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Figures for 1910 are estimated.
"piled from official publications of the United States Geological Survey). Gold (to 1910, inclusive)..
$178, 959, 133 Copper (to 1910, inclusive).
5, 480,000 Coal (to 1909, inclusive).
323, 189 Silver (to 1909, inclusive).
1, 184, 259 Marble and gypsum (to 1909, inclusive).
488, 758 Estimate of silver, lead, coal, marble, and gypsum for 1910.
186, 247, 195 Total fisheries and minerals, 1867–1910, $379,699,937.
The following, tables, drawn from official sources, show how valuable, extensive and permanent the trade of United States merchants with Alaska is when compared with other outlying possessions:
The total trade of Hawaii slightly exceeds that of Alaska, while that of Porto Rico just equals it.
The trade of Hawaii and Porto Rico is limited by the necessities of the population which those two islands can support, and it can not greatly increase. Both their trade and their population are near their maximum. On the contrary, the trade and population of Alaska are at their minimum and will increase for centuries to come. When Alaska's coal, its copper, and other minerals shall be opened for development, when railroads shall connect its open harbors with its rich interior and its mines, and when its great agricultural valleys shall be settled by a million farmers, its trade will greatly exceed all of these small and limited noncontiguous Territories with which it now compares.
Compare Alaska's trade with the United States with that which the United States carries on with China through the “open door," about which so much is said.
Total trade of United States.
$52, 109, 999 48, 218, 747 3,891, 252
Balance in favor of Alaska...
The United States maintains a fleet in Chinese waters and an army of consular officers around the open door; it employs the arts of diplomacy and war to protect a trade which is nearly $4,000,000 less per annum than her trade with Alaska. The balance of trade with China is heavily against the United States, and nearly $10,000,000 are thus annually lost to our country. On the contrary, the United States gets the benefit of the entire trade of Alaska, and nothing is lost. Really, the trade of Alaska is worth more than double that of the open door of China. In addition to that, it is a growing trade, in its infancy, and no limit can be set to its future increase. The China trade is small, expensive, and not liable to increase, for China, instead of becoming a market, is becoming a manufactory.
A comparison of the per capita trade value of Alaska's population with that of Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippine Islands is an instructive one.
Trade value per capita.
The trade value of Alaska's population is based upon an estimated total population of 65,000 and an estimated total white population of 40,000. Upon that estimate each white man, woman, and child in Alaska is worth, in trade value, $1,302.75; but when all the Indians and Eskimos, men, women, and children, are added it lowers the per capita value to $801.69. A white man in Alaska is worth 4.6 Hawaiians, 27 Porto Ricans, or 394 Filipinos in trade value. Add to that the value which comes from a permanent and growing trade in Alaska and you have a fair view of the comparative value
of Alaska's trade to the United States.
Every dollar of that trade from Alaska was worth double that from the foreign countries, because every dollar that came into the United States from Alaska was an American dollar, and every dollar that went to Alaska was an American dollar.
The Alaskan trade reports certainly corroborate the census reports that the population of the Territory is quite evenly distributed and is permanent; other statistics are offered to show, and we find, that there is a very low rate of crime in the Territory, and that the laws are fairly and promptly enforced by the courts.
This committee thinks that Alaska will feel the impetus of development, if a legislative body from the people shall be created and given limited power to pass laws for the Territory.
The bill recommended for passage carefully limits the power of the legislature and provides more than the usual safeguards against unwise or vicious legislation. There are, in the first place, many limitations upon the legislative power; then the governor is given the veto power, and finally power is specially reserved by Congress to repeal any act of the Territorial legislature, if desirable.
The committee makes a copy of the bill, carefully annotated, a part of this report, so that Members of Congress may have a ready opportunity to compare the various provisions of the bill as recommended for passage with similar provisions from many other Territorial organic acts, and see for themselves that the various sections in this bill are in nearly all instances exact copies of well-known,
longestablished, and carefully construed congressional enactments. There is practically nothing new in the bill; it is the mere extension to Alaska of powers given to other Territories for a century past, but more carefully limited.
The people of Washington and Oregon have also declared their interest in this legislation by the following action of their legislatures:
House joint memorial No. 3.
To the honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled:
Whereas the Territory of Alaska is settled by a hardy, active, and energetic people, numbering more than 64,000 according to the Thirteenth Census, 1910, who have in the last 10 years added in gold and fish alone more than $225,000,000 to the wealth of the Nation, and whose trade with the merchants of the United States last year amounted to more than $52,000,000, being greater than our trade with China and twice as great in value as the trade with the Philippines; and
Whereas the development of the Territory is being greatly retarded by the want of a law making or legislative body therein to be elected by the people:
Resolved by the House of Representatives of the State of Washington (the Senate concurring), That the Legislature of Washington does hereby declare its most earnest opinion that it is necessary to the development of the Pacific coast and of the resources and good government in Alaska that Congress shall, at the earliest possible date, pass an enabling act creating and providing for the organization of a Territorial legislature in Alaska to be elected by the American citizens resident therein, with such powers and limitations as have been usually given to and imposed upon such legislative assemblies in other Territories; and the Senators and Representatives in the Congress of the United States from the State of Washington are hereby requested to aid and assist in the securing of the passage of such a bill.
Resolved further, That a copy of this resolution be forthwith transmitted to the Senators from the State of Washington and to each Congressman from the State of Washington, also to each member of the Committees on the Territories of the House of Representatives and the Senate for their information in the premises. Passed by the house January 17, 1911.
HOWARD D. TAYLOR,
Speaker of the House. Passed by the senate January 20, 1911.
W. H. PAULHAMUS,
President of the Senate.
House joint resolution No. 4. Whereas the Territory of Alaska is settled by a hardy, active, and energetic people, numbering more than 64,000 according to the Thirteenth Census, 1910, who have in the last 10 years added in gold and fish alone more than $225,000,000 to the wealth of the Nation, and whose trade with the merchants of the United States last year amounted to more than $52,000,000, being greater than our trade with China and twice as great in value as our trade with the Philippines; and
Whereas the development of the Territory is being greatly retarded by the want of a lawmaking or legislative body therein, to be elected by the people: Resolved, by
the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon (the Senate and House jointly concurring), That we do hereby declare our most earnest opinion that it is necessary to the development of the Pacific coast and of the resources of and good government in Alaska that the Congress of the United States shall, at the earliest possible date, pass an enabling act creating and providing for the organization of a Territorial legislature in Alaska, to be elected by the American citizens resident therein, with such powers and limitations as have been usually given to and imposed upon such legislative assemblies in other Territories; and the Senators and Representatives in the Congress of the United States from the State of Oregon are hereby requested to aid and assist in securing the passage of such a bill. Adopted by the house January 19, 1911.
Jonn P. Rusk, Speaker of the House. Concurred in by the senate January 26, 1911.
BEN SELLING, President of the Senate. Indorsement: House joint resolution No. 4. Chief clerk. Filed in the office of the secretary of state January 31, 1911.
F. W. BENSON, Secretary of State.
The Democratic national platform adopted at Denver in 1908, under the head of "Alaska and Porto Rico," said:
We demand for the people of Alaska and Porto Rico the full enjoyment of the rights and privileges of a Territorial form of government, and the officials appointed to administer the government of all our Territories and the District of Columbia should be thoroughly qualified by previous bona fide residence.
In response to a demand from those best acquainted with the conditions in Alaska that her people ought to have an elective legislative body, we recommend the passage of the substitute bill, which is substantially the original bill with various sections omitted.