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the corresponding duties, $67,174.54. The average unit of value per pound was $1.85, and the average ad valorem equivalent of the duty was 87.06 per cent.

The lower duty provided for in paragraph 9 constitutes a reduction of over one-half of the present rate on these articles (87.06 per cent ad valorem on the importations of 1910). On the basis of the imports of 1910, the duties would be $27,006.60 under the lower rate. A comparison of the imports in prior years under both high and low rates, and of the ratios of the imports to domestic consumption in the respective years, in the manner already described with reference to articles under preceding paragraphs, indicates that the probable imports in 1912, under the proposed lower duty, of all the articles included in the provisions of this paragraph, would be $160,900, or about 0.20 of 1 per cent of the estimated domestic consumption of

rubber and elastic goods,” which is the only classification under the census with which the “ webbings, gorings, suspenders, etc.," can be compared. At the new rate, the total amount of duties on the estimated imports would be $56,300, or about four-fifths of the amount of revenue collected on this group of articles in the fiscal year 1910.

CARPETS AND CARPETING. Paragraphs 10 to 20, both inclusive, of the bill H. R. 11019 are as follows:

10. On Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, the duty shall be forty per centum ad valorem.

11. On Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, the duty shall be thirtyfive per centum ad valorem.

12. On Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, the duty shall be thirty per centum ad valorem.

13. On velvet and tapestry velvet carpets, figured or plain, printed on the warp or otherwise, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, the duty shall be thirty-five per centum ad valorem.

14. On tapestry Brussels carpets, figured or plain, and all carpets or carpeting of like character or description, printed on the warp or otherwise, the duty shall be thirty per centum ad valorem.

15. On treble ingrain, three-ply, and all-chain Venetian carpets, the duty shall be thirty per centum ad valorem.

16. On wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain carpets, the duty shall be twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

17. On carpets of every description, woven whole for rooms, and Oriental, Berlin, Aubusson, Axminster, and similar rugs, the duty shall be fifty per centum ad valorem.

18. On druggets and bockings, printed, colored, or otherwise, the duty shall be twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

19. On carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or cotton, or composed in part of any of them, not specially provided for in this act, and on mats, matting, and rugs of cotton the duty shall be twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

20. Mats, rugs for floors, screens, covers, hassocks, bed sides, art squares. and other portions of carpets or carpeting, made wholly or in part of wool, and not specially provided for in this act, shall be subjected to the rate of duty herein imposed on carpets or carpeting of like character or description.

These paragraphs take the place of paragraphs 384 to 394, both inclusive, of the act of 1909, which are the same as the corresponding paragraphs, 372 to 382, both inclusive, of the act of 1897, with the exception that the act of 1909, in paragraph 393, explicitly includes "mats, matting, and rugs of cotton," with “ carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or cotton, or composed in part of any of them, not specially provided for.” The mats, matting, and rugs of cotton were not specified in the act of 1897, and were dutiable under paragraph 322, Schedule 1, of that act as “ manufactures of cotton not specially provided for,” at the rate of 45 per cent ad valorem. The effect of the change in classification of these mats, matting, and rugs in the act of 1909 was to make them dutiable at the higher rate of 50 per cent ad valorem, which was another revision upward.

The following comparative statement shows the rates on each class of carpets and carpeting under the act of 1897 and the present act, with the specific compensatory duties translated into the actual figures meant, and also shows the rates under the bill H. R. 11019:

Rate of duty under

Classification.

Act of 1897.

Act of 1909.

H. R. 11019.

Carpets and carpeting:
Aubusson, Axminster, mo- 60 cents per square 60 cents per square 40 per cent.
quette, and chenille carpets, yard and 40 per

cent. yard and 40 per cent.
figured or plain, and all car-
pets or carpeting of like

character or description.
Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay .do..

do.

35 per cent.
velvet carpets, figured or
plain, and all carpets or car-
peting of like character or

description.
Brussels carpets, figured or 44 cents per square 44 cents per square 30 per cent.
plain, and all carpets or car- yard and 40 percent. yard and 40 per

cent. peting of like character or

description.
Velvet and tapestry velvet 40 cents per square 40 cents per square 35 per cent.

carpets, figured or plain, yard and 40 per cent. yard and 40 per cent.
printed on the warp or other-
wise, and all carpets or car-
peting of like character or
description.
Tapestry Brussels carpets, fig. 28 cents per square 28 cents per square 30 per cent.
ured or plain, and all carpets yard and 40 per

cent. yard and 40 per cent.
or carpeting of like charac-
ter or description, printed
on the warp or otherwise.
Treble ingrain, three-ply, and 22 cents per square 22 cents per square Do.

all chain Venetian carpets. yard and 40 per cent. yard and 40 per cent.
Wool Dutch and two-ply in- 18cents per square 18 cents per square 25 per cent.
grain carpets.
yard and 40 per cent. yard and 40 per

cent.
Carpets of every description, 90 cents per square 90 cents per square 50 per cent.

woven whole for rooms, and yard and 40 per cent. yard and 40 per cent.
Oriental, Berlin, Aubusson,

Axminster, and similar rugs.
Druggets and bockings, 22 cents per square 22 cents per square | 25 per cent.

printed, colored, or other- yard and 40 per cent. yard and 40 per cent.

wise. Carpets and carpeting of wool, 50 per cent.... 50 per cent.

Do. flax, or cotton, or composed

in part of any of them, n. s. Mats, matting, and rugs of cot- 45 per cent (n. e.)..... do

ton. Mats, rugs for floors, screens,

(Same as acts of 1897 covers, hassocks, bed sides,

and 1909.)
art squares, and other por-
tions of carpets or carpeting
made wholly or in part of
wool, and not specially pro-
vided for, shall be subjected
to the rate of duty herein im-
posed on carpets or carpet-
ings of like character or de-
scription. (Acts of 1897 and
1909.)

P.1.

Do.

The paragraphs of the bill H. R. 11019 dealing with carpets and carpeting (10 to 20, both inclusive) follow the phraseology of the acts of 1897 and 1909. The only changes in the new paragraphs are those necessarily involved in substituting for the present compound duties the new purely ad valorem duties at reduced rates. As an incident of the change to purely ad valorem duties, the proviso in paragraph 391 of the act of 1909 (corresponding to paragraph 17 of the bill H. R. 11019) is omitted. This proviso reads:

Provided, That in the measurement of all mats, rugs, carpets, and similar articles, of whatever material composed, the selvage, if any, shall be included.

This proviso is omitted, of course, because all specific duties, based on measurement or otherwise, are eliminated in the bill H. R. 11019.

On nearly all of the classes of carpets and carpeting the duties are reduced in the bill H. R. 11019 by more than half. The reduction is greater on the cheaper grades. The cheapest grades imported are the wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain carpets," of which the average unit of value in the imports of 1910 was 80 cents per square yard. On these the average ad valorem rate of the duties collected in 1910 was 62.50 per cent; the new rate provided for in the bill is 25 per cent, a reduction of considerably more than one-half. Only a very small quantity of carpets of this grade have been imported in recent years, and the domestic production has fallen off, through change of style. Likewise the domestic production of treble-ingrain, three-ply, and all-chain Venetian carpets has also declined for the same reason, and of this class the imports are inconsiderable. The average unit of value was 90.4 cents per square yard in 1910, and the duty collected was equivalent to 64.34 per cent; the new duty is 30 per cent, graded a little higher than the rate on the two-ply ingrain carpets, as the treble ingrain are a little more costly. On druggets and bockings, as the average unit of value is low (83.7 cents per square yard in 1910 and 78.6 cents in 1909), the new rate of duty is fixed at 25 per cent; it was 62.28 per cent in ad valorem equivalent on the imports of 1910. Of these articles, the imports are a fairly considerable quantity ($30,587 in value in the fiscal year 1910), constituting one of the considerable classes of “carpets and carpeting" in the imports, after the class which is by far the largest, carpets woven whole for rooms, oriental rugs, etc.

Another of the minor but considerable classes of carpets and carpeting imported consists of (paragraph 19)— carpets and carpeting of wool, flax, or cotton, or composed in part of any of them, not specially provided for in this act, and mats, matting, and rugs of cotton.

Of these, the imports in 1910 were $7,713 worth of mats, matting, and rugs of cotton, and $41,822.25 worth of the remainder of the articles in the group, a total of $49,535.25. Of these, the imports of mats, matting, and rugs of cotton, although dutiable under Schedule K, are reported under manufactures of cotton. The rate of duty on these articles at present is 50 per cent. On the group covered by paragraph 19 the bill H. R. 11019 makes the rate of duty 25 per cent, a reduction of one-half of the present rate.

Of Brussels carpets (paragraph 12 of H. R. 11019) only $8,222 worth were imported in 1910. The domestic production of this class of carpets has increased very little in the 10 years from 1900 to 1910. The average unit of value in the imports of 1910 was $1.21 per square yard, and the average ad valorem rate of duty was 76.29 per cent. The new rate is 30 per cent, a reduction of considerably more than one-half. The imports of tapestry Brussels carpets are insignificant, only $83 worth in 1909 and $187 worth in 1910, the average unit of

value in the 1910 imports being $1.15 per square yard and the average ad valorem rate of the duty 64.41 per cent. The rate provided for in the bill H. R. 11019 (paragraph 14) is 30 per cent, which is a reduction of more than one-half.

Another of the considerable, but minor, groups of the imports of carpets and carpeting consists of the “ Saxony, Wilton, and Tournay velvet carpets" (paragraph 11). Of these, the imports in 1910 were $40,711 in value, the average unit of value $1.99 per square yard and the average ad valorem rate of duty 70.14 per cent. The new rate is 35 per cent, graded a little higher because the average unit of value is higher, and the reduction is one-half of the present rate. Another of the small but important groups consists of the “velvet and tapestry velvet” carpets (paragraph 13). The imports in 1910 amounted to $11,058 in value, the average unit of value being $1.78 per square yard and the average ad valorem rate of duty 62.46 per cent. The rate of duty provided for in the bill H. R. 11019 is 35 per cent, also graded a little higher than most of the rates on carpets and carpeting because the average unit of value is higher. The reduction is not quite one-half of the present rate.

The most important of the minor groups consists of the "Aubusson, Axminster, moquette, and chenille carpets” (paragraph 10). Of these, the imports in the fiscal year 1910 were, in value, $62,700, having increased from $47,221 in 1909; the average unit of value in 1910 was $2.71 per square yard, having increased from $2.23 in 1909, and the average ad valorem rate of the existing compound duty was 62.09 per cent in 1910, having decreased from 66.80 per cent in 1909. The rate provided for in the bill H. R. 11019 is 40 per cent, which is graded higher than most of the other rates on carpets and carpeting because of the higher value of the articles.

However, the great bulk of the imports of carpets and carpeting are of the class included under the provisions of paragraph 17 of the bill H. R. 11019, namely, "carpets of every description, woven whole for rooms, and Oriental, Berlin, Aubusson, Axminster, and similar rugs." These made up about 95 per cent of the total imports of carpets and carpeting both in 1910 and in 1909, and they are by far the most expensive of all the articles of carpets and carpeting imported, the average unit of value being $4.37 per square yard in 1910 and $4.18 in 1909. They are articles of comparative luxury, used by well-to-do people. Under the present Schedule K the average ad valorem rate of duty on these articles was 60.57 in the imports of 1910 and 61.52 per cent in 1909. This is considerably lower than the rates on the cheap carpets, and lower, in fact, than on any other kind of carpet or carpeting of which any considerable quantity is imported. It is in marked contrast with the extremely high rates all through the present Schedule K on cheap articles of necessity to the masses, such as 136 per cent on cheap blankets, 144 per cent on cheap cloths, 154 per cent on cheap dress goods for women, 131 per cent on the cheapest knit fabrics, etc. It is the intent of the biÎl H. R. 11019 to reduce the tax burdens as far as possible on the cheaper articles used by the masses of the people and to provide for effective but fair and moderate rates on articles producing a good revenue and used more especially by the wealthy. For this reason—as a considerable amount of revenue is needed from the imports of these carpets woven whole for rooms, Oriental rugs, etc.—the rate of 50 per cent is provided for in paragraph 17. This is a material reduction from the present rate, but much less in proportion than the reductions on the cheaper articles heretofore mentioned.

For the year ending June 30, 1910, the total imports of all classes of carpets and carpeting, such as are provided for in paragraphs 10 to 20, both inclusive, of the bill H. R. 11019, amounted to $4,627,483.68, and the duties collected thereon amounted to $2,806,368.52. As has been shown, the unit of value of the various articles ranged from 80 cents to $4.37 per square yard. The average unit of value of all the great variety of articles in this class was $4.04 per square yard, as the great bulk of the imports consisted of the expensive Oriental rugs, carpets woven whole for rooms, etc. The ad valorem equivalent of the duties on all the classes ranged from 50 per cent to 84 per cent, the average ad valorem rate for all being 60.66 per cent. The reduced rates provided for the various grades of carpets and carpeting in the bill H. R. 11019 have been stated above, in comparison with the existing rates. The average ad valorem rate on all carpets and carpeting under the bill H. R. 11019 is estimated to be 49.13 per cent. The duties on the cheapest articles are reduced about one-half, and a little over one-sixth on the costly articles which make up 95 per cent of the imports. On the basis of the imports of 1910, the amount of duties at the lower rates would be $2,273,155. However, it is estimated, through a comparison of the imports in prior years under both high and low duties and the ratios of imports to domestic consumption in the respective years, in the manner already described, that under the lower duties provided for in the bill H. R. 11019 the imports of all carpets and carpeting in 1912, or a 12-month period, would amount to about $5,878,000, or about 7.23 per cent of the domestic consumption. The total amount of the duties at the new rates on the estimated imports would be $2,887,800, which would be an increase of about 3 per cent over the amount of revenue collected on this group of articles during the fiscal year 1910. A concise comparison of the estimated imports and duties of all the classes of carpets and carpeting under the new rates, with the actual imports and duties of the fiscal year 1910, is given in the following table:

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