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its sitting. My friend will recollect that the Capitol is open during the whole year, and he will recollect further that the employees of the House and the Senate-messengers, etc.--are four, five, or six fold the number of these Capitol police.
Mr. SHAFROTH. That may be true, but it does not seem to me that any additional force is required on that account. The building is the same size it has always been. Forty-seven or forty-nine men have been sufficient to patrol it in the past. We have never had any outrages committed in the building or on the grounds, so far as I have ever heard. Hence I can not see any necessity for increasing the force.
Mr. Cannon. My friend certainly can not be of an inquiring mind or he would know that there has been destruction of public property, etc., and also that there have been at times very serious offenses committed in the Capitol Grounds.
Mr. SHAFROTH. I mean to say that I have not heard of anything of that kind; but some offenses would be committed even if the force were ten times as large as it is. I heard of the explosion which occurred here a few weeks ago, but I apprehend that any number of policemen would not have been able to prevent anything of that kind. The accident resulted, I understand, from the escape of gas in one of the rooms of the subbasement.
A MEMBER. An escape of gas, and Congress not in session! (Laughter.)
Mr. SHAFROTH. It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, that the present Capitol police force must be amply sufficient and that to authorize the employment of 18 additional men would be a squandering of the public money. Why, sir, take the State capitol buildings throughout the Union, and I will warrant that scarcely one of those buildings has a force of more than three or four for its protection. I know that in my city we have a magnificent public building, just completed at a cost of $3,000,000, and there is only one watchman in the daytime and one at night; yet the building is amply protected.
A MEMBER. Your people out there are honest.
Mr. SHAFROTH. Yes, they are honest; but I do not apprehend there is any necessity for a force 20 or 30 times as large to protect this building,
The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the amendment of the gentleman from Texas (Mr. Burke).
The question being taken, there were--ayes 65, noes 46.
Tellers were ordered and the Chairman appointed Mr. Cannon and Mr. Burke.
The committee divided; and the tellers reported-ayes 84, noes 68. Accordingly the amendment was agreed to. (Cong. Record, vol. 32, pt. 1, 3-55, pp. 86, 87.)
The provision was restored to the bill in the Senate and became a part of the law. (Record, 3–55, p. 209.) Total 67.
TEMPORARY FORCE MADE PERMANENT (5 ADDITIONAL PRIVATES).
Act of March 3, 1901, 31 Stat. L., pp. 90, 963.
For captain, one thousand six hundred dollars, and three lieutenants, at one thouband two hundred dollars each, hereafter to be selected jointly by the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Representatives; thirty privates, at one thousand one hundred dollars each; thirty privates, at nine hundred and sixty dollars each; and eight watchmen, at nine hundred dollars each, one-half of said privates and watchmen to be selected by the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and one-half by the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Representatives; in all, seventy-four thousand two hundred dollars, one half to be disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate and the other half to be disbursed by the Clerk of the House of Representatives. And hereafter the officers, privates, and watchmen of the Capitol police shall, when on duty, wear the regulation uniform.
For contingent expenses, three hundred dollars, one half to be disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate and the other half to be disbursed by the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
SALARIES OF PRIVATES EQUALIZED,
Act of June 22, 1906 (34 Stat. L., pt. 1, p. 392). --Sixty-nine privates, at $1,050 each, one-half to be selected by the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and one-half by the Sergeant at Arms of the House. Total, 73. On this item the following debate took place:
Mr. LAWRENCE. While you are on this matter of inequalities of salaries, I notice that you refer in your report to the fact that there are 60 Capitol police
Mr. LITTAUER. I was about to come to that.
Mr. LAWRENCE. And that 30 of them get $1,100 and 30 get $960. Now, I would ask the gentleman if he will state if there is any law specifying the number of Capitol police and the salaries they shall receive?
Mr. LITTAUER. None; except the current appropriation law; consequently we have the right to deal with the force here, and it is our purpose to deal with it in this bill. The Capitol police is one of the three forces that the Committee on Appropriations, after much deliberation, determined to attempt to reform as far as compensation is concerned. We found that of the members of this police force 30 received $1,100, 30 received $960, and 9 received $900, despite the fact, testified to by their superior officers and admitted by themselves, that the service of each one was the same as every other one. Appointments are not made to this $900 class with an increase after a lapse of time to $960 and $1,100. It would be impossible to follow out such a system of promotion in a force appointed on the basis of patronage. Appointments are actually made at $1,100, others at $960 and $900, without reference to experience. We felt it was a manifest injustice to the men doing the work to receive such unequal compensation, just as it is to the Members who recommend the appointments.
Mr. LAWRENCE. Do I understand the gentleman to say that the reasons for this inexcusable inequality of compensation, not only with reference to the Capitol police, but in reference to all branches of the service here in the Capitol, is that we have not based our action upon general law, but have acted fro year year on appropriation bills ?
Mr. LITTAUER. Such has been the case. (Cong. Record, vol. 40, pt. 4, 1-59, p. 3735.)
NUMBER OF PRIVATES REDUCED-TWO SPECIAL OFFICERS
Act of February 26, 1907 (34 Stat. L., pt. 1, p. 938):-Sixty-seven privates, at $1,050 each; 2 special officers, $1,200 each; total, 73.
CAPTAIN'S SALARY INCREASED. Act of March 4, 1911.—Captain's salary increased from $1,600 to $1,800.
LAWS RELATING TO THE CAPITOL POLICE.
PROTECTION OF CAPITOL.
AN ACT To authorize the appointment of certain watchmen, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the eight watchmen on the Dome of the Capitol, at the Congressional stables, the gatekeeper, and watchmen of the grounds surrounding the Capitol, be hereafter appointed by the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House." That the officers aforesaid be also authorized to appoint three additional watchmen, one for each of the eastern porticos and the carriageways under the same. Each watchman so appointed shall receive an annual compensation of one thousand dollars, payable on the order of the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House, or either of them, and the amount of money necessary to pay said watchmen from the date of their appointment until the end of the present fiscal year be, and the same is hereby, appropriated.
For the compensation of said watchmen for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, the sum of eleven thousand dollars is hereby appropriated.
For the compensation of an additional lieutenant and private of the Capitol police, authorized to be appointed by the presiding officers of the two Houses of Congress, from the date of their appointment until the close of the present fiscal year, at the rate paid others of the same grade, so much money as may be necessary is hereby appropriated, and for the fiscal year ending, June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, the sum of three thousand three hundred dollars is hereby appropriated.
The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House are hereby authorized to select a pattern for a uniform for the Capitol police and watchmen, and furnish to each member of the force two suits per year, at a cost not to exceed fifty dollars per suit, and also to furnish said force with the necessary belts, arms, and so forth, at a cost not to exceed twenty dollars per man, and the amount of money necessary to carry this provision into effect is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, payable upon the certificate of the officers above named. One half of the moneys hereinbefore appropriated shall be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate and the other half into the contingent fund of the House of Representatives.
SEC. 2. That the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and of the House of Representatives are authorized to make such rules and regulations as they may deem necessary to preserve the peace and secure the Capitol from defacement and for the protection of the public property therein, and shall have power to arrest and detain any person violating said rules, until such person can be brought before the proper authorities for trial, without further order of Congress. (15 Stat. L., p. 12.)
An Act To protect the public property, turf, and grass of the Capitol grounds from injury. Be it enacted, etc., That it shall be the duty of the Capitol police hereafter to prevent any portion of the Capitol grounds and terraces from being used as playgrounds or otherwise, so far as may be necessary to protect the public property, turf, and grass from destruction or injury: (19 Stat. L., p. 41.)
The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and of the House of Representatives are authorized to make such regulations as they may deem necessary for preserving the peace and securing the Capitol from defacement, and for the protection of the public property therein, and they shall have power to arrest and detain any person violating such regulations, until such person can be brought before the proper authorities for trial. (R. S., sec. 1820.)
NUMBER AND APPOINTMENT.
The following is from the sundry civil appropriation act, approved March 2, 1867:
Sec. 2. That the office of commissioner of public buildings is hereby abolished, and the Chief Engineer of the Army shall perform all the duties now required by law of said commissioner, and shall also have the superintendence of the Washington Aqueduct and all the public works and improvements of the Government of the United States in the District of Columbia, unless otherwise provided by law; and the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Representatives shall hereafter appoint the members of the Capitol police. (14 Stat. L., p. 466.)
The following is from the legislative appropriation act, approved March 3, 1873:
CAPITOL POLICE. For one captain, two thousand and eighty-eight dollars; three lieutenants, at one thousand eight hundred dollars each; twenty-seven privates, at one thousand five hundred and eighty-four dollars each; and eight watchmen, at one thousand dollars each.
That the appointment of the Capitol police shall hereafter be made by the Sergeant at Arms of the two Houses, and the architect of the Capitol extension; and the captain of the Capitol police force may suspend any member of said force, subject to the action of the officers above referred to; making in all fifty-eight thousand two hundred and fifty-six dollars, one half to be paid into the contingent fund of the House of Representatives
, and the other half to be paid into the contingent fund of the Senate. (17 Stat. L., p. 488.)
There shall be a Capitol police, the members of which shall be appointed by the Sergeants at Arms of the two Houses and the Architect of the Capitol extension. There shall be a captain of the Capitol police and such other members, with such rates of
compensation, respectively, as may be appropriated for by Congress from year to year. (R. Š., sec. 1821.)
PAY TO CEASE WHILE SUSPENDED.
Hereafter, whenever a member of the Capitol police or watch force is suspended from duty for cause, said policeman or watchman shall receive no compensation for the time of such suspension if he shall not be reinstated. (Stat. L., vol. 18, p. 345.)
CAPTAIN MAY SUSPEND ANY MEMBER OF FORCE.
The captain of the Capitol police may suspend any member of the force, subject to the approval of the two Sergeants at Arms and of the Architect of the Capitol extension. (R. S., sec. 1823. Stat. L., v. 17, p. 488; v. 18, pp. 86, 345.)
UNIFORMS AND SUPPLIES.
The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Rep. resentatives are directed to select and regulate the pattern for a uniform for the Capitol police and watchmen and to furnish each member of the force with the necessary belts and arms, at a cost not to exceed twenty dollars per man, payable out of the contingent fund of the Senate and House of Representatives upon the certificate of the officers above named. (R. S., sec. 1824; Stat. L., vol. 15, p. 11.)
The members of the Capitol police shall furnish, at their own expense, each his own uniform, which shall be in exact conformity to that required by regulation of the Sergeants at Arms. (R. S., sec. 1825; Stat. L., vol. 15, p. 94.).
And the officers, privates, and watchmen of the Capitol police shall when on duty wear the regulation uniform. (Stat. L., vol. 31, p. 90, 1-56.)
Supervision over Botanic Garden.
The supervision of the Capitol police shall be extended over the Botanical Garden, and, until otherwise ordered, and especially during the period employed for rebuilding the fence surrounding the grounds, additional police force may be employed, if deemed necessary, the expense for which shall be defrayed from the contingent fund of the Senate and House of Representatives; but the additional number of policemen for this purpose shall not exceed three at any time. (R. S., sec. 1826; S. L., v. 16, p. 391.)
Proposed reduction of force. Mr. RANDALL. The chairman of the Committee on Appropriations will remember that last year an effort was made to reduce the number of Capitol police; in fact, I think we did make a partial reduction.
Mr. GARFIELD. A reduction in salary, not in number.
Mr. RANDALL. I am of the opinion that there are now too many employed on the Capitol police. We may as well commence here to reduce them for the next year. I therefore move to reduce the number of privates from 27 to 20. That will not affect anybody now in office or those likely to be employed, but rather those who will come ip with the next Congress.
Mr. GARFIELD. This is the only thing that will not come under control of the next House.
Mr. RANDALL. The committee will observe that while there is joint action, so far as the appointment and payment of these police is concerned, yet each House has the control of its own officers.
Mr. GARFIELD. Oh, yes; each House has control of its own officers; but there are three persons who control the Capitol police.
Mr. RANDALL. I was last year of the opinion (and I have not changed my view) that 20 men are sufficient for this force. "I therefore move to amend by striking out “seven” after “twenty.”'
The number remained unchanged. (Cong. Record, vol. 3, pt. 1, 2–43, p. 86.)