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first and second class. In cases of accident or unavoidable delay, extra labor may be performed for extra compensation.

Sec. 6. Ten hours, exclusive of the necessary time for meals, shall constitute a legal day's work in the making of brick in brickyards owned or operated by corporations.

Sec. 7. Ten hours' labor, performed within 12 consecutive hours, shall constitute a legal day's labor in the operation of steam surface and elevated railroads owned and operated within this State, except where the mileage system of running trains is in operation.

Sec. 77, subdivision 2. No male minor under the age of 18 years shall be employed or permitted to work in any factory in this State more than six days or 60 hours in any one week, or for more than 10 hours in any one day, except as hereafter provided.

OHIO.

ANNOTATED STATUTES. PART II, SEC. 3365–14. Any company operating a railroad over 30 miles in length, in whole or in part within the State, shall not permit or require any conductor, engineer, fireman, brakeman, or any trainman on any train, or any telegraph operator who has worked in his respective capacity for 15 consecutive hours, to again be required to go on duty or perform any work until he has had at least 8 hours' rest, except in cases of detention caused by accident, unavoidable or otherwise. Ten hours shall constitute a day's work, and for every hour that any conductor, engineer, fireman, brakeman, or any trainman, or any telegraph operator of any company who works under the direction of a superior, or at the request of the company, shall be paid for such extra services in addition to his per diem.

Sec. 4364-62. In all engagements to labor in any mechanical, manufacturing, or mining business, a day's work, when the contract is silent upon the subject, or where there is no express contract, shall consist of 8 hours; and all agreements, contracts, or engagements in reference to such labor shall be so construed.

Part IV, Sec. 6986-8 (as amended by act, p. 598, acts of 1902, and act, p. 321, acts of 1904). *

* * No boy under 16 years of age and no girl under 18 years of age shall be employed at any work at night time later than 7 o'clock in the evening nor earlier than 6 o'clock in the morning, and no minor under 18 years of age shall be employed in any of the places named in section 6986–7 of the Revised Statutes of Ohio for a longer period than 10 hours in 1 day, nor more than 55 hours in 1 week; and every such minor under 18 years of age shall be entitled to no less than 30 minutes for mealtime at noon, but such mealtime shall not be included as part of the work hours

of the day.

OKLAHOMA.

(Constitution.)

ARTICLE XXIII. Section 1. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all cases of employment by and on behalf of the State or any county or municipality.

(Statutes of 1893.) PARAGRAPH 2550. Every owner, stockholder, overseer, employer, clerk, or foreman of any manufactory, workshop, or other place used for mechanical or manufacturing purposes, who, having control, shall compel any woman or any child under 18 years of age, or permit any child under 14 years of age, to labor in any day exceeding 10 hours, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction, shall be punished by fine not exceeding $100 and not less than $10.

OREGON.

(Acts of 1903.) SEC. 5. No child under 16 years of age shall be employed at any work before the hour of 7 in the morning or after the hour of 6 at night, nor employed for longer than 10 hours for any one day, nor more than 6 days in any one week.

CHAPTER II. Section 1. No female shall be employed in any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, or restaurant in this State more than 10 hours during any one day.

(Acts of 1907.) CHAPTER 143.

SECTION 1. Any person who owns or operates a steam railroad which is located wholly or partly in this State shall not permit or require any conductor, engineer, fireman, brakeman, or flagman, who, upon arrival at à terminal station, has been 10 or more consecutive hours on duty, to go again on duty until he has had at least 10 hours off duty. No conductor, engineer, fireman, brakeman, switchman, flagman, or telegraph operator shall be required or permitted to remain on duty more than 14 consecutive hours.

CHAPTER 161 Section 1. No person who operates any underground mine yielding gold or silver or copper or lead or other metal shall permit or require any person to work in such underground mine for more than 8 hours in any 24 hours and the hours of employment in such employment or workdax shall be consecutive, excluding, however, any intermission of time for lunch or meals.

CHAPTER 190. SECTION 1. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers and mechanics now employed by the State of Oregon, or by any county in said State, unless otherwise ordered as to any county by vote of the legal electors of said county, except in cases of extraordinary emergency when it may be necessary to work more than eight hours per calendar day for the protection of property or human life.

PENNSYLVANIA. SECTION 1. Eight hours of labor between the rising and the setting of the sun shall be deemed and held to be a legal day's work in all cases of labor and service by the day, where there is no contract

or agreement to the contrary: ŠEC. 2. This act shall not apply to or in any way affect farm or agricultural labor or service by the year, month, or week; nor shall any person be prevented, by any. thing herein contained, from working as many hours overtime or extra work as he or she may see fit, the compensation to be agreed upon between the employer and employee.

SEC. 268. It shall be unlawful for the president, board of directors, superintendent, or other agents of any horse, cable, or electric railway company to permit or suffer any conductor, driver, or any other person in the employ of such company to work more than 12 hours in any one day in the service of such company.

(Act No. 226.] SEC. 3. No minor under 16 and no female shall be employed in any establishment for a longer period than 60 hours in any one week, nor for a longer period than 12 hours in any one day: * And provided further, That in establishments where night work is hereby permitted to prevent waste or destruction, and where the nature of the employment requires two or more working shifts in the 24 hours, males over 14 years of age may be employed partly by day and partly by night, provided said employment does not exceed 9 consecutive hours.

PORTO RICO. Sec. 166. No child of either sex, under 16 years of age, shall be compelled to work in agricultural factories and manufacturing establishments over six hours a day, three in the morning and three in the afternoon. * * *

SEC. 624. No laborer shall be compelled to work more than 8 hours per day and they shall be, if possible, residents of the municipality.

RHODE ISLAND.

CHAPTER 198. Sec. 22. No minor under 16 years of age and no woman shall be employed in laboring in any manufacturing or mehanical establishment more than 58 hours in any one week; and in no case shall the hours of labor exceed 10 hours in any one day, except when it is necessary to make repairs, to prevent the interruption of the ordinary running of machinery, or when a different apportionment of the hours of labor is made for the sole purpose of making a shorter day's work for one day of the week.

CHAPTER 1004. SECTION 1. A day's work for all conductors, gripmen, and motormen now employed or who may hereafter be employed in the operation of all street railways, of whatever motive power, in this state, shall not exceed 10 hours work, to be performed within 12 consecutive hours. * Provided, That on all legal holidays, and on occasions when an unexpected contingency arises demanding more than the usual service by such street railway corporation to the public, or from such employees to the corporation, and in cases of accident or unavoidable delay, extra labor may be performed for extra compensation; and that nothing herein contained shall affect existing written contracts

SOUTH CAROLINA. Sec. 322. No incorporated horse railway company, electric company, or other street railway company, and no officer, agent, or servant of such corporation, and no person or persons or firm or joint stock company owning or operating any line or lines of horse railways, electric railways, or other street railways within the limits of the State, and no agent or servant of such firm, joint stock company, person, or persons shall require, permit, or suffer its, his, or their conductors, motormen, or drivers, or other such employees, or any of them, in its, his, or their service, or under his, its, or their control to work more than 12 hours during each or any day of 24 hours, and shall make no agreement or contract with such employees, or any of them, providing that they shall work for more than 12 hours during each day or any day of the 24 hours. *

(Act No. 233.) SECTION 1. Ten hours a day or 60 hours a week shall constitute the hours for working for all operatives and employees in cotton and woolen manufacturing establishments engaged in the manufacture of yarns, cloth, hosiery, and other products for merchandise except mechanics, engineers, firemen, watchmen, teamsters, yard employees, and clerical force. All contracts for longer hours of work other than herein provided in said manufacturing establishments shall be, and the same are hereby, declared null and void: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed as forbidding or preventing any such manufacturing company from making up lost time to the extent of 60 hours per annum, where such lost time has been caused by accident or other unavoidable cause.

SOUTH DAKOTA Sec. 764. Every owner, stockholder, overseer, employer, clerk, or foreman of any manufactory, workshop or other place used for mechanical or manufacturing purposes, who, having control, shall compel any woman or any child under 18 years of age, or permit any child under 14 years of age, to labor in any day exceeding 10 hours, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor

CHAPTER 220.

Sec. 1. No common carrier, nor any officer or agent thereof, shall require or permit any employee engaged in or connected with the movement of any train to remain on duty more than 16 consecutive hours, or require or permit any such employee who has been on duty 16 hours consecutively to go on duty without having had at least 10 hours off duty

TENNESSEE

CHAPTER 541.

Sec. 3. Commencing January 1, 1910, it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to employ in any manufacturing establishment in this Štate any female, or any child under the age of 16 years more than 60 hours in any one week.

TEXAS.

CHAPTER 51. Sec. 1. It shall hereafter be unlawful for any corporation or receiver operating any line of railroad in whole or in part of this State, or any officer, agent or representative of such corporation or receiver to require or permit knowingly any conductor, brakeman, engineer, fireman, train dispatcher or telegraph operator, who has been on duty for 14 consecutive hours to perform any work until he has had at least 8 hours of duty.

CHAPTER 122. Sec. 1. It shall be unlawful for any person, corporation or association operating a railroad within this State to permit any telegraph or telephone operator who spaces trains by the use of the telegraph or telephone under what is known and termed "Block system," defined as follows

to be on duty for more than 8 hours in any 24 consecutive hours: Provided, That the provisions of this act shall not apply to railroad, telegraph or telephone operators at stations where the services of only one operator is needed.

UTAH.

(Constitution.)

ARTICLE 16. Sec. 6. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work on all works or undertakings carried on or aided by the State, county or municipal governments; and the legislature shall pass laws to provide for the health and

safety of employees in factories, smelters, and mines.

Sec. 1336. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all penal institutions in this State, whether State, county, or municipal, and on all works carried on or aided by the State, county, or municipal government. Any officer of the State, or of any county, or municipal government, or any person, corporation, firm, contractor, agent, manager, or foreman who shall require or contract with any person to work in any penal institution or upon such works or undertakings longer than 8 hours in one calendar day except in cases of emergency, where life or property is in imminent danger, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

VIRGINIA. Sec. 3657b. No female and no child under 14 years of age shall work as an operative in any factory or manufacturing establishment in this State more than 10 hours in any one day of 24 hours. All contracts made or to be made for the employment of any female of or any child under the age of 14 years as an operative in any factory or manufacturing establishment to work more than ten hours in any one day of 24 hours are and shall be void.

WASHINGTON. Sec. 3312. No person, agent, officer, manager, or superintendent or received of any corporation or owner of street cars shall require his or its gripmen, motormen, drivers, or conductors to work more than 10 hours in any 24 hours.

CHAPTER 101.

Sec. 1. Hereafter 8 hours in any calendar day shall constitute a day's work on any work done for the State or any county or municipality within the State.

CHAPTER 68. Sec. 1. No female shall be employed in any mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, or restaurant in this State more than 10 hours during any day. The hours of work may be so arranged as to permit the employment of females at any time so that they shall not work more than 10 hours during the 24.

WASHINGTON

CHAPTER 44.

SECTION 1. It is a part of th9 public policy of the State of Washington that all work "by contract or day labor done” for it, or any political subdivision created by its laws, shall be performed in workdays of not more than eight hours each, except in cases of extraordinary emergency. No case of extraordinary emergency shall be construed to exist in any case where other labor can be found to take the place of the labor which has already been employed for eight hours in any calendar day.

CHAPTER 20.

It shall be unlawful for any common carrier by railroad or any of its officers or agents, to require or permit any employee engaged in or connected with the movement of any train to remain on duty more than 16 consecutive hours, except when by casualty occurring after such employee has started on his trip; or, except by accident or unavoidable delay of trains scheduled to make connection with the train on which such employee is serving, he is prevented from reaching the terminal; or to require or permit any such employee who has been on duty 16 hours in the aggregate in any 24-hour period to continue on duty without having had at least 8 hours off duty within the 24-hour period.

WEST VIRGINIA.

CHAPTER 2.

SECTION 1. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics who may be employed by or on behalf of the State of West Virginia.

Sec. 2. The service and employment of all laborers and mechanics who are now or may hereafter be employed by or on behalf of the State of West Virginia or by any contractor or subcontractor upon any of the public works of the State of West Virginia is hereby limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day.

(Acts of 1907.)

CHAPTER 59. SECTION 1. It shall be unlawful for any person, corporation, or association operating a railroad within this State to permit any person employed by them or on their railroad in the capacity of telephone or telegraph operator, whose duty it is to space or block trains or engines or handle train orders governing the movement of trains or engines, to permit such telephone or telegraph operator so employed to be on duty more than 8 hours in any 24 consecutive hours.

WISCONSIN.

(Annotated Statutes.)

Sec. 1636–106. No person under 18 years of age shall be employed or permitted to work in a cigar shop or a cigar factory at manufacturing cigars for longer than 8 hours a day or 48 hours a week.

Sec. 1728. In all manufactories, workshops, and other places used for mechanical or manufacturing purposes the time of labor of children under the age of 18 years and of women employed therein shall not exceed 8 hours in one day.

Sec. 1728c. Nó child under the age of 16 years shall be employed, required, permitted or suffered to work for wages at any gainful occupation longer than 55 hours in any one week nor more than 10 hours in any day, nor more than 6 days in one week.

SEC. 18091. It shall be unlawful for any common carrier, its officers or agents, to require or permit: (1) Any employee to be or remain on duty for a longer period than 16 consecutive hours, and whenever any such employee of such common carrier shall have been continuously on duty for 16 hours be shall be relieved and not required or permitted again to go on duty until he has had at least 10 consecutive hours off duty; and no such employee who has been on duty 16 hours in the aggregate in any 24-hour period shall be required or permitted to continue or again go on duty without having had at least 8 consecutive hours off duty.

Sec. 1816m. It shall be unlawful for any corporation or a receiver operating a line of railroad, in whole or in part, in the State of Wisconsin, or any officer, agent or representative of such corporation or receiver, to require or permit any operator to remain on duty for more than one period of 8 consecutive hours, and when said operator shall have been on duty for said 8 hours he shall be relieved and not required or permitted again to go on duty until he has had at least 16 consecutive hours off duty in any 24 hours.

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