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It was negotiated by Mr. Trist, who had been authorized by the President to make a treaty, and the Mexican commissioners. By it the Rio Grande was acknowledged as the boundary between Mexico and the United States, and New Mexico and California were ceded to the United States, who agreed to pay Mexico fifteen millions of dollars, and assume the payment of American claims for an amount not to exceed three and a quarter millions. The treaty was ratified by both governments, and proclaimed by the President of the United States July 4, 1848.

1848. — The Illinois and Michigan Canal was finished. The work had been begun the 4th of July, 1836.

1848. — A MEETING was held at Seneca Falls, New York, to inaugurate the movement for the political equality of women.

It was called by Mrs. Lucretia Mott and Mrs. E. C. Stanton. The same year another meeting for the same purpose was held at Rochester, New York, and a third at Salem, Ohio. This last was conducted entirely by women.

1848. — The New York State Agricultural Society had a trial of reapers at their fair in Buffalo.

The machines were thought to be unequal to the common scythe. 1848.- ONE thousand pounds of guano were imported.

The next year over 21,000 pounds were imported, and between 1860 and 1870, 387,585 tons. The first guano imported into England consisted of twenty casks sent there in 1840. In 1841, 2000 tons were carried there. Attention had been called to the value of guano as a fertilizer by Humboldt and Sir Humphrey Davy.

1848, MARCH. — The “spirit rapping" phenomenon began in the house of John D. Fox, in Hydesville, New York.

It was on the 31st of the month that the two daughters, near whose bed the noises occurred, first attempted to have the “spirits” answer questions. Soon after, the family removed to Rochester, and there the table-tipping, &c., began, and in November, 1849, a public meeting was called to investigate the subject, at which the Misses Fox made their first public appearance.

1848. — AFTER the treaty between the United States and Mexico, Santa Anna was again banished, and Herrera was appointed president.

1848, JULY.- A school for the instruction of idiots was opened at Barre, Massachusetts.

Dr. Hervey B. Wilbur was the instructor. In 1851 permanent institutions were organized by the states of Massachusetts and New York, and in 1857 Ohio and Pennsylvania organized institutions.

1848, OCTOBER 25. - The works for supplying Boston, Massachusetts, with water from Cochituate Lake were completed.

The aqueduct is twenty-three miles long. The works were begun in 1846.







1848. - MARYLAND resumed payment.
1848. — The Republic appeared in Washington.

It was published as the organ of General Taylor's administration by Alexander Babbitt and John 0. Sargent, but did not long survive the death of General Tay. lor, when the National Intelligencer was made the organ of President Fillmore.

1848, OCTOBER. — A convention was held in New Mexico, and a petition sent to Congress praying that the territory should be protected against the introduction of slavery.

The provision, known as the Wilmot proviso, had been unsuccessfully introduced into Congress several times since 1846. It substantially was the extension of the ordinance of 1787 forbidding the introduction of slavery into the new territory acquired by the United States. The persistence with which it was voted down led to the introduction of anti-slavery as the basis for a new political party called the “ free soil” party.

1845-1849. — TENTH administration. President,

James K. Polk, of Tennessee.

Geo. M. Dallas, of Pennsylvania.
Secretary of State, James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, March 6, 1846.
Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, of Mississippi, March 5, 1845.
Secretary of War, William L. Marcy, of New York, March 5, 1845.

George Bancroft, of Massachusetts, March 10, 1845.
Secretaries of Navy,

John Y. Mason, of Virginia, September 9, 1846. Postmaster-General, Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, March 5, 1845.

John Y. Mason, of Virginia, March 5, 1845. Attorneys-General, Nathan Clifford, of Maine, October 17, 1846.

Isaac Toucey, of Connecticut, June 21, 1848. Speakers of the House of Representatives,

John W. Davis, of Indiana, Twenty-ninth Congress, 1845.

Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, Thirtieth Congress, 1847. 1849, JANUARY 1.- The public debt amounted to sixty-three millions.

1849. The Erie Railway was completed.

1849. - THE New York Associated Press Association was formed.

There had been combinations of newspapers before for the purpose of obtaining news, but this was the most extensive and permanent one. It was composed of the Journal of Commerce, the Courier and Enquirer, the Tribune, Ierald, Sun, and Erpress. In 1851 the Times became a member, and in 1859 the World.

1849, JANUARY 5.- The Senate confirmed a convention between Great Britain and the United States for the "improvement of the communication by post between the two countries."

It had been made on the 15th of December, 1848.

1849. — THE “ Department of the Interior," or home department, was created by Congress.

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Its head officer had the title Secretary of the Interior, and was a member of the Cabinet.

1849, Macru 3. — Congress added the double eagle and the dollar to the number of gold coins.

1849, MARCH 3. — Minnesota was organized as a territory, and Alexander Ramsey was appointed the first governor.

1849, MAY 10.– The Astor-Place riot took place in New York city.

The friends of Edwin Forrest, an actor, sought to prevent Macready, the English actor, from playing at the Opera House.

1849, AUGUST 11. -- The President issued a proclamation for. bidding the fitting out of warlike expeditions against Cuba.

The expedition which was in preparation was given up.

1849, SEPTEMBER 1. – A convention met at Monterey, and formed a constitution for California.

The discovery of gold had led to an influx of emigration from all over the world. The constitution forbade any legal distinctions on religious grounds; foreigners, who are bona fide citizens, were secured the same rights as natives; wives were secured in their right to hold property independent of the husband's control; the state was forbidden to lend its credit to any corporation, or becomo a stockholder in any such.

1850, A PRIL. — A treaty was made between the United States and Great Britain, known as the Clayton-Bulwer treaty.

By it both countries covenanted that neither would ever occupy, colonize, or exercise dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central America.

1850, MAY 24. - An Arctic expedition in search of Sir John Franklin sailed from New York.

It consisted of the “Advance" and the "Rescue,” under the command of Lieutenant De Haven. The ships were fitted out by the government, the expense being paid by Henry Grinnell, of New York. The expedition returned in October, 1851.

1850, JUNE 10.-" The American Bible Union" was organ. . ized in New York.

1850, JULY 9. - President Taylor died. The next day, Vice-President Fillmore took the oath of office as President.

1850.- The Collins line of steamers began to run between New York and Liverpool.

They were an American line.
1850, JULY 31.- Utah was organized as a territory.

Salt Lake City was made the capital, and Colonel Steptoe appointed governor, Brigham Young, the Mormon leader, being deposed. The Mormons refused to submit to the authority of the government, and forced the federal judges to leave the territory.

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