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1850. - NEW MEXICO was organized into a territory, and a bill fixing the boundaries of Texas passed by Congress.

By a proviso it was agreed that the provisions of the bill should not impair the joint resolution of 1845 for the annexation of Texas, either as regards the num. ber of states that might be formed out of the state of Texas, or otherwise.

1850, AUGUST. — The fugitive slave bill was passed by Con. gress.

It imposed a fine of one thousand dollars, and six months imprisonment, on any person harboring fugitive slaves, or aiding them to escape.

1850, SEPTEMBER 9. - California was admitted into the Union. The act was passed by Congress after a long and violent debate.

1850, SEPTEMBER. The slave trade was abolished in the Dis. trict of Columbia, by act of Congress.

1850, OCTOBER 19. — The first national convention of the wo. man suffrage party was held at Worcester, Massachusetts.

It was called by Mrs. Paulina Wright Davis, who presided over it. The convention was in session two days, the 19th and 20th.

1850. — A COMPANY under Etienne Cabet settled at Nauvoo, Illinois.

They bought the houses deserted by the Mormons. They were a community. Eventually this settlement was abandoned, and a portion settled at Corning, Iowa, where they formed the Icarian community.

1850. The act providing for the census this year fixed the number of members the House of Representatives should contain, so that the ratio of the representation of the different states had to be calculated to suit this limit.

This simple measure put an end to the disputes which had constantly arisen from the formation of the government concerning the ratios of representation.

1850.- The use of the whip on shipboard, both in the navy and the merchant service, was abolished by an act of Congress.

1850.- The manufacture of zinc was begun by the New Jer. sey Zinc Company.

1851, MARCH 3. — Congress added the three-cent piece to the number of silver coins.

1851. The public debt of the United States amounted to sixty-three million three hundred thousand dollars.

1851. — The legislature of Maine passed a law prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or use of intoxicating drinks.

1851. — The Congressional Library was founded at Washington.

1851. - The State University of Wisconsin was founded.

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It was established at Madison, and endowed with three hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

1851, SEPTEMBER 1. - A mob destroyed the quarantine build. ings at Castleton, Staten Island, New York.

The health officers of the town had declared the Quarantine Hospital a nuisance. The island was declared in rebellion, and the governor ordered troops there. A floating hospital, about twelve miles from the shore, was subsequently arranged.

1851, SEPTEMBER 18. — The New York Times appeared in New York city.

It was published by Henry J. Raymond, George Jones, E. B. Morgan, D. B. St. John, and E. R. Wesley. The firm afterwards was styled Henry J. Raymond & Co. Henry J. Raymond was the editor. He died June 18, 1869.

1851. — The New York Ledger appeared in New York city.

It was published by Robert Bonner, and was founded upon the Merchants' Ledger, which he had purchased. By a persistent course of advertising, it has been brought to an enormous circulation, which is said to reach nearly four hundred thousand.

1852. — At a fair of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture a competition of reapers was held.

The judges reported there was no striking superiority in any of the machines shown. The New York State Agricultural Society had a competition of mowers and reapers at their fair at Geneva, in which nine reapers and seven mowers competed. The judges decided that, in comparison with the hand-cradle, they showed a saving of eighty-eight and three-fourth cents an acre.

1852. - The third national woman's rights convention was held at Syracuse, New York.

Susan B. Anthony first appeared publicly in this convention.

1852. — Antioch COLLEGE, at Yellow Springs, Ohio, was incorporated.

It was the first institution for the co-education of the sexes in the same course of study. Horace Mann, of Massachusetts was chosen its president, and continued there until his death.

1852. — The Public City Library, at Boston, Massachusetts, was founded.

1852.- A MINT was established in San Francisco, California.

Previously, gold dust, or coins made by private parties, had served as a currency.

1852. — The Smithsonian Institute organized a system of vol. unteer reports of meteorological observations, extending all over the country.

In 1874 they were given in charge of the Signal Service Bureau.

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1849-1853. — ELEVENTH administration. President,

Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana, died July 9, 1850. Vice-President,

Millard Fillmore, of New York, succeeded to office.

J. M. Clayton, of Delaware, March 7, 1849. Secretaries of State, Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, July 20, 1850.

Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, December 9, 1852. Secretaries of Treasury,

SW. M. Meredith, of Pennsylvania, March 7, 1849.

Thomas Corwin, of Ohio, July 20, 1850.

G. W. Crawford, of Georgia, March 7, 1849. Secretaries of War, W. A. Graham, of North Carolina, July 20, 1850.

John P. Kennedy, of Maryland, July 22, 1852. Secretaries of Nayy, William Graham, of North Carolina, July 20, 1850.

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Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, March 7, 1849. Secretaries of Interior,

James A. Pearce, of Maryland, July 20, 1850. (a new office)

Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Virginia, Sept. 12, 1850.

Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, March 9, 1849. Postmasters-General, N. K. Hall, of New York, July 20, 1850.

Samuel D. Hubbard, of Connecticut, August 31, 1862. Attorneys-General,

S Reverdy Johnson, of Maryland, March 7, 1849.

2 John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, July 20, 1850. Speakers of the House of Representatives,

Howell Cobb, of Georgia, Thirty-first Congress, 1849.

Linn Boyd, of Kentucky, Thirty-second Congress, 1851. 1853, JANUARY 1. — Una appeared in Providence, Rhode Island.

It was the first woman's rights paper, and was edited by Mrs. Paulina Wright Davis, who had lectured before women upon physiology as early as 1844.

1853. -- The first woman's medical college was opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The same year, Antoinette Brown was ordained as a minister of a church in New York state.

1853, JANUARY 1. — The Illustrated News appeared in New York city.

It lived only a year.

1853, FEBRUARY 21. - Congress added the three-dollar gold piece to the number of coins.

Silver being rated so low that it was exported, the weight of silver in the coinage was lessened, and the mint made a charge for coining it for individuals. The silver coins issued under this were made “legal tenders in payment of debts for all sums not exceeding five dollars."

1853, MARCH 3. -- Congress passed an act instituting a survey of a railway route from the Mississippi to the Pacific.

Supplementary acts were passed in May and August, 1854. The report of the surveys was published in 1855-61, in thirteen volumes.

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1853. WASHINGTON TERRITORY was formed from the northern half of Oregon.

1853. — CONGRESS voted the payment of seven millions for the Gadsden purchase from Mexico.

It added twenty-seven thousand five hundred square miles to the territory of the United States.

1853, MARCH 4. — Franklin Pierce, in his inaugural address as President, expressed the conviction that the question of slavery was settled.

He said: “I believe that involuntary servitude, as it exists in different states in this confederacy, is recognized by the Constitution. I believe that it stands like any other admitted right, and that the states where it exists are entitled to efficient remedies to enforce the constitutional provisions. I hold that the laws of 1850, commonly called the compromise measures,' are strictly constitutional, and to be unhesitatingly carried into effect. I fervently hope that the question is at rest, and that no sectional, or ambitious, or fanatical excitement may again threaten the durability of our institutions, or obscure the light of our prosperity.”

1853, MARCH 17. - Santa Anna, who had been recalled from exile, was for the fifth time placed at the head of the Mexican government, with the title of President.

In reality he was clothed with unlimited power.

1853, MAY 10. — The British Parliament abolished in Canada the "clergy reserves.”

1853, July 14. — The Crystal Palace, New York, was opened for a universal industrial exhibition.

1853, JULY. - Martin Koszta, an Hungarian by birth, but a naturalized citizen, was liberated, as such, by the Austrian authorities.

The demand was made by Captain Ingraham, in command of the sloop-of-war St. Louis. The occurrence took place at Smyrna, where Koszta had been seized by the Austrian consul-general. For this vindication of the rights of naturalized citizens, Congress voted Captain Ingraham a medal.

1853. — A SECOND Arctic expedition in search of Sir John Franklin sailed from New York in the spring.

It was commanded by Dr. Kane. The expense was borne by Messrs. Grinnell of New York, and Peabody of London. It returned in the fall of 1855.

1853. - The first volume of the American Nautical Almanack was published.

It was supervised by Captain C. H. Davis, who was assisted by Professors Peirce and Winlock, of Harvard University.

1853. — The first successful steam fire-engine was used in Cincinnati, Ohio.

It was built by A. B. Latta. In 1841, one had been built for the insurance companies in New York, but its excessive weight rendered it practically useless.

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1853. — The New York Clipper appeared in New York city. It was published by Frank Queen, and was the first theatrical journal. 1853. — The New York Clearing House was established.

It was organized by fifty-two banks in the city, and enables them to settle bal. ances of millions by the payment of the slight difference of accounts. In the spring of 1856, the Boston Clearing House went into operation.

1854, JANUARY 9. - The Astor Library, in New York city, was opened to the public.

John Jacob Astor left the endowment for it at his death in 1848.

1854. — The artesian well in the Belcher Sugar Refinery at St. Louis was completed.

It was begun in 1849, and is said to be the deepest in the world, being 2199 feet deep.

1854. – Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper appeared in New York city.

1854, MAY 30. — An act was passed "to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska."

The bill was introduced by Stephen A. Douglas, the chairman of the Senate committee on territories. One of its provisions was as follows: “That the constitution and all the laws of the United States which are not locally inapplicable, shall have the same force and effect within the said territory as elsewhere within the United States, except the eighth section of the act preparatory to the admission of Missouri into the Union, approved March 6, 1820, which being inconsistent with the principle of non-intervention by Congress with slavery in the states and territories, as recognized by the legislation of 1850, commonly called the Compromise Measures, is hereby declared inoperative and void : it being the true intent and meaning of this act, not to legislate slavery into any territory or state, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the constitution of the United States : Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to revive or put in force any law or regulation which may have existed prior to the act of 6th of March, 1820, either protecting, establishing, prohibiting, or abolishing slavery.” On the passage of this act societies were instituted in both the northern and southern states to aid emigration to Kansas, those in the northern to keep slavery from Kansas, and those in the southern to introduce it.

1854. — A TREATY was made with Japan.

It was made by Commodore Perry, and opened that country to commercial intercourse with the United States.

1854. — A RECIPROCITY treaty was made between Great Britain and the United States.

It opened the colonial ports to commerce.

1854. — A FACTORY for preparing kerosene oil was started at Newtown, Long Island.

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