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Rule I. A verb in the infinitive mode (if it be governed) 18 usually placed before the word which governs it.

II. A noun in an oblique case is commonly placed before the word which governs it; whether that word be a verb, or another noun-substantive, adjective, or participle.

III. Dependent clauses, as well as single words, are placed before the principal finite verb, on which such clauses do mainly depend.

IV. The finite verb is commonly placed last in its own clause.

V. Prepositions usually precede the cases governed by them.



VI. First Concord. The finite verb is usually placed after its nominative case, sometimes at the distance of many words.

VII. Second Concord. The adjective or participle is commonly placed after the substantive with which it agrees.

VIII. Third Concord. The relative is commonly placed after the antecedent with which it

agrees. IX. Third Concord. The relative is placed as near to the antecedent as possible.



X. Adverbs. Adverbs are placed before, rather than after, the words to which they belong.

XI. Adverbs. Adverbs are in general placed immediately before the words to which they belong; no extraneous words coming between.

XII. Igitur, uutem, enim, etiam, are very seldom placed first in a clause or sentence. The enclitics que, ne, ve, are never placed first.

XIII. Tamen is very often and elegantly placed after the first, second, or third word of the clause in which it stands.

XIV. Connected words should go together ; that is, they may not be separated from one another by words that are extraneous, and have no relation to them.

XV. Cadence. The cadence, or concluding part of a clause or sentence, should very seldom consist of monosyllables.

XVI. So far as other rules and perspicuity will allow, in the arrangement and choice of words, when the foregoing ends with a vowel, let the next begin with a consonant; and vice versa.

XVII. In general a redundancy of short words must be avoided.

XVIII. In general a redundancy of long words must be avoided.

XIX. In geveral there must be no redundancy of long


XX. In general there must be no redundancy of short


XXI. The last syllables of the foregoing word must not be the same as the first syllables of the word following.

XXII. Many words, which bear the same quantity, which begin alike or end alike, or which have the same characteristic letter in declension or conjugation, (many such words,) may not come together.

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1. A muse. 2. Of water. 3. To 1. Musa.

2. Aqua a pen.

4. A chest. 5. O want. 3. Penna. 4. Arca (acc.). 6. With a sling

5. Inopia. 6. Funda. 1. Helmets. 2. Of axes. 3. 1. Galea. 2. Ascia. To grandmothers. 4. Whales. 3. Avia. 4. Balana (acc.). 5. O beasts. 6. From chains. 5. Bellua. 6. Catena.

1. Souls. 2. Of goddesses. 3. 1. Anima. 2. Dea. To daughters. 4. Mares. 5.0 3. Filia. 4. Equa (acc.). female servants. 6. With freed- 5. Famŭla. 6. Liberta.


1. The north wind. 2. Of a 1. Boreas. 2. Tiāras. turban. 3. To Penelope. 4. 3. Penelope. 4. Æneas Æneas. 5. O Anchises. 6. In (acc.). 5. Anchises. 6. oratory.

Rhetorica. 1. To winter. 2. With a beard. 1. Bruma. 2. Barba. 3. By slander. 4. I beheld a cot 3. Calumnia. 4. Vidi tage. 5. Of a comedy. 6. I hear casa (acc.). 5. Comedia. a harp.

6. Audio cithăra. 1. In chests. 2. Qf pigeons. 1. Cista. 2. Columba. 3, To the boats. 4. He hunts 3. Cymba. 4. Venātur wild beasts. 5. Flames.

fera. 5. Flamma. 1. A bride. 2. In the stars. 3. 1. Sponsa. 2. Stella. Of trumpets. 4. To a violet. 5. He 3. Tuba. 4. Viðla. 5. cultivates the earth. 6. O vipers. Colit terra. 6. Vipěra.

7. A victim. 8. To daughters. 7. Victima. 8. Nata. 9. To number the stars.

9. Dinumerāre stella.


1. A father-in-law. 2. Of an 1. Socer. 2. Armiger. armour-bearer. 3. To a man. 3. Vir. 4. Presbyter (acc.). 4. An elder. 5. 0 Vulcan. 5. Mulciber. 6. Gener. 6. With a son-in-law.

1. Boys. 2. Of knives. 3. To 1. Puer. 2. Culter. the Spaniards. 4. Masters. 5. 3. Iber. 4. Magister (acc.). O servants. 6. In the fields. 5. Minister. 6. Ager.

1. Judges. 2. Of the south 1. Arbiter. 2. Auster. wind. : 3. To a workman. 4. The 3. Faber. 4. Vir (acc.).

5. O Bacchits. 6. With 5. Liber. 6. Coluber. serpents.

i. A heap. 2. Of a kettle. 1. Acervus. 2. Cacăbus. 3. To a reed. 4. A wand. 5.0 3. Calămus. 4. Caduceus elephant. 6. In a year.

(acc.). 5. Barrus. 6. An


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1. Horses. 2. Of rivers. 3. To 1. Equus. 2. Fluvius. the ravens. 4. Men-servants. 3. Corvus. 4. Famulus 5. O wolves. 6. With hooks. (acc.). 5. Lupus. 6. Ha

mus. 1. A patron. 2. With philoso 1. Patronus. 2. Phiphers. 3. To rocks. 4. I love losòphus. 3. Scopulus. sleep. 5. O spears. 6. A bride- 4. Amo somnus. 5. Spagroom.

rus. 6. Sponsus. 1. A shrine. 2. With a grain. 1. Adỹtum. 2. Granum. 3. To the chin.. 4. A member. 3. Mentum. 4. Membrum 5. O silver. 6. In a temple. (acc.). 5. Argentum. 6.

Delūbrum. 1. Horace. 2. Of Androgeos. 1. Horatius. 2. Andro3. To Evander. 4. Delus. 5.0 geos.

3. Evandrus. 4. Virgil. 6. From Athos.

Delus or. Delos (acc.). 5.
Virgilius. 6. Athos.


1. A riddle. 2. Of a charter. 3. To a poem.

4. A theme. a. By a pedigree.

J. Shields. 2. Of robbers.

1. Ænigma. 2. Diploma. 3. Poēma. '4. The ma (acc.). 5. Stemma.

1. Ancile. 2. Latro

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