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that “the sum so borrowed, together with the treasury notes,” did not exceed ten millions. The treasury notes and the stock were to bear six per cent. interest, and no part was to be disposed of " at less than par.”
1846. — CONGRESS passed a warehouse bill.
It authorized the storage in public stores of imported articles, the duty to be paid when they were withdrawn for consumption.
1846, August 6.- The independent treasury was re-established, and the receipts and disbursements of the government were ordered to be in gold.
An issue of treasury notes, and a loan or loans to the amount of twenty-eight million dollars were authorized.
1846. --The Smithsonian Institute was founded.
1846, SEPTEMBER 10. – A patent for a sewing machine was granted to Elias Howe, Jr., of Cambridge, Massachusetts.
It had the eye of the needle near the point, and, by the use of a shuttle, made a lock stitch. In 1850, the Singer machine was patented; in 1851, the Wheeler and Wilson; in 1852, the Grover and Baker; in 1857, the Wilcox and Gibbs, besides various others, modifications and improvements upon the original idea.
1846. — A PATENT for a carpet power-loom, for making two and three ply ingrain, was granted to Erastus B. Bigelow, of Massachusetts.
1846, SEPTEMBER 20. — The American army, under General Taylor, stormed Monterey, in Mexico.
The contest lasted three days, when the garrison capitulated.
1846, SEPTEMBER 24. - Monterey surrendered to the forces under General Taylor.
1846, OCTOBER 16. — The first public application of ether, to deaden pain in surgical operations, was made at the Massachusetts General Hospital.
It had been used before in dental operations. There are three claimants to the credit of first suggesting it. Dr. Morton and Dr. Jacksoh, of Boston, and Dr. Wells, of Hartford, Connecticut.
1846, DECEMBER 23.- Santa Anna was elected provisional president of Mexico, and Gomez Farias vice-president.
Santa Anna had returned, and the constitution of 1824 had been re-established.
1847, JANUARY 9. — A decree was passed by the congress of Mexico authorizing the government to raise fifteen millions of dollars, to carry on the war with the United States, by the sale or mortgage of the real estate then in possession of the Church.
The decree was approved by the president, and protested against by the archbishop.
1847, FEBRUARY 22. — The battle of Buena Vista was fought.
It lasted two days. The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, were defeated by the Americans under General Taylor. 1847, MARCH 9. — General Scott with his army landed at
, Vera Cruz, and with the fleet, under Commodore Connor, invested the town.
On the 29th the fort and town surrendered. It had been bombarded nine days.
1847, MARCH 29.- Vera Cruz was captured by the Americans under General Scott
1847, APRIL 18. — The battle of Cerro Gordo was fought.
It occurred in a pass on the road from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, towards which General Scott was advancing. The Mexicans were commanded by Santa Anna. The battle lasted two days, and was one of the most decisive of the war, the Mexicans being defeated.
1847. — The type-revolving press was patented by Richard M. Hoe.
The type set on cylinders, revolves. The ten-cylinder presses, which make the printing of the modern newspaper possible, were the outgrowth of this invention. 1847, APRIL 19. — General Scott with his army entered Jalapa.
– . Four days after, the castle of Perote, the strongest fortress after Vera Cruz in Mexico, was in possession of the Americans.
1847, MAY 8. — The battle of Palo Alto was fought.
The Mexicans, under General Arista, were defeated. The next day, the battle of Resaca de la Palma took place, in which again General Taylor was victorious, the Mexicans retreating across the Rio Grande.
1847, August. — General Scott with his army reached the city of Mexico, and made an armistice with Santa Anna for the purpose of negotiating a peace.
In September hostilities began again, each party accusing the other of violating the armistice.
1847, August 20. — The battle of Churubusco was fought.
The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, retreated towards the city of Mexico, and General Scott continued his advance with his army.
1847. — The National Era appeared in Washington.
It was published by Dr. Gamaliel Bailey, and was in the interest of the abolition party. In 1851 Uncle Tom's Cabin appeared in it as a serial. The National Era was a continuation of The Philanthropist, which Dr. Bailey, with James C. Birney, had printed in Cincinnati, where it was several times mobbed, but was continued until Dr. Bailey moved to Washington and commenced the National Era. This was also mobbed.
1847. - GOLD was discovered in California.
1847–57. — The government paid only gold coin.
1847. — THE Springfield Republican appeared in Springfield, Massachusetts.
It was published by Samuel Bowles & Co.
1847, AUGUST 20. — The battle of Contreras took place in Mexico.
It was fought in the night. The Mexicans were commanded by General Valencia, and were defeated by the Americans under General Scott.
1847. — SALT LAKE City, Utah, was founded by the Mormons.
Brigham Young, with an advance party, reached Salt Lake Valley, in Utah. The rest of the community did not arrive until the next autumn.
1847, August 31. — Illinois accepted her present constitution.
1847. · GENEVA COLLEGE admitted a woman student to the medical department.
The other medical colleges had all refused. The student was Elizabeth Blackwell, who, after her graduation in 1849, completed her studies in Paris.
1847.- A PATENT for a power-loom to make Brussels and tapestry carpets was granted to Erastus B. Bigelow. 1847, SEPTEMBER 8. — The battle of El Molino del Rey was ,
The Americans were the attacking party, and were eventually victorious.
1847, SEPTEMBER 13.- The fortress of Chapultepec was car. ried by storm.
It commanded the city of Mexico. Its capture by the Americans, under General Scott, practically ended the Mexican war.
1847. — An appropriation was made for the survey of the government mineral lands in Michigan.
Dr. C. T. Jackson was made superintendent of the survey.
1848, JANUARY 1. – Girard College was opened in Philadel. phia.
It was founded for the education of orphan boys from a bequest of two million dollars left by Stephen Girard. By his special provisions the pupils are taught morality, but all dogmatic religious instruction was forbidden. No minister, missionary, or ecclesiastic was ever to have anything to do with the institution, or even to be admitted as a visitor.
1848, FEBRUARY 1. – A convention at Madison City accepted a constitution for the state of Wisconsin.
It was ratified by the people of the state March 14, and the same year the state was admitted to the Union.
1848, FEBRUARY 2. — A treaty of peace between Mexico and the United States was made at Guadalupe Hidalgo.