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membership of the House among the several States as can be arrived at by other methods suggested. This method has been denominated the method of "major fractions," and is thus defined: The method of major fractions selects a ratio,
divides this ratio into the population of the several States, and assigns an additional Representative for each major fraction, disregarding every minor fraction.
Another method, known as the method of 1850, is as follows: The method of 1850 divides the total population of the United States by the number of Representatives to be apportioned, thereby obtaining the ratio or number of people per Representative. It divides this ratio into the population of the several States, ranks the fractions in the order of their size, and assigns as many Representatives for fractions as is necessary to complete the number of Representatives to be apportioned. It may or may not count all the major fractions, or it may count all the major fractions and also some minor fractions.
Another method that has been under consideration by the statisticians of the Bureau of the Census, which might be called the method of ratios, presents a very interesting method, and is claimed by its advocates to reach more nearly a uniform and equitable result than any other method.
These different methods will be more fully explained in a statement submitted by Dr. Joseph A. Hill, one of the chief statisticians of the Bureau of the Census, which is attached to this report as an exhibit for information on the methods of apportionment.
It may be observed that the method advocated by Dr. Hill produces the same result as the method of major fractions adopted by the committee when applied to the apportionment of 433 Representatives, the number agreed upon by the committee.
The bill provides an increase of 42 Members more than the present House. This increase of membership received the serious consideration of the committee and while it is realized that the size of the House should not be increased more than necessary, yet an increase to such a number as would prevent any State from losing a Member is felt to be justified under the conditions existing to-day.
Every apportionment that has been made since the foundation of our Government has increased the membership of the House, except one; that was the apportionment of 1843, made under the Sixth Census, which made a reduction of 17 Members. It will be observed that this reduction was made by the Senate. The House had increased the number, but the Senate changed the House bill so as to put the membership below the number of the then present membership of the House. The general rule has been that the question of fixing the number of Representatives has been determined by the judgment of the House; in fact, the only time the Senate amended the bill by reducing the membership was in the apportionment made in 1873.
It is important to keep the membership of the House as low as the growing and expanding interests of the country and the demand for full representation will allow. We must take into consideration the extended scope of legislation that necessarily arises in our growing and developing country. It is vitally important that the business of the House may be orderly and its work may be deliberative. It is already provided that the Hall in which the House meets shall be rearranged by providing for the seating of Members in a smaller space, so that they can better hear and understand the proceedings and we may fairly presume that under this new arrangement the House can conduct its business, with the increased membership, in a more orderly and less difficult manner than it can now with the present membership and the present arrangement of the House.
There is copied below an extract from Report No. 1911 to the third session of the Sixty-first Congress submitted by Mr. Crumpacker in reference to the representation of other civilized countries:
The popular branches of legislative bodies in leading countries of the civilized world are much larger in relation to population than is the House of Representatives in this country. Below is a table showing the size of the popular branches of the legislatures in the leading countries of Europe, together with the ratio of members to population. This table was taken from the Statesman's Yearbook for 1910, and it shows the census upon which the calculations were made:
It will be seen upon an examination of the table that in the densely populated countries of Europe, where representatives have less difficulty in familiarizing themselves with local, industrial, social, and political conditions, the ratio of population is much smaller than it is in the United States. The nearest approach to our ratio is that of Germany, which is 155,546. It is true that conditions are different in this country from what they are in European countries. In many of the countries named in the table submitted the legislative bodies make all of the laws, general and local, outside of the cities, but at the same time the policy in other countries is not without significance, particularly in view of the growing tendency in this country toward concentrating legislative power in Congress.
Below is given the membership and ratio under the different apportionments: Membership and ratio under several apportionments.
number Ratio. of Repre
65 105 141 181 213 240 223 233 243 293 325 356 386
In connection with this report is printed a letter written by Prof. Willcox, of Cornell University, to Mr. Crumpacker, chairman of the Census Committee in the last Congress, describing the method of arriving at the ratio and apportioning the Representatives among the States, and there follows this letter a series of tables presenting different ratios and apportionments, which are also attached to this report.
One of the bills considered by your committee (H. R. 27) in section 3 thereof attempts to provide a method for apportionment of Representatives after the next or Fourteenth and each subsequent decennial census of the population. The number of Representatives in future apportionments is attempted to be substantially fixed by the method therein outlined and the actual apportionment is to be made by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor and reported to Congress, whereupon it shall have the force and effect of law without further legislation by Congress.
The majority of your committee do not approve of such a provision and have not included the same in the bill as reported. It has been argued by those who favor such a provision that it would have a strong moral influence upon future Congresses and serve to eliminate future controversies as to the number of Representatives in future apportionments under each decennial census.
As against such a provision of law your committee submit that it would be only advisory and would not bind Congress in future apportionments. We submit that the Constitution intended not only to provide for a decennial census, but for an actual apportionment based upon such census. It is a contingency against the happening of which no legislation could wisely be framed. No Congress can be so well equipped to deal with the question of apportionment in the popular legislative branch as the one of which the Members are elected to serve in the Congress charged with the execution of this duty. Of necessity contemporary and varying conditions must control. The varying increase in the aggregate of population and the inequality of increase in the several States, together with other factors which can not be foreseen, must and will enter into the problem of each apportionment. As we can not forecast all these varying conditions, it follows that we can not legislate in advance to meet them. Whatever this Congress may think as to the number of Representatives after the Fourteenth Census, or any subsequent census, will not be binding upon the Congress at that time, and it is extremely doubtful if it would be wise to attempt to do so, even if we had the power. Intelligent, contemporaneous public sentiment will control each apportionment in the interest of popular government and wise legislation. The attempt which was made in 1850 to legislate in this manner was not literally complied with and the supposed exigency which existed at that time has no parallel in conditions to-day. We think that the almost uniform course of legislation in the past regarding each decennial apportionment should be followed at this time.
Population of States, excluding Indians, not taxed, 1910.
2, 138,093 1,574, 449 2,376, 561
798,572 1, 114, 756
752, 619 2,609, 121
323, 440 5,638,591 2,700,876 2, 224, 771 1,690, 949 2,289, 905 1,656,388
742,371 1,295, 346 3,366, 416 2,810, 173 2,074,376 1, 797, 114 3, 293, 335
366, 338 1, 192, 214
80,293 430,572 2,537, 167 9,108,934 2, 206, 287
574, 403 4,767, 121 1,657, 155
672, 765 7,665, 111
542,610 1,515, 400
575, 676 2,184,789 3,896, 542
355, 966 2,061, 612 1, 140, 134 1,221, 119 2,332, 853
144, 658 91,072, 117
316, 983 91,569, 325
APPORTIONMENT OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Ithaca, N. Y., December 21, 1910.
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Sir: In fulfillment of the agreement reached at our interview of December 15, 1910, I take pleasure in sending you herewith tables showing the apportionment of each number of Representatives from 390 to 440, inclusive, according to the results of the census of 1910 by a method which, I believe, deserves the consideration of the Committee on the Census. I understand that you will have these tables printed and will give me an opportunity later to appear before the committee and explain the method by which they have been prepared.
The history of reports, debates, and votes upon apportionment seems to show a settled conviction in Congress that every major fraction gives a valid claim to an additional Representative. This conviction has controlled the final apportionment, I believe, on every occasion since and including the apportionment based on the census of 1840. It has been followed even when to follow it has entailed some departure from the method on which the computations were based, as happened in 1872 and 1901. The present method is based upon that conviction of Congress and seeks to facilitate action in conformity with it. An examination of Table 1 will show that an additional Representative is always assigned for every major fraction in the quotient and in no case is an additional Representative assigned for a minor fraction. Because of this feature I have called the present method in distinction from the usual method prescribed by Representative Vinton's amendment embodied in section 25 of the act of May 23, 1850, the method of major fractions.
The advantage just mentioned, however, was possessed also by Tables 2 and 3 of those submitted to your committee in December, 1900, and yet they received almost no attention. But they had not been so prepared as to apportion numbers of Representatives increasing regularly by one. On the contrary the ratio used as a divisor was changed arbitrarily and irrationally by 500 in each table. This change often made no change in the number of Representatives, once made a change of five, and many times a change of two or three. Your committee needs tables apportioning each number of Representatives within the limits to which its attention is likely to be confined.
The present tables conform to both requirements of the committee, as I conceive them, a regular series of tables each apportioning one more Representative than its predecessor, and the principle of the