhode Island and been received everywhere with evidences of respect. But when they reached Boston in February, they met with a worse reception than before. Endicott had now passed away; the sternness of the earlier generation was softening with time. But Maverick and Cartwright soon roused the fierce tempers of the Puritans; they knew their object and contemned them. Bellingham was chosen governor, and Willoughby in the second place, in A memorable day now came in the the face of the commissioners. The history of New York City, when its people defied them; they read their Dutch government forever passed declaration of rights by the sound of away. By a single proclamation of the trumpet, before the house where its autocratic governor, burgomaster, Maverick and Cartwright stayed. schout and schepens were removed Nicolls came to Boston to their aid from office, and the English system by a long and tedious journey, but of mayor, aldermen, and sheriff took could be of little use. Massachusetts, their place. They have remained "presumptuous and refractory," drove

since-except for the brief off the royal commissioners.



period of the reconquest-the officials Cartwright and Maverick went of New York. It was the 12th of eastward to Maine and Nicolls went June, 1665, when Nicolls issued his back to New York. In June Cart- proclamation. “I, Richard Nicolls," wright sailed for England, carrying it ran, “ do ordain that all the inhabwith him papers and despatches that itants of New York, New Harlem, would give no favorable account of and the island of Manhattan are one



year had

body politic, under the government Seated on his uneasy throne, the of a mayor, aldermen, and sheriff, ruler of immense regions, peopled by and I do appoint for one whole year, only five or six thousand persons, commencing from the date hereof most of whom were his avowed or and ending the 12th day of June, secret enemies, with a small garrison 1666, Mr. Thomas Willett to be and a crumbling fort, Nicolls might mayor." Willett

from Ply well feel at times all the perils of a mouth, a useful and active man. despot. War began; he was ordered The first aldermen were Delavall, to put his poor stockades in order to Van Cortlandt, Van Brugh, Van resist invasion. He knew that De Ruyven, and John Lawrence. The Ruyter was abroad. Nicolls found sheriff was Allard Anthony, who had himself perfectly neglected by his been the Dutch schout. Three of

countrymen at home. No ship from the new officials were English-Wil- England directly had entered the lett, Delavall, and Lawrence; four harbor; no supplies nor soldiers had were Hollanders. Yet the Dutch reached him since the surrender in murmured when their old govern- August, 1664. Nearly a ment passed away. They wished at passed. He seems to have been in least to retain the right of appoint- want of everything; money he could ing their successors, but this Nicolls only raise by borrowing, and he soon would not allow. With pleasant came to be deeply in debt. The cares words he soothed his angry oppo- of his government weighed heavily nents, and on the 14th of June the upon him, and he would have been magistrates took the oath of office glad to resign his office. He had and the new government began; the given liberal grants of land to his bell in the fort rang three times to fellow-officers; for himself, he had celebrate the new birth of the city. wasted his private fortune to feed and

pay his soldiers, and now war was to still further diminish the resources of his province and cut off what little

trade had lingered after the port was The first meeting of Willett and his closed to the ships of the Dutch. associates was on June 15, 1665. The Suddenly a blow came upon him Dutch language was prescribed; the that he had scarcely looked for, and English was to be used in future in all the larger and fairer part of his docivic matters. To translate from the minion was taken from him. Across English to the Dutch, Johannes the Hudson lay the broad tract of Nevius was first appointed secretary, territory now known as New Jersey. and when he resigned Nicolas Bayard It was as yet an unknown wilderness; took his place,

no traveler had penetrated the fertile

The Willest


wilds where now great cities flourish been eminent for many centuries. He and railways of unequaled speed bind had boldly resisted the parliamentary together the two chief seats of East- forces and yielded only at the comern trade. A few Dutch settlements mand of his king. He came back at were struggling for life on the river. the restoration, to become a favorite Thin tribes of savages roamed over servant of Charles and James, and to the interior. The country was be- live forever in his true colors. In the lieved to be fertile beyond Long Is- amusing portraiture of Samuel Pepys, land, and the shores of the Hudson no one can forget the bold, fierce conrich in furs, fish, and game. But as troller of the navy, or the rare art yet no one had settled on the banks with which Pepys brought his son of the Raritan and the Hackensack, Philip Carteret to marry Lady Jemina and imagination painted the interior Montague. country in its fairest colors. Perhaps Nicolls had already planned to obtain a grant of Albania for himself, and hoped to leave behind him to his collateral heirs a fine estate. He had already given tracts of land at Eliza

Berkeley, too, had deserved rewards bethtown to four families from and favors. But the grant to the two Jamaica, Long Island, and had con

patentees had been kept secret from firmed another purchase from the the commissioners and was a perfect Indians near Sandy Hook. He was surprise to Nicolls. The first news of evidently preparing to extend his it came to him from Virginia. Here authority over the fair lands of Al- Philip

Philip Carteret, a cousin of Sir bania.

George, had been driven by storms into the Chesapeake. He had been appointed governer of the new colony,

which was to be called New Cesarea The Duke of York in June, 1664, or New Jersey, in honor of the Car. before the fall of New Netherland, terets and their native island. Carhad conveyed all of what is now New teret brought with him a letter from Jersey to two court favorites—Sir James to Nicolls directing him to aid George Carteret and Lord Berkeley the grantees and give up the province. of Stratton. Carteret, brave, passion- He obeyed, but evidently with inate, impulsive, had deserved well of

tense disappointment and regret. He his king. When Charles was an exile even ventured to write Carteret had given him a refuge on strance to the Duke, pressing him to his island of Jersey, of which he was give Carteret and Berkeley other governor and where his family had lands along the Delaware. He urged

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that New Jersey was the most valu- dians, but more probably to observe able part of the Duke's possession, the conduct of the Dutch inhabitants. capable of receiving "twenty times He placed Captain Baker more people than Long Island." "I charge of the fort at Albany, with in

name of Albania,” he structions to keep strict watch and adds, and the blow was one that he

discipline, to live in peace with the felt most keenly. Yet it was a most Dutch, and avoid all disputes and fortunate event for the future pro- differences. Captain Manning, he gress of the country. Carteret by the removed to New York. He licensed “concessions” was able to give free the first English schoolmaster at Alinstitutions to his people. Carrying bany, one of Baker's soldiers. On a hoe on his shoulder, he landed at his return down the river in October, the head of thirty emigrants he had he stopped at Esopus, where Brodbrought over and founded Elizabeth- head was in command, and gave him

It was named in honor of Sir some wise counsel. He was to be George's wife. New Jersey under his patient, prudent, forbearing. But liberal government soon began to Brodhead forgot the advice, and was flourish; New York, however, under soon in open hostility with the Dutch the despotic rule of Nicolls, scarcely settlers. At Esopus, Nicolls bought advanced. Many towns grew up on large tracts of land from the Indians. the Jersey shore: Elizabeth, Perth The loss of New Jersey had evidently Amboy, Middletown, and Newark, led him to wish to draw settlers to were settled by active and cultivated the banks of the Hudson. He wrote immigrants. Carteret had no easy a prospectus, a taking account of the place at the head of his free and tur- advantages offered to planters under bulent people. He lived amidst per- the“ Duke's Laws” and of the fertility petual discord. But his temper was of the lands. This paper he was mild, his disposition liberal. He obliged to print at Cambridge. Here married an intelligent and wealthy the only printing press existed in all wife, and lived and died at Elizabeth. the English possessions of America; To the free spirit of his laws New New York had not a printer then. Jersey owes much of its greatness One of the peculiar traits of the and of the vigorous growth that has time when printers were few was the made it always a bulwark of union trial of Ralph and Mary Hall for the and independence.

“abominable crime” of witchcraft. Late in August Nicolls sailed up It was held before the Court of Assize the Hudson for the first time, sur- of New York in October; 1665. A veyed its wild and desolate shores, jury of respectable merchants and and reached Albany in safety. He others

summoned, of whom went there ostensibly to quiet the In- Jacob Leisler, afterwards so conspicu


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