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stated that he had “deemed it proper, as a precautionary measure, to order a strong squadron to the coast of Mexico, and to concentrate a sufficient military force on the western frontier of Texas."

1845, DECEMBER 30. — Herrera, who had succeeded Capalizo as president, was displaced, and General Paredes appointed.

1845. — PETROLEUM was obtained in boring for salt near Ta. rentum, on the Alleghany, thirty-five miles above Pittsburg.

Two small springs continued to yield for years. Before this, the Seneca Indians gathered supplies of it, and it was known as Seneca oil, or Genesee oil, from its being found also near the head of the Genesee River.

1845. — MARGARET FULLER's Woman in the Nineteenth Century was published.

It demanded that every avenue, educational and industrial, should be open to women, and especially that she should be socially free.

1845. -- The naval school at Annapolis was established.

1845. The new constitution of Louisiana was framed and adopted.

1846, JANUARY. — The army was ordered to take up a position on the left bank of the Rio Grande.

It had been at Corpus Christi since the previous August. No hostile act had been committed by the Mexicans. On the 28th of March, the army of occupation camped opposite Matamoras.

1846, JANUARY 3. — General Paredes was appointed to the presidency of Mexico.

He had headed an insurrection against Herrera, who resigned the office.

1846, MAY. - Colonel Fremont, on his third exploring expedition, arrived in the valley of the Sacramento, and took part in the movement for the independence of California.

It was accomplished before the arrival of Commodore Sloat at Monterey. With the arrival of the American forces, the Independents united with them.

1846, MAY 11. - The President sent a message to Congress, stating that Mexico bad begun hostilities, and calling upon Congress to recognize the existence of war, and make provision for its vigorous prosecution.

On the 13th, both houses having passed the bills necessary for raising the requisite men and money, they were signed by the President, who issued a proclamation of war. The bill for the supplies contained in its preamble that war existed by the act of the republic of Mexico. To this statement objection was made.

1846. — A COMMUNITY, under the direction of J. H. Noyes, was formed at Putney, Vermont.

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Being mobbed and driven away in 1848, they settled at Oneida, New York. They call themselves “The Perfectionists,” and have a branch settlement at Wallingford, Connecticut.

- A COMPANY_from Sweden, under the leadership of Olaf Olson, settled at Bishop Hill, in Illinois.

They were a religious community. In 1853 they were incorporated as an association by the legislature, and in 1860 divided their property, and in 1862 ceased to exist.

1846, JUNE 15. - A treaty between Great Britain and the United States settled the Oregon question.

The country was greatly excited concerning the question. Congress, after a long and violent discussion, had passed a resolution, which was approved by the President on the 27th of April, to give notice to Great Britain for the abrogation of the joint occupancy of Oregon as settled by the convention of August 6, 1827. The notice had been sent, and the suspense as to its reception by Great Britain was fortunately ended by the news of the treaty. The dividing line, by the treaty, was the forty-ninth degree of latitude, from the Stony Mountains west to the middle of the channel separating Vancouver's Island from the main land; thence southerly through the middle of the channel and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific. The channel and straits to be free, as also the great northern branch of the Columbia River. The treaty was ratified and proclaimed by the President, August 5, 1846.

1846, JULY 3. — Congress passed a tariff act to take effect December 1. It was intended for revenue.

All articles not free were charged ad valorem duties. The duties were cash; and the bonded warehouse system was inaugurated. The collections were in coin, and the independent treasury system for the transaction of the government's business in cash was inaugurated. The tariff averaged twenty-four and a half

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1816. --The first volume of the American Short-horn HerdBook was published.

1846, JULY 7. — The Pacific squadron took possession of Monterey, Mexico.

Commodore Sloat was in command of the squadron.
1846, JULY 9. - Commodore Montgomery captured Francisco.

1846, July 15.-- Commodore Stockton took possession of Los Angeles, the capital.

He took possession in the name of the President of the United States. Colonel Fremont, with a party of Americans, had previously established an independent

rnment at Francisco. 1846, JULY 22.- Congress authorized the issue of treasury notes, “not exceeding the sum of ten millions of dollars of this emission outstanding at any one time.”

They were to be issued “as the exigencies of the government may require.” Or the president might borrow, giving stock for the sum he borrowed, provided

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that “the sum so borrowed, together with the treasury notes," did not exceed ten millions. The treasury notes and the stock were to bear six per cent. interest, and no part was to be disposed of " at less than par.”

1846. — CONGRESS passed a warehouse bill.

It authorized the storage in public stores of imported articles, the to be paid when they were withdrawn for consumption.

1846, AUGUST 6. - The independent treasury was re-established, and the receipts and disbursements of the government were ordered to be in gold.

An issue of treasury notes, and a loan or loans to the amount of twenty-eight million dollars were authorized.

1846.- THE Smithsonian Institute was founded.

1846, SEPTEMBER 10.- A patent for a sewing machine was granted to Elias Howe, Jr., of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

It had the eye of the needle near the point, and, by the use of a shuttle, made a lock stitch. In 1850, the Singer machine was patented; in 1851, the Wheeler and Wilson; in 1852, the Grover and Baker; in 1857, the Wilcox and Gibbs, besides various others, modifications and improvements upon the original idea.

1846.- A PATENT for a carpet power-loom, for making two and three ply ingrain, was granted to Erastus B. Bigelow, of Massachusetts.

1846, SEPTEMBER 20. — The American army, under General Taylor, stormed Monterey, in Mexico.

The contest lasted three days, when the garrison capitulated.

1846, SEPTEMBER 24. — Monterey surrendered to the forces under General Taylor.

1846, OCTOBER 16. — The first public application of ether, to deaden pain in surgical operations, was made at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

It had been used before in dental operations. There are three claimants to the credit of first suggesting it. Dr. Morton and Dr. Jackson, of Boston, and Dr. Wells, of Hartford, Connecticut.

1846, DECEMBER 23.- Santa Anna was elected provisional president of Mexico, and Gomez Farias vice-president.

Santa Anna had returned, and the constitution of 1824 had been re-established.

1847, JANUARY 9. - A decree was passed by the congress of Mexico authorizing the government to raise fifteen millions of dollars, to carry on the war with the United States, by the sale or mortgage of the real estate then in possession of the Church.

The decree was approved by the president, and protested against by the archbishop.

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1847, FEBRUARY 22. — The battle of Buena Vista was fought.

It lasted two days. The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, were defeated by the Americans under General Taylor.

1847, MARCH 9. - General Scott with his army landed at Vera Cruz, and with the fleet, under Commodore Connor, invested the town.

On the 29th the fort and town surrendered. It had been bombarded nine days.

1847, MARCH 29. – Vera Cruz was captured by the Americans under General Scott.

1847, APRIL 18. — The battle of Cerro Gordo was fought.

It occurred in a pass on the road from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, towards which General Scott was advancing. The Mexicans were commanded by Santa Anna. The battle lasted two days, and was one of the most decisive of the war, the Mexicans being defeated.

1847. The type-revolving press was patented by Richard M. Hoe.

The type set on cylinders, revolves. The ten-cylinder presses, which make the printing of the modern newspaper possible, were the outgrowth of this invention.

1847, APRIL 19. — General Scott with his army entered Jalapa.

Four days after, the castle of Perote, the strongest fortress after Vera Cruz in Mexico, was in possession of the Americans.

1847, MAY 8.- The battle of Palo Alto was fought.

The Mexicans, under General Arista, were defeated. The next day, the battle of Resaca de la Palma took place, in which again General Taylor was victorious, the Mexicans retreating across the Rio Grande.

1847, August. — General Scott with his army reached the city of Mexico, and made an armistice with Santa Anna for the purpose of negotiating a peace.

In September hostilities began again, each party accusing the other of violating the armistice.

1847, August 20. — The battle of Churubusco was fought.

The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, retreated towards the city of Mexico, and General Scott continued his advance with his army,

1847.- The National Era appeared in Washington.

It was published by Dr. Gamaliel Bailey, and was in the interest of the abolition party. In 1851 Uncle Tom's Cabin appeared in it as a serial. The National Era was a continuation of The Philanthropist, which Dr. Bailey, with James C. Birney, had printed in Cincinnati, where it was several times mobbed, but was continued until Dr. Bailey moved to Washington and commenced the National Era. This was also mobbed.

1847. – GOLD was discovered in California.

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1847–57. — The government paid only gold coin.

1847. — The Springfield Republican appeared in Springfield, Massachusetts.

It was published by Samuel Bowles & Co.

1847, August 20. — The battle of Contreras took place in Mexico.

It was fought in the night. The Mexicans were commanded by General Valencia, and were defeated by the Americans under General Scott.

1847. — SALT LAKE CITY, Utah, was founded by the Mormons.

Brigham Young, with an advance party, reached Salt Lake Valley, in Utah. The rest of the community did not arrive until the next autumn.

1847, August 31. — Illinois accepted her present constitution.

1847. GENEVA COLLEGE admitted a woman student to the medical department.

The other medical colleges had all refused. The student was Elizabeth Blackwell, who, after her graduation in 1849, completed her studies in Paris.

1847. — A PATENT for a power-loom to make Brussels and tapestry carpets was granted to Erastus B. Bigelow.

1847, SEPTEMBER 8. — The battle of El Molino del Rey was fought.

The Americans were the attacking party, and were eventually victorious.

1847, SEPTEMBER 13. — The fortress of Chapultepec was carried by storm.

It commanded the city of Mexico. Its capture by the Americans, under General Scott, practically ended the Mexican war.

1847. — An appropriation was made for the survey of the government mineral lands in Michigan.

Dr. C. T. Jackson was made superintendent of the survey.

1848, JANUARY 1. — Girard College was opened in Philadel. phia.

It was founded for the education of orphan boys from a bequest of two million dollars left by Stephen Girard. By his special provisions the pupils are taught morality, but all dogmatic religious instruction was forbidden. No minister, missionary, or ecclesiastic was ever to have anything to do with the institution, or even to be admitted as a visitor.

1848, FEBRUARY 1.- A convention at Madison City accepted a constitution for the state of Wisconsin.

It was ratified by the people of the state March 14, and the same year the state was admitted to the Union.

1848, FEBRUARY 2. — A treaty of peace between Mexico and the United States was made at Guadalupe Hidalgo.

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