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With Cartwright went Willett of stormed the works, and the place Plymouth, who was to aid him in was taken by assault. Three of the treating with the Indians and Cap- Dutch were killed and ten wounded. tain Breedon; his two military aides Then began a barbarous pillage and were Captains Manning and Brod- sack of the Dutch settlement; Carr head. The only opposition they met seized upon the farms of Dutch offiwith at Albany was from the Dutch cials, and kept one for himself; one Councilor De Decker, who was after- he gave to his son, and others to his wards summarily banished from the officers. He sold the Dutch soldiers province by Nicolls. On their way into slavery in Virginia; he sacked down the river they landed at Esopus, the village of the Mennonites, and and were well received. They made robbed them of all their possessions. little change in the officials; William He even declared himself independBeekman was retained in office as ent of Nicolls and sole governor of sheriff and Thomas Chambers as Delaware. When Nicolls and his commissary; Captain Brodhead and colleagues heard of his conduct, they an English garrison were left in at once sent orders to him to return. charge of the fort. So peaceful had But he refused, and Nicolls went been the change to the English rule himself to Delaware in November, to that no one had yet any reason to repair the wrong.

He rebuked Carr complain.

and obliged him to give up part of Unfortunately the expedition sent his plunder, but he was still left for a to enforce the submission of Dela- time in charge of the place. The ware was not so free from blame.

name was changed to Newcastle and Sir Robert Carr, the least reputable a garrison stationed in it under Capof the four commissioners, was placed tain John Carr, the son of the comin command. He wanted wholly missioner. Delaware was for several Nicoll's prudence and self-restraint. years a part of the province of New After a long and weary voyage

York. around the capes of Delaware Bay, The next important act of the govthe frigates arrived in front of Ams- ernor was to determine the eastern tel,—now Newcastle,—the chief fort boundary of New York. His wise of the Dutch. Carr summoned it to foresight led the way to the comprosurrender; a part of the garrison mise by which all future disputes would have yielded, but the com- were settled. Under the charter of mander, Hinnoyossa, refused to ca- 1664, granted by Charles to James, pitulate. With less than fifty men the Connecticut River was made the he resolutely held the fort. The eastern limit of his territory, and English ships opened their broad- New York would thus embrace more sides upon it, the English soldiers

than half of Connecticut, a large part of Massachusetts, including the Berk- it on the west. New Haven, under shire region, and all Vermont. But Davenport's guidance, still refused to Connecticut, by its earlier charter of submit to the Hartford government, 1662, was entitled to all the land to and Stamford professed to be indethe Pacific Ocean,—“the South Sea," pendent of both.

pendent of both. The quarrel beas it was called,- or at least to the tween the rival settlements was at its borders of the Dutch; and now it height when Nicolls, by his prudent pointed out to the commissioners compromise, founded the present that to limit its boundary to the Con- State of Connecticut. necticut River would deprive it of the It furnishes a comic element in hisbest portion of its domain. The Con- tory to trace the easy assurance with necticut government, under Governor which the kings of this early age beJohn Winthrop, had in fact laid out for stowed whole empires of wild lands

upon their relatives or dependents and fixed the title to property to which they themselves had no possible right. Charles II., in 1662, had plainly granted to Connecticut a tract of land reaching across the continent; in 1664 he revoked his gift and had presented the larger part of Connecticut to the Duke of York. No one ventured to doubt the royal prerogative. Connecticut, unlike Massachusetts, was too weak or timid to oppose the will of the King. Her officials pleaded chiefly the ruin that must follow to their trade should the grant be confirmed. They showed

their earlier charters and claims. JOHN DAVENPORT.

But they appealed to the better feel

ings of the commissioners and found itself an extensive province; it ruled a friend in Nicolls Had he insisted over all the east end of Long Island, it on the plain words of the patent, New claimed control over “The New Ha- York would have gained a large terven Colony" and Stamford, and it ritory. But he represented to his had even intruded its officials into master the injustice of despoiling Westchester County and occupied a Connecticut of the better part of its part of New Netherland. But under lands, and induced his associates to Stuyvesant a line was drawn limiting yield to his arguments. It was de.



cided that a line should be drawn as zens of New Amsterdam came to nearly as possible twenty miles east take the oath of allegiance that made of the Hudson.

them subjects of the British crown. This decision gave a new impulse At first they offered some opposition, to the growth of Connecticut. But fearing they must renounce wholly still greater results followed from the their connection with the fatherland; example of Nicolls.

New York but Nicolls assured them that every yielded the same boundary to Massa- article of the capitulation should be chusetts that it had given to Connec- strictly observed, and they yielded. ticut. The line was not run until 1787, The chief citizens within five days and when the dispute arose between hastened to take the oath. StuyvesNew York and the settlers in Ver- ant and the two Dutch clergymen led mont as to their rival titles—the well- the way; Beekman, the three Bayknown controversy of the New Hamp- ards, Van Rensselaer, and other leadshire grants—New York appealed to ing citizens followed; in all two hunthe charter of 1664 and the settlers dred and fifty of the Dutch inhabitchiefly to the line of twenty miles ants swore allegiance to the English east of the Hudson which had been King. Many did so, no doubt, unlaid down by Nicolls and his associ- willingly; some refused; but the city

New York abandoned its authorities joined in a letter of comclaim with a graceful compromise, pliment to the Duke of York, praisand in 1790 Vermont came into the ing the "wise and intelligent" Nicolls, Union, the only State that had ever and asking that their commerce might from its first settlement condemned be as free from burdens as that of slavery as a crime.

Boston. Nicolls was now sole masAt the same time that Connecticut

ter of an immense territory. He received this addition to its territory called the province “New York "; it was deprived of its authority on Long Island was named "Yorkshire," the islands. All except Block Island and to the fertile lands across the were included in the grant to the Hudson he gave the name of “AlDuke. All Long Island, with Nan- bania." Thus everywhere the faithtucket and Martha's Vineyard, were ful follower strove to pepetuate the joined to New York. Even Fisher's

memory of the Duke of York and Island was claimed to belong to it. Albany. But the change of government was

Meanwhile the news of the capture distasteful to the people of Southold of New Amsterdam had reached Euand the Hamptons; they preferred rope, and De Witt sent over an order the free institutions of Connecticut. to the ambassador, Van Gogh, in

It was a sight of singular interest London, to demand its restitution when in October, 1664, the chief citi- from the King. Charles listened to


him with impatience, denying the pointed out his own helpless condititle of the Dutch to New Nether- tion when the English besieged him land, and prepared for war.

-cut off from all succor, left alone Downing, the English envoy in Hol- upon the hostile continent, land, sent an insolent memorial to the rounded by foes on land and sea. States-General. De Witt insisted that He said he would rather have died “New Netherland" must be restored. than surrender. He yielded only to He sent out De Ruyter with a strong the prayers of the inhabitants and to fleet to recover the Dutch settlements save women and children from the on the American shore, taken by the terrors of assault. To all his arguEnglish; and Charles in turn ordered ments the directors of the company his fleet to seize Dutch merchantmen replied by violent charges of cowardwherever they could be found. ice and treason. They asserted that Teddeman, the English commander, he should have fired his guns upon attacked the Bordeaux feet and the hostile fleet and sent his troops made many prizes. On November to dislodge the few companies at the 21st, Pepys writes: “The war is be- "Ferry." But Stuyvesant was evigun: God give a good end to it." A

dently right. He saved the city fine English fleet put to sea with the from sack and perhaps destruction. Earl of Sandwich on board. But The Dutch were too few to resist the Pepys tells us the English had forces of New and Old England, and now begun to fear the Dutch as the fate of New Netherland was not much as they had once contemned to be averted. Stuyvesant, after two ther

years' absence, came back to New The West India Company, enraged York to his fond wife and children, at the loss of their fine possessions in his fine bouwery and wide possesthe New World, now sent a summons

sions. While in Europe he had preto Peter Stuyvesant and his secretary, vailed on the English King to allow Van Ruyven, to come home and ex- several ships to carry goods between plain the causes of the surrender. Holland and New York—a seasonaStuyvesant went, in May to Holland. ble relief to its trade. He lived in He carried with him a certificate of retirement the remainder of his life. good character from the burgomas- He planted the pear-tree on the Bowters and schepens and a long defense ery which some of us have seen. He of his own conduct. He threw the died at a great age, and lies buried blame of the loss of the colony on the in the vaults of St. Mark's Church. West India Company, who had left it But his successor began now to without any means of defense, with- feel the cares and weight of his wide out a single ship of war, and with command. De Ruyter was at sea, only a few barrels of powder. He and every moment a powerful Dutch


fleet might be looked for in the har- of his first winter in New York he bor. Nicolls repaired the ancient employed himself in planning a code fort and would have quartered his of laws for his wide domain that soldiers on the citizens, but the offi- should be in unison with the wishes cials interposed, and provided that of the Duke and not displeasing to each citizen should pay a weekly the people. On one point the Duke sum for their support. Stuyvesant

Stuyvesant had insisted—there should be paid four guilders a week, others trace of a popular assembly. Nicol three and two. Yet the soldiers suf- formed his constitution and laws upfered various hardships, and Nicolls on the principle of a perfect despotcomplained that owing to the poverty ism. All officials were to be apof the city they slept on straw and pointed by the governor; all taxes had scarcely a tolerable bed.

were laid, all laws were imposed by him. There were to be no elective magistrates. There could be no opposition to his autocracy. He was endowed with more complete authority than any Persian satrap or Turkish bey,-a despot, but a benevolent



In producing his digest he had studied the laws of Massachusetts and Connecticut and borrowed their best traits. He was humane, and insisted that every one else should be so; perfect religious freedom he granted to all; he would have wrong done to no one.

His code was arranged in alphabetical order, like the New England codes, and was known generally as the “Duke's Laws." The Court of Assize met in New York City; trials were by jury; each person was assessed according to his property; all land was held by license from the Duke, and all persons were required to take out new patents and pay a fee when the seal was affixed; all conveyances were to be recorded in New York. These are only a few

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Nicolls, a bachelor of about forty, was a scholar, fond of quoting Latin, and wrote letters that are full of good sense and good feeling. His mind was active, his knowledge considerable, and in the leisure moments

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