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the application of the same shall be requested by the presiding officer of either House of Congress or the commissioner of the public buildings, and that it shall be the duty of the commissioner of the public buildings to obey such rules and regulations as may, from time to time, be prescribed jointly by the presiding officers of the two Houses of Congress for the care, preservation, orderly keeping, and police of all such portions of the Capitol, its appurtenances, and the inclosures about it, and the public buildings and property in its immediate vicinity as are not in the exclusive use and occupation of either House of Congress; that it shall also be his duty to obey such rules and regulations as may be, from time to time, prescribed by the presiding officer of either House of Congress for the care, preservation, orderly keeping, and police of those portions of the Capitol and its appurtenances which are in the exclusive use and occupation of either House of Congress, respectively, and that it shall also be his duty to obey such rules and regulations as may, from time to time, be prescribed by the President of the United States for the care, preservation, orderly keeping, and police of the other public buildings and publin property in the city of Washington; and the commissioner and his associates are hereby authorized and empowered to use all necessary and proper means for the discharge of the aforesaid duties; and the necessary assistants of the commissioner shall receive a reasonable compensation for their services, to be allowed by the presiding officers of the two Houses of Congress, one moiety of the said sums to be paid out of the contingent fund of the Senate and the other moiety of the same to be paid out of the contingent fund of the House of Representatives. (4 Stat. L., 266.)

Pursuant to the foregoing law, the Capitol police force was maintained by annual appropriations as a part of the contingent funds of the Senate and House and disbursed accordingly, the average expenditure per year of the one-half paid by the House from 1829 to 1842 being about $3,000. For the year ending December 1, 1843, the number of men employed is given in the itemized report of expenditures as five, which would appear to have been the number employed between 1828 and 1842, there being no material difference in the expenditures. In 1843 one "supernumerary" in addition to the regular force of five was paid a nominal compensation.

During discussion of an amendment offered to the bill making appropriations for the civil and diplomatic expenses of the Government for the year ending June 30, 1853, to increase the appropriation for the Capitol police, Mr. Jones of Tennessee made the following statement:

There is one chief of police, at a salary of $1,450 per annum. There are also four assistant police officers, two of whom are upon duty during the night and two during the day at a salary of $1,100 per annum each. At the last session of Congress there was in the deficiency bill a provision authorizing the appointment of two others to watch the grounds and see that the shrubbery was not destroyed or the trees injured. They were on duty, only during the day. Their pay is $2 per day. These constitute the whole police force of the Capitol grounds. (Congressional Globe, 1-32, p. 2052.)

In 1854 the appropriation having been increased, the number of men was increased to eight. (House Misc. Doc. 9,2–33.) For 1855 the appropriation was again increased, but the number of men remained the same, their salaries being increased to one at $1,740 and seven at $1,320 each. (House Misc. Doc. 8, 1-34, p. 127.) One additional private was added to the roll in March, 1857, at $800 per annum (House Misc. Doc. 12, 1-35, p. 62), making the total nine, which was reduced to eight January 1,1859, one at $1,320 being dropped. Buton January 12, 1859, six additional police were authorized at $1,100 each and the $1,320 man restored, making the total force 15. (House Misc. Doc. 25, 1–36, pp. 101, 114.) Beginning with the fiscal year 1860, the salaries of 13 privates were equalized at $1,100 each. (House Misc. Doc. 25, 1-36, p. 137.)

In January and February, 1861, an extra force of 14 privates, at the rate of $1,000 per annum, were employed. The regular force of 15 men was continued. By the legislative acts of March 14, 1862, and February 25, 1863, the lump sum appropriation for the Senate and House, respectively, were increased, but it is not shown to what extent, if at all, the force was increased or salaries raised. (12 Stat. L.,

pp. 356, 683.)

The act of June 25, 1864, provided specifically for 1 captain at $1,740 per annum, a lump sum of $11,880 for the Senate and House, respectively, and for 1 policeman at $960 per annum. (13 Stat. L., p. 1467.)

The act of March 2, 1865, increased the appropriation to $19,170 for each House, from which 32 officers and privates were paid during the fiscal year 1866. (13 Stat. L., p. 446; House Mis. Doc. 21, 2–39, p. 125.) The appropriation was still further increased for each House (14 Stat. L., p. 192), but the number of men remained the same-32. (House Mis. Doc. 31, 2–40, p. 78.)

All of the foregoing authorizations, with the exceptions noted, appropriated for the Capitol police by lump sums for the contingent funds of the Senate and House, the number and compensation being fixed by the presiding officers of the two Houses pursuant to the act of May 2, 1828.

NUMBER AND COMPENSATION SPECIFIED.

The legislative appropriation act approved March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. L., p. 442), was the first law fixing the number and compensation of all of the members of the Capitol police force, as follows: Captain, $2,088 per annum; lieutenant, $1,800 per annum; 29 privates, $1,584 per annum; 1 watchman, $1,152 per annum; total, 32.

Act of July 20, 1868 (15 Stat. L., p. 94). — Captain, $2,088 per annum; 2 lieutenants, $1,800 per annum each; 30 privates, $1,584 per annum each; 12 watchmen, $1,000 per annum each; total, 45.

FORCE AND SALARIES REDUCED,

Act of July 12, 1870 (16 Stat. L., p. 232).

Captain, $1,800 per annum; 2 lieutenants, $1,500 per annum each; 25 privates, $1,200 per annum each; 8 watchmen, $1,000 per annum each; total, 36.

Provided, That no disabled soldiers shall be discharged by reason of this act.

SUPERVISION OF CAPITOL POLICE EXTENDED OVER BOTANICAL GARDEN.

Joint Resolution Authorizing the extension of the supervision of the Capitol police over the

Botanical Garden.

Be it resolved, etc., That the supervision of the Capitol police be extended over the Botanical Garden, and that, until otherwise ordered, and especially during the period employed for rebuilding the fence surrounding the grounds, additional police force may be employed, if deemed necessary, the expense for which shall be defrayed from the contingent fund of the Senate and House of Representatives: Provided, however, That the additional number of policemen for this purpose shall not exceed three at any time. (16 Stat. L., 391.)

FORCE AND SALARIES INCREASED,

Act of May 8, 1872 (17 Stat. L., p. 62).—Captain, $2,088; 3 lieutenants, $1,800 each; 27 privates, $1,584 each; 8 watchmen, $1,000 each; total, 39.

SALARIES REDUCED.

Act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. L., p. 86).-Captain, $2,000; 3 lieutenants, $1,600 each; 27 privates, $1,400 each; 8 watchmen, $1,000 each; total, 39.

FORCE AND SALARIES AGAIN REDUCED.

Act of August 15, 1876 (19 Stat. L., p. 144).—Captain, $1,600; 3 lieutenants, $1,200 each; 6 watchmen, $900 each; 21 privates, $1,200 each; total, 31.

This aet also repealed the joint resolution of July 15, 1870 (16 Stat. L., p. 391), as to additional policemen.

Revised Statutes, 1878, increased and fixed salaries. The Capitol police shall consist of the following members, to be paid at the following rates, respectively, per annum, on the order of the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the House, or of either of them, namely:

One captain, at two thousand four hundred and one dollars and twenty cents; three lieutenants, at two thousand and seventy dollars each; twenty-seven privates, at one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one dollars and sixty cents each; and eight watchmen, at one thousand one hundred and fifty dollars each. (R. S., sec. 1822.) Total, 39.

ADDITIONAL WATCHMEN.

Act of June 21, 1879 (21 Stat. L., pp. 21, 29).-Two additional watchmen, $900 each; total, 41.

NUMBER AND SALARIES AGAIN REDUCED.

Act of June 15, 1880 (22 Stat. L., p. 212).—Captain, $1,600; 3 lieutenants, $1,200 each; 8 watchmen, $900 each; 21 privates, $1,100 each; total, 33.

The act of March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. L., p. 534), increased the number of privates from 21 to 22, and the act of March 3, 1885 (23 Stat. L., p. 419), total, 34.

ADDITIONAL PRIVATES.

Act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. L., p. 911).-By an amendment of the Senate, 2 additional privates were authorized, at $1,100 each; total, 36. Reason assigned: “On account of the necessity for a force to look after the Capitol because of the completion of the terraces and the corresponding committee rooms." (Record, 2–51, p. 3423.)

Act of March 2, 1895 (28 Stat. L., p. 767).-One additional private, at $1,100; total, 37.

Act of May 28, 1896 (29 Stat. L., p. 143).–Five additional privates, at $1,100 each; seven additional privates, at $960 each.

This by an amendment of the Senate, the 7 privates at $960 in lieu of 7 watchmen on the grounds at $840 each; total, 49. (Record, 1-54, p. 5638.)

HR-62-1-vol 1-13

SUPERVISION EXTENDED TO CAPITOL GROUNDS.

The act of May 28, 1896, also provided that the Capitol police, under the direction of the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and of the House, and of the Architect of the Capitol, shall police the Capitol Building and Grounds. (Ibid.)

ADDITIONAL TEMPORARY FORCE-WAR WITH SPAIN.

Act of July 7, 1898 (30 Stat. L., p. 706).—The following provision was in the general deficiency bill as reported from the Committee on Appropriations and remained therein:

For employment, until not later than December thirty-first, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, of not exceeding eighteen additional Capitol policemen (privates), at the rate of nine hundred and sixty dollars per annum each, ten thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary.

Total, 67.

TEMPORARY FOROE CONTINUED.

Act of January 15, 1899 (30 Stat. L., p. 782).—The urgent deficiency bill contained the following as reported from the Committee on Appropriations:

To continue the employment during the six months beginning January first, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, of not exceeding eighteen additional Capitol policemen (privates) at the rate of nine hundred and sixty dollars per annum each, eight thousand six hundred and forty dollars.

The following debate took place: Mr. Burke. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment to offer, but before offering it I wish to ask the chairman of the Committee on Appropriations how many policemen there are on the force now. Appropriation is made for 18 additional policemen. My understanding is that there are now on the force 52 regular policemen.

Mr. CANNON. Forty-nine regular, and they were increased by 18 for the first half of the year, making 67 in all. This continues the 18 for the balance of the year.

Mr. BURKE. So that makes the Capitol police force 67?

Mr. Cannon. Sixty-seven, the same as it is now. That is for the Capitol police force and watchmen for the Capitol Grounds.

Mr. BURKE. Does this 18 additional include watchmen?

Mr. CANNON. Some of them. If this is adopted it does not change the police and watch force for the last half of the fiscal year from what it is now and has been for the first part of the year,

Mr. BURKE. My object, Mr. Chairman, in asking the question is that it strikes me that 70 men to guard the Capitol is an extraordinary number.

Mr. HEMENWAY. They also guard the grounds.
Mr. BURKE. The grounds take care of themselves. It is like hiring a man to watch
a hole in the ground. I am going to offer an amendment, Mr. Chairman,

The CHAIRMAN. The clerk will read the amendment.
(The clerk read as follows:)
On page 27, beginning with line 19, strike out the following paragraph:

“To continue the employment during the six months beginning January first, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, of not exceeding eighteen additional Capitol policemen (privates), at the rate of nine hundred and sixty dollars per annum each, eight thousand six hundred and forty dollars."

Mr. BURKE. With reference to that amendment, Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer this suggestion. It strikes me that 49 men, as a regular force of Capitol police, is a sufficient number to do police duty and police service in the Capitol building and to guard the Capitol grounds. Forty-nine men at an expense of $60 or $90 a month, it strikes me, ought to serve the purpose in every respect, well and fairly for policing this Capitol. With the police force as at present constituted, comprising 67 men, an explosion occurred in the Capitol a few weeks ago, costing many thousands of dollars.

I offer that amendment to strike out and reduce the force to the original number of 49 men.

Mr. CANNON. I wish to say a word in opposition to the gentleman's motion to strike out this appropriation. Your committee had before it the Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms of the Hou:e, who, with the Architect of the Capitol, have charge of the police force of the Capitol and grounds. I will say to the gentleman from Texas that this force not only polices the Capitol, but also the Capitol grounds, some 60 acres in extent, and it is the only police force for the Capitol grounds, as the city police force does not perform that duty.

Mr. Handy. How many are assigned to the grounds and how many to the building?

Mr. ('ANNON. I did not inquire about that, but gentlemen will recollect that the police force is divided into three shifts of eight hours each; that is the rule of the Government. Now, they strongly urge that this force is too small instead of too great. This force is on duty holidays and Sundays and all times, unlike much of the private service of the Government. In addition, it has been shown, as they state, by experience that prior to the increase of this force people were held up and sandbagged about the grounds. The gentleman says it seems to be ton large. This is exactly the force in numbers that polices the Treasury, and for the War, State, and Navy there are 64. Of course, the great number of visitors from all over the country and all over the world seems to indicate that this force is not too large, expecially when a portion of the force is practically just as much on duty at night as it is in the day, at least for 16 hours, practically all the day, whereas in the Treasury and the War, State, and Navy Department the great bulk of the force is only required to be on duty in the daytime.

I know that 67 are a good many men, but this Capitol is a pretty large building, covering a good deal of ground, and in view of the positive statements of the officers in charge of the force, your committee did not feel at liberty to refuse to report and recommend this provision.

Mr. HenDERSON. Is it not true that these 18 men were added on account of the war? Mr. CANNON. I presume they would not have been added but for the war.

Mr. HENDERSON. These additional men, I understand, were appointed on account of our anxieties at that time; but those have largely subsided, have they not?

Mr. CANNON. To some extent they have subsided; but I will say to my friend from Iowa that an increase of force to the extent, not of 18, but of 36, has been recommended for years, and strenuously insisted upon, by the officers who had most knowledge touching the matter-the Sergeants at Arms of the House and the Senate and the Architect of the Capitol. It will be remembered that even with the present force we have recently had in this building an explosion and a fire. I do not know who is to blame or that any blame attaches to anybody. Perhaps if the force had been double its present number the accident might have occurred. I do not know how that may be.

Mr. SHAFROTH. I should like to occupy the floor for a minute or two.
Mr. CANNON. Certainly.

Mr. SHAFROTH. Mr. Chairman, I had occasion some time since to examine a book upon the subject of the police force of the various cities of the United States. I found that the average number of policemen required in our different cities is about one to every thousand of inhabitants. Applying that rule as a test in this case, it would seem that a force of 67 men here asked for would be sufficient to patrol a city of 67,000 population.

Mr. Handy. That is just the number of the police force of the city of Wilmington, Del.

Mr. SHAFROTH. It would seem that this force of 67 must be much larger than can properly be required for patrolling this building and the grounds surrounding it. It is seldom that we see a policeman in the Capitol grounds. Certainly it can not be claimed that we should have a force here equal to that which a city of 60,000 population employs to protect its people from the depredations of criminals. It seems to me that the present Capitol police force, 49 in number, should be amply sufficient to thoroughly patrol this building and the adjacent grounds.

Dejlez, this appropriation is made for six months, from January 1 to June 30. During that time Congre-g will be in session but two months. During the remaining four months of the time these policemen will be patrolling an empty building, with neither branch of Congress in session and with committee rooms vacant. During those months these men will be simply watching a building absolutely fireproof, which can not burn down and which contains nothing that any person would want to steal, Mr. CANNON. Will my friend allow me? Mr. SHAFROTH. Certainly.

Mr. CANNON. It is true that a portion of that time Congress will not be in session; but the 75,000,000 people of the United States will still remain in the United States. Great numbers of them visit the Capitol in the vacation of Congress, as well as during

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