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arrange themselves in an atmospheric rectilinear form around them ; in which state they produce all the appearances of attraction, and repulsion, and all the various mutations and operations of nature, which present themselves to the philosophic mind; or, by combining together, in the states of light and fire, they givé beauty, life and activity to the whole. "
Such are our author's principles, in other words, his data: they are truly gratuitous, except so far as we know that folid particles must exist, and that effects are produced by causes in which we can perceive nothing material. He goes on, however, refting on these data, to consider the different combinations of the fixed and active principles, which form the most active bodies, particularly alkalis and acids; secondly, chemical affinities, which are, in his opinion, attractions taking place, between this combination of fixedand active principles; thirdly, the degree of folidity, which he thinks depends on the attraction of the secand active principles, when united with the fixed, while the specific gravity depends on the latter wholly. So far as this system is realonable or probable, it is not materially different from the common, substituting spheres of attraction and repulsion to the combination of fixed and adive prinaciples. .
Before mentioning the active particles particularly, Dr. "Pearl treats of fire, the effect of the union of the æther and phlogiston without any fixed principles, as well as of water, which he considers as the fixed state of the two airs, and with the French and the generality of English chemists, to be a compound of these. .
In the consideration of the theory of gares, our author corfiders air as composed of a fixed principle as a center, and many surrounding particles of an active principle. The principle of acidity has, he thinks, the greatest affinity to æther, that of alkalinity to phlogiston, but, in the explanation of the reason of their assuming the gaseous form, he retains all the difficulties which attended the system of their depending on the caloric. From the two contending principles of acidity and alkalinity, arise the respective combinations of the two most simple atrial fluids, the pure, and the inflammable air. s
Inflammable air is, therefore, the most perfect of the phloufiic aeriform fluids with bases of alkali, and pure uir of the ætheciñuids with bases of the acid principle. If thefe two be mixed together, in a proper proportion, they will have little sensible action uron each other, because each atmosphere is so fully and widely eniorida ed around its respective basis, as to be fiarcely excit:d, and near's inactive; but, if they be still more extended by fire, itey will then actually separate from their former arrangement, and, i cou'r'ng uit;vity by ignition, will themselves combine and forin fire, and, com. municating their activity to the rest, the whole of the phlogistic and ætherial atmospheres will rulh together ; their respective bafes, by that means, will be brought into contact and form a neutral com. pound, water;mand, the phlogistic and ætherial atmospheres, thus violently acquiring their liberty, will combine and elcape in the form of flame, in which is fire and light.
From the specimens we have thus given, it will be obvious, that, by this new system, we have scarcely advanced beyond the former: we have the same in effeat and almost in form, with the addition only of what is, at best, hypothetical, most probably erroneous. We need not add, that to raise a system on the old obsolete doctrines of Stahle, a doctrine now for: saken, probably, by every English chemist, is, at best, an ad venturous, we think a dangerous attempt. Dr. Peart, howo cver, means to pursue the subje&t in examining the galeous fluids, arising from different combinations with these fimple original airs. Yet we think his attention and ingenuity might be better employed. He is building a system which a breath may destroy: he is pursuing an ignus fatuus, and exhausting talents, by which he may become useful in other applications, that may render him equally respectable and valuable.
Poems, Lyric and Pastoral. By Edward Willianis. 2 Volso
12mo. 1os. fewed. Johnson. 1794. IF it be a natural consequence, as experience has sufficiently
proved that it is, of having been gratified by the works of an author, that our curiosity is excited to know something of the man ; it will equally follow, that when the man is found to have something extraordinary about him, curiofity will make us wish to become acquainted with his works. We are here presented with the poems of a genuine Welsh bard, an original genius, who derives his poetical descent from Talieslin, and his inspiration from nature, for his situation in life is no higher than that of a working Atone-mason. The account he gives of the earliest impressions made upon his mind, is as follows:
I was so very unhealthy whilft, a child (and I have continued fo), that it was thought useless to put me to school, where my three brothers were kept for many years. I learned the alphabet before I can well remember, by seeing my father inscribe grave-stones. My mother, whose maiden name was Matthews, was the daughter of a gentleman who had wasted a pretty fortune ; she had been well edu. cated; the taught me to read in a volume of songs, intitled The · Vocal Miscellany ; for, I could not be prevailed upon to be taught from any other book. My mother sang agreeably, and I underfood
that the learned her songs from this book, which made me so very desirous of learning it. This I did in a short tin.e, and hence, I doubt not, my original turn for poetry. There is no truth in that old adage, poeta nafcitur, non fit; for, I will venture to fay, that a poetical and every other genius is made by some accident in early life, making an indelible impression on the tender mind of infancy.
. I could buy no books : there was not at this time a single bookseller except itinerants, that sold Welsh books, in all Wales. The whole of my (or rather my mother's) little library, consisted of the Bible, some of Pope's works, Lintott's Miscellany, Steele's Mifcellany, Randolph's Poems, Milton's poetical works, a few volumes of the Speâator, Tatler, and Guardian, The Whole Duty of Man, Browne's Religio Medici, and Golding's Tranflation of Ovid's Metamorphofes, in the black letter, which I foon was able to read : and, with these, two or three books of arithmetic, which my mother procured for me ; and it was she that taught me to write, and the first five or six rules of arithmetic, with iomething of music.
• My first attempts in poetry were in Welsh, that being the country vernaculum, though English was the language of my father's house. In 1770, my best of mothers died; I was then, though, twenty-three years of age, as ignorant of the world almost as a newa. born child; this I gradually found by woeful experience. I had worked at my father's trade fince I was nine years of age ; but I never, from a child, associated with those of my age, never learned their diversions. I returned every night to my mother's fire-fide, where I talked or read with her ; if ever I walked out, it was by myself in unfrequented places, woods, the sea-shore, &c. for I was very pensive, melancholy, and very stupid, as all but my mother thought; when a chearful fit occurred, it was wild extravagance çenerally.'. .
Those who have read Beatie's Minstrel, will be struck with the similarity berween young Edwin and our ruftic poet.--After his mother's death, Mr. Williams tells us, that not being able to bear home where she was never more to be seen.' he rambled about for some years, working at his trade in London and other placés. Returning into Wales he married, and for some time laid afide his favourite ftudy. But by degrees, the notice of friends encouraged him to print his poems by subscription, in which we sincerely rejoice he has inet with so much encouragement.
From this account of his scanty advantages, our readers are probably prepared to give his productions the qualified eu. logium, which is fo often the utmoit that belongs to a selftaught genius.--"They are really very extraordinary, onlidering! -But we can assure them, thai if they are true lovers of poe. try, they will find much of real, as well as relative excellence. C.R. N. ARR. (XI.) July, 1794.
A flowing and easy melody in a variety of measures; images and manners truly pastoral; enlarged ideas and glowing sentiments of liberty, civil and religious.--He is tinctured with an honest enthusiasm for his country and his country's productions, for which no one who has himself felt the amor patriæ, will think the worse of him.-We do not mean, however, to bestow indiscriminate praise upon all the contents of these two volumes. Many of them contain little more than those general praises of the country and a paftoral life, and those vngue censures of the folly and wickedness of towns, which poets are apt to indulge themselves in, and which, when they expect notice or encouragement for their labours, they bring, not to the cottage which they celebrate, but to the city which they decry. Some of the poems are translated from the author's own Welsh, for he writes in both languages, and a few from the ancient Welsh bards. We particularly noticed a very elegant one from a Welsh bard who flourished, as we are told, about the year 1350. It describes the journey of a female pilgrim from the ille of Anglesea to St. David's in Pembrokeshire.
• What hast thou done, thrice lovely maids
No, Morvid, no; thy gentle breast
Yet, lovely nymph, thy way pursue,
And to th' untimely grave convey'd.' He goes on to describe, in a picturesque manner, the streams and torrents she has to cross in her journey.
"O! could I guard thy lovely form
Sons of the tempest, cease to blow,
Cease with rude clamours to dismay
Peace! rude Traeth Mawr; no longer urge
Securely through thy windings wade.' Among those of Mr. Williams, we would point out The Holiday Prize, a pastoral, in which the gay and the domestic temper are contrasted with equal novelty of thought and neatness of execution. On the Approach of Winter, written with much feeling of the plaintive kind; and, more particularly, two Odes, which for sublimity of conception and loftiness of sentiment, may bear a comparison with some of the most esteemed in the language. They were recited, according to the custom of the ancient bards, on Primrose Hill, where they have a stated meeting on the equinoxes and solstices. The one is entitled, On the Mythology of the ancient British Bards. It seems their leading doctrine, derived from the Druids, is the metempsichosis, which they have interwoven with their Christianity. They believe that all animated beings originate in the lowest point of existence, whence they rise higher and higher to the greatest possible point of happiness and perfection. That if a man leaves this world without having acquired virtues which fit him for a higher state, he is sent down again into the inferior classes of existence, when in process of time he rises again. That, however, after passing through the ftate of man, he is not liable to fall from happiness, but that good spirits, who have been men, often voluntarily return to the earth to instruct mankind, and that the most distinguished bards, the Jewish prophets, and Jesus Christ himself, have been of this number. That after passing the state of humanity, a being recovers the recollection of every former ftate.In the Ode we mention, the bard recites his transmigrations into different states. We should quote from it, if we did not give the other entire. “ ODE ON CONVERTING A SWORD INTO A PRUNING
HOOK. "Recited on Primrose Hill, at a Meeting of ANCIENT BRITISH BARDS, Residents in London, Sep. 22, 1793, being the Day N2