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1842, August 9. – A treaty was made with Great Britain, by which the north-western boundary, between the United States and the British provinces, was completed.

Lord Ashburton, appointed by the English government as minister plenipotentiary for the settlement of this matter, arrived April 3. Commissioners appointed by the states of Maine and Massachusetts, and by New Brunswick, were present at the negotiation. Maine surrendered a tract lying north of the St. John's, the free navigation of that river being granted by Great Britain. The portion of the Madawaska settlement lying south of the St. John's was relinquished by Great Britain, together with the Aroostook and Rouse's Point. For the suppression of the slave-trade, each country agreed to maintain an adequate squadron on the coast of Africa. Persons charged with murder, murderous assault, piracy, robbery, or forgery, were to be mutually delivered up. The treaty was ratified by Great Britain October 13, and proclaimed by the President on November 10,

1842. - A TREATY was made with Mexico.

She had failed to meet the conditions of the convention of 1838. Ratifications of this new treaty were to be exchanged within three months at Washington. The American claims, as stated by the President in his message of this year, amounted to $2,026,079. The first payment was to be made April 30, 1843, and the whole amount to be settled in quarterly payments extending over five years, in gold and silver, in the city of Mexico.

1842, NOVEMBER 21. - Rhode Island, by an election, ratified the constitution which had been prepared for her.

The charter had up to this time remained as the basis of her organic law. The constitution had been prepared by a convention called in 1841. The chief discontent with the charter was the limit it placed upon the right of suffrage, it being limited to land-owners and their eldest sons. At the election, Thomas W. Dorr was elected governor. Samuel W. King, the governor under the charter, claimed the position, ordered out the militia, declared martial law, and obtained aid from the United States to suppress the rebellion. The armed resistance lasted about two weeks. Dorr fled the state, but returned to answer a charge of treason, on which he was found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment for life. In 1847 he was pardoned, and in 1853 restored his civil rights by the legislature, and the record of his sentence ordered to be blotted out.

1843, JANUARY 1. — The public debt amounted to thirty-two million seven hundred thousand dollars.

1843, FEBRUARY 25. - The bankruptcy act was repealed.

1843, MARCH 3. — Congress appropriated thirty thousand dollars for the construction of an experimental telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore.

1843, MARCH 4. — A patent for a sewing-machine was granted to Benjamin W. Bean, of New York.

It made a lasting stitch. 1843. - A BLAST furnace was started in the Adirondack region. In 1849 a larger furnace was constructed, and the old one abandoned.

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1843. — A SOCIETY for the study of natural history was organized at Boston, Massachusetts.

1843, JUNE 16. -- A new constitution for Mexico was issued by a junta convoked by Santa Anna.

1843, NOVEMBER. — A treaty was made between Mexico and the United States.

It provided for the appointment of a joint commission for the examination and settlement of claims for three millions of dollars, which had been left undecided by the previous commission.

1843. – COLONEL FREMONT made his second expedition of exploration.

He passed through the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, then an unknown wilderness. The Great Salt Lake, the Sierra Nevada, and the valleys of California, were brought to public notice.

1844, JANUARY 2. — Santa Anna was inaugurated president of Mexico under the new constitution.

The public debt of Mexico amounted to nearly one hundred millions of dollars, of which sixty millions were due English creditors. The income was derived from taxation, and produced about twenty millions, the expenses of the government being rather more than this amount.

1814, APRIL 12. — A treaty was concluded with Texas, at Washington, for annexing her to the Union.

It had been made by John C. Calhoun, secretary of state, and Isaac Van Zandt and J. P. Henderson representing Texas. On the 22d it was communicated to the Senate, and ordered to be printed privately for their use.

1844, June 8. — The Senate voted against the ratification of the treaty with Texas.

The vote was 16 to 25.

1844. - The first hydropathic establishment in the United States was opened at No. 63 Barclay Street, New York. Camp, bell, publisher of the Water Cure Journal, was proprietor, and Joel Shew, physician.

1844, JUNE. — The experimental telegraph line, built by an appropriation from Congress, was erected between Washington and Baltimore.

1814. - PROFESSOR JOHNSTON published his Lectures on the Application of Chemistry and Geology to Agriculture.

1844. — About this time guano began to be imported into the United States.

Previous to 1850 the importations were less than thirty thousand tons.

1844.— In Rensslaer and Delaware counties, New York, an armed resistance began by the anti-renters.

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They refused to pay rents any longer to the Patroons. The resistance continued through 1846 and 1847.

1844.— The first successful mining operations for copper in the region of Lake Superior were commenced.

Copper had been known to exist there for nearly two hundred years, but the district had been until within a few years only accessible to the hunter and trapper.

1844. - The interest upon loans by the various states which was unpaid amounted to over seven millions.

1844. — A NORMAL school was established in Albany, New York.

1844, JUNE. - Smith was arrested at Nauvoo and confined in the jail at Carthage, Illinois.

He had the year before declared the revelation establishing polygamy among the Mormons. On the 27th of June a mob broke into the jail, captured Smith and his brother, and murdered them.

1844.— A COMPANY, under Dr. Keil, settled at Bethel, Missouri.

They were a religious community.

1844, SEPTEMBER 30. — Lucia di Lammermoor was presented in Palmo's New York Opera House.

This was the introduction of opera in the United States. The Opera House was built by Palmo in Chambers Street. The introduction of the opera ruined him. The house was subsequently Burton's Theatre.

1844, DECEMBER 7. – Don Joaquin de Herrera was appointed president of Mexico ad interim.

An insurrection had deposed Santa Anna, and captured him. He was banished in January, 1845.

1841-45. — NINTH administration. President,

William H. Harrison, of Ohio. Died April 4, 1841.
Vice-President,

John Tyler, of Virginia.
Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, March 5, 1841.

Resigned May 8, 1843.

Hugh S. Legare, of South Carolina, May 9, 1843.
Secretaries of State,

Died June 20, 1843.
Abel P. Upshur, of Virginia, July 24, 1843. Killed

February 28, 1844.
John Nelson, of Maryland, February 29, 1844.
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, March 6, 1844.
Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, March 5, 1841. Resigned

September 11, 1841.
Secretaries of Treasury,

Walter Forward, of Pennsylvania, September 13,

1841. Resigned March 1, 1843.
John C. Spencer, of New York, March 3, 1843.
George M. Bibb, of Kentucky, June 15, 1844.

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John Bell, of Tennessee, March 7, 1841. Resigned

September 11, 1841.
Secretaries of War, John C. Spencer, of New York, October 12, 1841.

James M. Porter, of Pennsylvania, March 8, 1843.
William Wilkins, of Pennsylvania, Feb. 15, 1844.
George E. Badger, of North Carolina, March 3, 1841.

Resigned September 11, 1841.

Abel P. Upshur, of Virginia, September 13, 1841. Secretaries of Navy, David Henshaw, of Massachusetts, July 24, 1843.

Thomas W. Gilmer, of Virginia, February 15, 1844.

Died February 28, 1844.
John Y. Mason, of Virginia, March 14, 1844.

Francis Granger, of New York, March 6, 1841. Re-
Postmasters-General, signed September 12, 1841.

Charles A. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, Sept. 13, 1841.

Hugh S. Legare, of South Carolina, Sept. 13, 1841. Attorneys-General,

John Nelson, of Maryland, July 1, 1843. Speakers of the House of Representatives, –

John White, of Kentucky, Twenty-eighth Congress, 1841.

John W. Jones, of Virginia, Twenty-ninth Congress, 1813. 1845, JANUARY 22. — Santa Anna was banished again from Mexico, and the sentence was declared to be perpetual.

From 1839, after the close of the war with France, until 1845, revolutions had succeeded each other, and Santa Bravo and Canalizo had successively been presidents.

1845, FEBRUARY. — Pennsylvania resumed payment.

1845, March 1. - The President approved a bill for the annexation of Texas.

The debate upon this subject had been long and violent. President Tyler's term ended on the 3d of March. The resolutions, as finally adopted, rcad : “ That Congress doth consent that the territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to the republic of Texas, may be erected into a new state, to be called the state of Texas, with a republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said republic, by deputies in convention assembled, with the consent of the existing government, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the states of this Union.” “That if the President of the United States shall, in his judgment and discretion, deem it most advisable, instead of proceeding to submit the foregoing resolutions to the republic of Texas as an overture on the part of the United States for admission, to negotiate with that republic; then, Be it resolved, that a state, to be formed out of the present republic of Texas, with suitable extent and boundaries, and with two representatives in Congress until the next apportionment of representation, shall be admitted into the Union, by virtue of this act, on an equal footing with the existing states, as soon as the terms and conditions of such admission, and the cession of the remaining Texan territory to the United States, shall be agreed upon by the governments of Texas and the United States.

“That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars be appropriated to defray the expenses of missions and negotiations to agree upon the terms of said admission and cession, either by treaty to be submitted to the senate, or by articles to be submitted to the two houses of Congress, as the President may direct."

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1845. — CONGRESS passed acts admitting Florida and Iowa to the Union.

They had each formed constitutions, which were presented to Congress.

1845. — CONGRESS passed an act fixing the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November as the day for choosing presidential electors in all the states.

1845. — CONGRESS reduced the rate of postage.

It was made five cents on single letters not exceeding three hundred miles, and ten cents over that distance.

1845, MARCH 6. — The Mexican minister, Almonte, protested to the secretary of state against the annexation of Texas, and asked his passports.

Under instructions from his government, he spoke of it as dismembering an integral part of Mexican territory, and declared the purpose of Mexico to recover the territory she was thus despoiled of.

1845, MAY 1. — The Washington Union appeared at Washington.

It was published by Thomas Ritchie and John P. Heiss, and was made the organ of the government, and continued so during the administration of James K. Polk. On the 13th of September, 1847, two resolutions were introduced in the Senate, the first to exclude the editor of the Union from the privilege of the floor, for a libel upon the Senate, and the second to exclude the reporters of the Union from the reporters' gallery. They were debated two days, when, the second resolution having been withdrawn, the first was passed by a vote of twenty-seven to twenty-one. In 1849, with the inauguration of President Taylor, the Union ceased to be the organ of the government; but at the inauguration of Franklin Pierce, in 1853, it was restored to its position, and continued it when Buchanan was inaugurated in 1857, with John Appleton as editor, and ceased with the opening of the civil war.

1845, JUNE 3.- The True American appeared in Lexington, Kentucky.

It was edited by Cassius M. Clay, and advocated the abolition of slavery. The press was seized by a mob, but the paper was continued, being printed in Cincinnati, and published in Lexington, and then in Louisville.

1845. — The Mormons were driven from Nauvoo, and ordered to leave Illinois.

1845, JUNE 16. — The Texan congress accepted the terms of annexation to the United States.

At the same session, il peaceful settlement of the question offered by Mexico, by acknowledging the independence of Texas on certain conditions, was rejected.

1845, JULY 4. - The annexation of Texas was made complete.
Information had been received of the action of the Texas senate.
1845, DECEMBER. — The President in his message to Congress,

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