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1730.- SIR. ALEXANDER CUMMING was sent to Carolina to make a treaty with the Cherokees.

He held several councils with them, and, returning, carried with him seven of their principal chiefs, who made a treaty with the Board of Trade, promising to return all runaway slaves, and acknowledged themselves subjects of Great Britain.

1730.- ROBERT JOHNSON was sent as the first royal governor of South Carolina.

He had been governor before. He brought with him a remission of the arrears of quit-rents, and a present of munitions of war.

1730. — PURRYSBURG, the first town on the Savannah River, was settled by a company of Swiss immigrants.

1730. - MANCHESTER, New Hampshire, was settled.

The settlement was called Derryfield, was incorporated under that name in 1751, and in 1810, by act of the legislature, the name was changed to the present one. In 1846 the town received a city charter. Its growth is owing to its manufacturing facilities, being on the Merrimac River, where the fall of the river is fifty-four feet in a mile, giving power for the most powerful machinery.

1730.- Thomas GODFREY, of Philadelphia, invented what is known as Hadley's quadrant.

Dr. Edmund Hadley, of London, the next year gave to the Royal Society of London a description of the same invention. The Society voted two hundred pounds to Godfrey, and decided that they were both entitled to the merits of the invention. Godfrey was a self-instructed mathematician.

1730.-- BY order of the Board of Trade a census was taken of Rhode Island.

The population was found to be about eighteen thousand, of whom fifteen thousand three hundred were whites, sixteen hundred and fifty colored, and nine hundred and eighty-five Indians.

1731. — The House of Commons, through the Board of Trade, had instituted an inquiry " with respect to laws made, manufactures set up, or trade carried on, detrimental to the trade, navi. gation or manufactures of Great Britain.” The report was made this year. The information thus acquired was very probably not wholly correct, the amounts returned being less, since the colonists, knowing full well that the purpose of gathering it was to legislate against their interests, would not be careful to give the fullest and most accurate returns.

The report read as follows: “In New England, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and the County of Somerset in Maryland, they have fallen into the manufacture of woolen and linen cloth for the use of their own families only; for the product of these colonies being chiefly cattle and grain, the estates of the inhabitants depended wholly on farming, which could not be managed without a certain quantity of sheep; and their wool would be entirely lost were not their servants employed during the winter in manufacturing it for the use of their families.

“Flax and hemp being likewise easily raised, the inhabitants manufactured them into a coarse sort of cloth, bags, traces, and halters for their horses, which they found did more service than those they had from any part of Europe.

“ However, the high price of labor in America rendered it impracticable for people there to manufacture their linen cloth at less than twenty per cent. dearer than that which is exported from home for sale. It were to be wished that some expedient might be fallen upon to direct their thoughts from undertakings of this nature; so much the rather because these manufactures, in process of time, may be carried on in greater degree, unless an early stop be put to their progress by employing them in naval stores. Wherefore we take leave to renew our repeated proposals, that reasonable encouragement be given to the same. Moreover, we find that certain trades carried on and manufactures set up there are detrimental to the trade, navigation and manufacture of Great Britain. For the state of these plantations varying almost every year more or less, so in their trade and manufactures, as well as in other particulars, we thought it necessary for His Majesty's service, and for the discharge of our trust, from time to time to send general queries to the several governors in America, that we might be the more exactly informed of the condition of the plantations; among which were several that related to their trade and manufactures, to which we received the following returns, viz. ;

“ The Governor of New Hampshire in his answer, said that there were no settled manufactures in that Province, and that their trade principally consisted in lumber and fish.

“ The Governor of Massachusetts Bay informed us that in some parts of this Province the inhabitants worked up their wool and flax into an ordinary coarse cloth for their own use, but did not export any. That the greatest part of the woolen and linen clothing worn in this Province was imported from Great Britain, and sometimes from Ireland; but considering the excessive price of labor in New England, the merchant could afford what was imported cheaper than what was made in the country. There were also a few hat makers in the maritime towns, and that the greater part of the leather used in that country was manufactured among themselves, etc.

“ They had no manufactures in the province of New York that deserves mentioning; their trade consisted chiefly in furs, whale bone, oil, pitch, tar and provisions. No manufactures in New Jersey that deserve mentioning; their trade being chiefly in provisions shipped from New York and Pennsylvania. The chief trade of Pennsylvania lay in their exportation of provisions and lumber; no manufactures being established, and their clothing and the utensils for their houses being all imported from Great Britain. By further advices from New Hampshire, the woolen manufacture appears to have decreased; the common lands, on which the sheep used to feed, being now appropriated, and the people almost wholly clothed with woolen from Great Britain. The manufacture of flax into linens, some coarse and some fine, daily increased by the great resort of people from Ireland thither, who are skilled in that business. By late accounts from Massachusetts Bay, in New England, the assembly have voted a bounty of thirty shillings, for every piece of duck or canvass made in the Province. Some other manufactures are carried on there, and brown holland for women's wear, which lessens the importation of calicoes, and some other sorts of East India goods. They also make some small quantities of cloth, made of linen and cotton, for ordinary shirting. By a paper mill set up three years ago, they make to the value of £200 sterling yearly. There are also several forges for making bar iron, and some furnaces for cast iron or hollow ware, and one slitting mill and a manufacture for nails. The Governor writes concerning the woolen manufacture, that the country people, who used to make most of their clothing out of their own wool, do not now make a third part of what they wear, but are mostly clothed with British manufacture. The Surveyor General of his Majesty's woods (Jeremiah Dunbar) writes that they have in New England six furnaces and nineteen forges for making iron; and that in this Province many ships are built for the French and Spaniards, in return for rum, molasses, wines and silks, which they truck there by connivance. Great quantities of hats are made in New England, of which the company of hatters in London have complained to us that great quantities of these hats are exported to Spain, Portugal, and our West India Islands. They also make all sorts of iron for shipping. There are several still-houses and sugar bakeries established in New England.

* By the last advices from New York there are no manufactories there that can affect Great Britain. There is yearly imported into New York a very large quantity of the woolen manufactures of this Kingdom, for their clothing, which they would be rendered incapable to pay for and would be reduced to the necessity of making for themselves, if they were prohibited from receiving from the foreign sugar colonies the money, rum, molasses, cocoa, indigo, cotton, wool &c., which they at present take in return for provisions, horses and lumber, the produce of that province and of New Jersey, of which he affirms the British Colonies do not take above one half. But the company of hatters of London have since informed us that hats are manufactured in great quantities in this province.

"By the letters from the Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania, he does not know of any trade in that Province that can be considered injurious to this Kingdom. They do not export any woolen or linen manufactures; all that they make, which are of a coarse sort, being for their own use. We are further informed that in this Province they built many brigantines and small sloops, which they sell to the West Indies.

"The Governor of Rhode Island informs us, in answer to our queries, that there are iron mines there, but not a fourth part enough to serve their own use; but he takes no notice of any manufactures there. No returns from the Governor of Connecticut. But we find by some accounts that the produce of this colony is timber, boards, all sorts of English grain, hemp, flax, sheep, black cattle, swine, horses, goats and tobacco. That they export horses and lumber to the West Indies, and receive in return sugar, salt, molasses and rum. We likewise find that their manufactures are very inconsiderable; the people being generally employed in tillage, some few in tanning, shoemaking, and other handicrafts; others in building, and in joiners', tailors' and smiths' work, without which they could not subsist. No report is made from Carolina, the Bahama, or the Bermuda Isles.

"From the foregoing statement it is observable that there are more trades carried on and manufactures set up in the Provinces on the continent of America to the northward of Virginia, prejudicial to the trade and manufactures of Great Britain, particularly in New England, than in any other of the British colonies ; which is not to be wondered at, for their soil, climate, and produce being pretty nearly the same with ours, they have no staple commodities of their own growth to exchange for our manufactures, which puts them under greater necessity, as well as under greater temptations, for providing themselves at home; to which may be added, in the charter governments, the little dependence they hare upon the mother country, and consequently the small restraints they are under in any matters detrimental to her interests. And therefore we humbly beg leave to repeat and submit to the wisdom of this Honorable House the substance of what

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we formerly proposed in our report on the silk, linin and woolen manufactures hereinbefore recited, namely — whether it might not be expedient to give these Colonies proper encouragement for turning their industry to such manufactures and products as might be of service to Great Britain, and more particularly to the production of naval stores."

1731. — In a description of South Carolina, written by Peter Purry, he says: "Flax and cotton thrive admirably, and hemp grows thirteen to fourteen feet high, but as few people know how to order it, there is very little cultivated."

1731, JANUARY 8.- Thomas Whitmarsh, who succeeded Phillips as printer in Charleston, set up the South Carolina Gazette, the first paper in the province.

In 1733 he died of the epidemic that raged there, and was succeeded by Lewis Timothée, a French Protestant refugee, who had worked for Franklin in Philadelphia

1731, JUNE. — The assembly of Rhode Island created another bank or loan, to the amount of sixty thousand pounds.

A portion of the interest paid upon the loans was to be used in paying a bounty of five shillings for every barrel of whale-oil, a penny a pound for bone, and five shillings a quintal for codfish caught by Rhode Island vessels and brought to the colony.

1731, AUGUST. — The assembly of South Carolina suspended the redemption of the bills of credit, and made a new issue of one hundred and four thousand pounds.

The issue was to pay the debts contracted during the past four years of confusion; they also passed an act to confirm defective and obsolete titles.

1731, SEPTEMBER 27. -- The Weekly Rehearsal appeared in Boston, Massachusetts.

It was published by Jeremy Gridley, and was printed by “ J. Draper for the author.” Gridley became attorney-general, and died in 1767. On the 21st of August, 1735, the name was changed to the Boston Evening Post. It was then in the possession of Thomas Fleet. On the 9th of March, 1741, the general court ordered : “That the Attorney General do, as soon as may be, file an Information against Thomas Fleet, the publisher of the said paper, in His Majesty's Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize and General Gaol Delivery, in order to his being prosecuted for his said offence, as law and Justice requires." The offence was publishing a simple matter of news, which the Court “termed a scandalous and libelous Reflection upon His Majesty's Administration.” No further proceedings were taken on the matter. On the 24th of April, 1775, the Post appeared for the last time. It had tried to be so neutral in the rapidly culminating dispute, that it had contained not a word concerning the battles of Lexington and Concord, which had just taken place.

1731. — At Belcher's request, the secretary of state allowed him to accept a grant for a year.

As he firmly refused to disobey his instructions concerning the issue of bills of credit, the public officers and the soldiers remained unpaid nearly two years.

1731. — The French made a settlement at Crown Point.

The settlement was made by a party from Montreal, and was within one hun. dred miles of Albany. The New York assembly resolved “that this encrochment, if not prevented,” would produce “the most pernicious consequences to this and other colonies,” and informed the other colonies of it. Nothing was done, however, to disturb the French in their peaceful possession of the post.

1731. — A SPECIAL committee reported to parliament that the number of hats exported from New York and New England were estimated at ten thousand a year. In Boston there were sixteen hatters, one of whom was said to commonly finish forty hats a week. The hats were sent to the Southern plantations, the West Indies, and Ireland, and not a few to Great Britain, according to the complaint made to the Board of Trade this year by the felt-makers of London. Parliament, therefore, passed the following act:

"No hats or felts, dyed or undyed, finished or unfinished, shall be put on board any vessel in any place within any of the British plantations; nor be laden upon any horse or other carriage to the intent to be exported from thence to any other plantation, or to any other place whatever, upon forfeiture thereof, and the offender shall like wise pay £500 for every such offence. Every person knowing thereof, and willingly aiding therein, shall forfeit £40. Every officer of customs signing any entry outward, or warrant for the shipping or exporting of said articles, shall, for every offence, forfeit £500.” By the same statute all hat-makers were obliged to serve an apprenticeship of seven years, nor have more than two apprentices, while no negro was allowed to work at the business of hat-making.

1731. -- A SUBSCRIPTION was taken up in Maryland to encour. age the manufacture of linen.

The mayor and council of Annapolis offered five pounds as a reward for the finest piece of linen, grown and woven in Maryland, which was presented at the next fair in September; three pounds for the next best, and forty shillings for the third best; the linen to remain the property of the exhibitor. Similar rewards were offered in Baltimore. This year over sixty wagon loads of flax-sced were brought into Baltimore for shipment.

1731. --- A Census in New York showed the province contained 50,289 persons, of whom 7231 were negroes. The city contained 8632.

1731. - As late as this year, it is said, there was not a potter or glass-maker in the province of South Carolina.

1731. _ INDEPENDENCE HALL, Philadelphia, or the Old State House, was begun this year.

1731. - EDWARD BRADLEY advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette that he silvered looking-glasses, and sold window-glass by the box.

1731. — The Hon. Daniel Oliver, a merchant of Boston, Massachusetts, who died this year, left a spinning-school hé had erected at a cost of six hundred pounds, for the education of the children of the poor in the art of spinning.

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