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Sometimes previous to these symptoms, and fometimes along with them, the infants are observed to be unusually greedy for sucking at the breast, or feuding, by the spoon ; laxatives given, in such fituations, seldom fail to operate freely, sometimes bringing away greenifh, fliny, or knotty stools; though not unfrequenily they are of a natural yellow colour, as I myself have more than once seen. "
• Generally with one or more of these symptoms preceding, but fometimes without any warning whatever, the infants are seized with violent irreçular contractions and relaxations of the muscular frame, but particularly of those of the extremities and face. These convulfive motions recur at uncertain intervals, and produce various ef. feéts. In fome the agitation is very great ; the mouth foams; the thuinbs are riveted into the palms of the hands; the jaws are locked from the commencement, so as to prevent the actions of sucking and swallowing: and any attempts to wet the niouth or fauces, or to administer medicines, seem to aggravate the spalms very much; the face becomes turgid, and of a livid hue, as do most other parts of the body. From this circumstance, and from the shorter duration of the disease, when it occurs in this forin, the nurtes reckon this a different species, and call it the black fits. The conflict in such cases lafts from about eight to thirty hours, and in some very rare cases to about forty hours, when the powers of nature sink exhausted and overpowered, as it were, with their own exertions.
• It much more frequently happens, however, that the fpasmodic contractions are not so strong as above described; that the extremities are rather twisted :han convulsed; that the power of fucking, but more certainly of deglutition, is not loft till near death; that tlie mouth foans less; and that the paroxysms recurring at more diftant intertals, continue to harofs the patient from three to five days, and in come rare inftances to seven anderen nine. During all this period the face remains pale; and the body, from being perhaps verv plump, is reduced to a most mi erable spectre by emaciation and disease. This the nurses consider as a second species, and call it the white fits.
• Both these farposed species, which may perhaps be more jufily considered as varieties of the fame disease, agree in constantly attacking within nine days from birth, and most frequently about the falling off of the umbilical clord. This is an event which generally takes place from the fourth to the fixth or feventh day. Diarrhaa ' is a conftant concomitant of both species. Long and sad experience
have found them allo, to be both equally fatal, insomuch, that the memory of the oldest person does not furnish an instance of one being cured.'
It is thown, with great appearance of reason, that close rooms and a neglect of cleanliness, have produced, in a great degree, the mortality of infants, particularly those of the 3
Dublin hospital; that these causes occasion the disease just defcribed.–We shall add Dr. Clarke's conclusions.
• Upon the whole, from the evidence adduced, I hope the following inferences inay not appear improbable.
"1. That one effect of an impure atmosphere, on the human body, is to produce spasms and convulsions.
62. That all young creatures, and especially infants within nine days after birth, suffer inost severely by such a noxious cause; and therefore,
63. That in the conitruction of lying-in hospitals, and perhaps of all public buildings intended for the reception of children, lofty ceilings, large windows, and moderate sized rooms, should be el. pecially attended to.
4. That in the arrangement of such edifices, no apartment fhould be completely filled with beds, if it can be conveniently avoided; and,
65. That in their management attention is especially necessary to cleanliness, as well as to the constant and uniform admission of atmospheric air by night as well as by day; and,
"Lastly, That by pursuing such measures with care, diseases may be prevented which it has hitherto been found difficult, and Sometimes impossible, to cure.'
Art. XII. Observations on certain horny Excrescences of the human Body. By Everard Home, Esq. F.R.S.-Vidę Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. LXXXI. for the Year 1791. Part Į. 4to, London, 1791.
Art. XIII. Experiments on Human Calculi. In a Letter from Mr. Timothy Lane, F, R. S. to William Pitcairn, M. D, F. R. S.-Vide Philosophical Transactions of the Royal So. ciety of London, Vol. LXXXI. for the Year 1791. Part II, 4to. London, 1791.
Art. XIV. Experiments and Observations to investigate the Composition of James's Powder. By George Pearson, M.D. F. R.S.-Vide Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. LXXXI. for the Year 1791, Part II, 4to. London, 1791.
Art. XVI. An Account of a Child who drinks a great Quantity of Water. By M. Vauquelin.-Vide La Medecine eclairée par les Sciences physiques, ou Journal des Décou. vertes relatives aux differentes Parties de l'Art de guerir; req digé par M. Fourcroy. Tome III. 8vo. Paris, 1992.
Art. XVIII. An Account of the Experiments and Discove. ries of Lewis Galvani, Professor of Anatomy at Bologna, relative to the Powers of Electricity in Muscular Motion.-Vide
Aloyfii Galvani de Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari Commentarium. 4to. Bologna, 1791.
Art. XIX. Two Letters on Animal Electricity. By Eurebius Valli, M. D. of the University of Pifa. -Vide Journal de Physique. 4to. Paris, 1792.- These essays we have al. ready noticed.
Art. XV. Account of a Case of double Hare Lip, accompanied with a Fissure of the Palate ; with Remarks. By M. Chorin, one of the Surgeons of the Hotel Dieu at Paris.Vide Journal de Chirurgie, Tom I. 8vo. Paris, 1791.This deformity was more confiderable than any of the kind we have met with, where the operation succeeded so completely. We cannot abridge it, and therefore refer our readers to the volume.
Art. XVII. A Case of double Uterus. By Antonio Canestrini, Physician to the Imperial Mines at Schwatz in Tyrol. Translated from the German.-This is, indeed, a molt fingular cafe. From the cervix uteri arose another uterus much smaller, resembling a pear. To each uterus was affixed one Fallopian tube, communicating with one ovarium. In the second smaller subūdiary uterus, conception had taken place; the uterus burst, and the fætus escaped into the abdomen. The woman had had two children before, but from what uterus either came, must remain unknown.
The fourth volume commences with,
Art. I. Observations on the Fevers and Dysentery of hot Climates; and on the Use of Mercury in those Diseases. By. Mr. William Boag, Surgeon in the Service of the Honours able East-India Company at Bombay. Communicated in a Letter to William Saunders, M. D. Fellow of the College of Physicians, London, and Physician to Guy's Hospital; and by him to Dr. Simmons.-In this eflay, Mr. Boag endeavours to show, that in all the feyers and dyfenreries o: hot climates, the liver is generally diseased; and confequently he thinks the ancients came nearer to the truth, in their doctrines concerna ing these fevers, than the moderns have supposed. The particular appearances on diffection, we shall subjoin :
• In the cases both of fever and dysentery the liver was, with two exceptions, constantly found diseated.
• In moft cases it was much enlarged, sometimes indurated, but more frequently very luft, so as to tear upon a flight touch. ·
. Commonly an abscess had formed in it, sometimes of great extent, and fometimes to smail, as only to be detected by a minute in fpe&tion.
• The diaineter of the blood vessels, through the whole substance
of this viscus, was commonly found much increased, and their coats proportionably thickened. They rere also obierved to be, for the ' most part, empty. . "In two cases of dysentery, where the patients had coughed up matter for some time before their death, a large abscess in the liver had made its way through the diaphragm into the lungs.
• The gall bladder was sometimes very much diftended with yel. low ropy bile.
"The fpleen was, in most instances, much enlarged, its texture loosened, and sometimes totally deftroyed; the substance remaining, having no other appearance than that of a dark coag lum of blood. This was particularly the case in the two instances above mentioned, where no disease was apparent in the liver.
" In some instances the pancreas was considerably enlarged and scirrhous.
• In patients who died of the dysentery the bowels were conftantly found much inflamed. In the worst cases, mortification had taken place, especially in the rectum and part of the colon.
In dysenteric patients also the mesenteric glands were commonly seen enlarged.
"A degree of inflammation, more or less considerable, was usually observed in the inferior portions of the lungs, contiguous to the diaphragm, and was commonly most remarkable on the right side of the chest.'
Mr. Boag seems fully of opinion, that dysentery arises from vitiated bile, and doubts, though without sufficient reason, that the disease is infectious. Its infectious nature has been fully cítablished in every variety of climate, by physicians of every school. The cure is explained shortly, and it does not differ from the mode, which experience has established in warm climates. The very extensive use of mercury is particularly infitted on.
Art. II. An Account of the successful Treatment of a Cafe in which the Brachial Artery was divided. By William Adair, Ilg. Surgeon General to the Garrison of Gibraltar. Communicated in a Letter to Everard Home, Esq. F. R. S. and by him to Dr. Simmons.- In this case, though numerous artéries were taken up, in consequence of the emergency, with little attention in separating the tendinous parts, no locked jaw took place. · Art. III. An Account of the Effects of Oil of Turpentine in a Case of internal Hæmorrhage. By the Same.--We can add nothing to what is said in the title: it is an uncommon medicine, but not a singular one. When however nature exerts herself, the particular medicine employed may be almoft of any class.
Art. IV. A Case of Imperforated Anus. By the Same This case is in its symptoms and termination of very little importance : the gut was opened, but the child died, perhaps from adhæsions in the upper part of the intestine.
Art. V. Observations on the Pathology, a id Mode of Treatment of Calculi in general, but more particularly of Intestinal Calculi; with 2 Description and Chemical Analysis of the Interlinal Calculi of Horfes. By Mr. William Gaitikell, Surgeon at Rotherhithe. Communicated in a Letter to Nir. William Babington, Apothecary to Guy's Hospital, and by him to Dr. Simmons.- This is a very extensive and judicious essay. We can warmly praise it, though in the principal doce trine we must differ from the author. He first gives a very extensive, and we believe an accurate, history of intestinal and other calculi, in all the variety of animals subject to the disa ease. In the theory of their formation, he agrees with Dr. Austin in attributing them to mucus capable of concreting, and endeavours to confute the doctrine of the author of " The Treatise on Gout and Gravel,' we think with little successbut we cannot now resume this subject; we shall return to it when we examine the large edition of the 'Treatise,' now no longer anonymous.
In the cure of intestinal calculi in horses, he advises dilucits in large quantities, rendered mucilaginous. As lithontriptics, he recommends lime water and soap; above all, the caulic mineral alkali, 'incorporated with bran into a math, or with oil into a soap.' The beards of looks have been Gid to be highly useful, by infusing a handful in a pint of luc-water; the infufion to be taken in this quantity daily.
"The second section contains the chemical analyâs of the intestinal calculi of horses. In this analysis, our author differs from Scheele, the author of the Treatife,' &c. but it may be suggested, that he has exami:red intestinal calculi only. The defcriprion of the different calculi, illustrated by plates, is full and accurate. The observations on the result of the
experiment with nitrous acid, we mnail tranicribe : .." As the nitrous acid, according to Bergmon and Scheele, is capable of decomposing urinary calculi, and feparating an acid, fui senerin, called the acid of calculus, in form of rcfe-ccloured cry. * Itals, foluble in water, and capable of fiuining animal fubstances red; and as these celebrated chemists have attributed the formation of calculus to the presence of this acid in union with auimal earth, I have bestowed peculiar attention, in ny analysis of intestinal calcuius, to look for the acid they defcribe. To discover this, fome nitrous acid was saturated with inteítinal calculus, and hough the Solution was transparent, and of a pale yellow, yet, upon applica