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whereon the Autumnal Equinox occurred, and one of the four grand solemn Bardic Days.' .
• Gwir, yn erbyn y Byd.
Motto of the Ancient Bards of Britain. • In English-Truth, against all the World !
6 And they shall beat their swords into plough-thares, and their
Spears into pruning-hooks ; nation shall not lift up sword against nation ; neither shall they learn war any more.' Isaiah, chap. ii. ver. 4.
61 Fell weapon, that in ruthless hand
Of warrior fierće, of despot king,
Haft heard th' embattled clangor's ring;
Where nought of hell-born war invades;
And hiding from the face of day
She, with rude yell, blafphemes the sons of light,
With wrathful eyes and venom'd breath,
And boast, unlham’d, her fields of death;
Dar'd at thy throne, thou God of love,
To storm around the guiltless head,
The gorgeous temple with loud echoes rung;
With carnage zon'd th' affrighted globe :
What lamentable shrieks arose,
In all th' excess of direft woes!
Together throng d the sceptred band,
Of sad humanity's unpity'd wail ! And each imperial dome with horrid shouts rejoice! 64. But hear from heav’n the dread command;
It gives to speed that awful hour,
Must fail th' insulting rod of pow'r;
Bade fell destruction sweep the world;
Nowy brought before th' eternal throne,
Bids on her head the rocks and mountains fall, To shield her from the wrath whose venging thunders roll. 65. Thou, strength of kings, with aching breast,
I raise to thee the mournful strain ;
Or quench in blood thy thirst again.
Mine is the day so long foretold
To join with angels in the songs of peace, That fill my kindred soul with energies divine. • 6. Dark error's code no more enthrals,
Its vile infatuations end;
The nations hear? the worlds attend !
And learns no more the Skill of war;
Long has this earth a captive mourn'd,
We Pride's rude arm no longer feel ;
No longer bleed beneath Oppression's heel
I carol in its golden skies;
Together play, together feed,
From eyes that bless the glorious day
In chorus joining with seraphiç lyres,
We crown the Prince of Peace, he reigns th’ Eternal King!! At the end of the poems is an account of the Welsh bardic triades, a manner of writing which our author warmly defends, It has a striking resemblance to the manner of Ecclesiasticus and the Proverbs, and is certainly not ill calculated for aphorisms, especially if they are capable of any point; but it must Þe very tiresome in any long composition. A few of those quoted are,
The three primary requisites of poetical genius; an eye that can see nature, a heart that can feel nature, and a resolu. tion that dares follow nature.
The three utilities of poetry ; the praise of virtue and goodness, the memory of things remarkable, and to invigorate the affections.
There are three forts of men ; the man of God, who renders good for evil; the man of men, who renders good for good and evil for evil; and the man of the devil, who renders evil for good.
The three primary privileges of the bards are, maintenance wherever they go, that no naked weapon be borne in their presence, and their testimony be preferred to that of all others,
As we have expressed our warm approbation of the high tones of liberty, and enlarged sentiments of philanthropy, which are to be met with in these Poems, we hope the author will allow us to wish thaç he would retrench from any future edition, those strokes of petulant sarcasm which greatly blemish the general tenor of his productions. He does not pofless any talent for humour. Neither does it well become a writer, on his first appearance before the public, to speak contemptuously, of men, or classes of men, who have long been in poflellion of its admiration or reverence. We are sorry, likewise, that he indulges in his Preface a strain of querulous complaint, in which his readers cannot sympathize, as he has not stated to them the injuries to which he seems so fenfible; nor, if he had, could they probably have judged of them. We fear, indeed, that a wounded sensibility is the tax which genius, rising atove its situations and connections in life, is too generally forced to pay.
We remark many words used in an uncommon sense, as fewelled, careered, wordless, dangerless, leisured. Where the poetry is bold, as in the ode we have quoted, they have a happy effect.-We observe also a sonnet on sonnet making, said to be in the Welsh manner, which is only an imitation of the famous Spanish Sonnet of Lopez de Vega, which has been imitated so often.
As our Cambrian bard tells us many of his best pieces are yet unpublished, we hope he will be induced, from the reception of these, to give them to the world, and in return we will give him a triad. Respect the public, speak sparingly of thyself, and despise not criticism.
Observations on the Nature of Demonstrative Evidence; with
an Explanation of certain Difficulties occurring in the Elements of Geometry: and Refleétions on Language. By Thomas Beddoes. 8vo. 35. 6á. Boards. Johnson. 1793. THERE is no royal road to geometry, said once a philoso
1 pher, and the sentiinent has been re-echoed by every teacher of mathematics, when his pupil in despair is ready and willing to throw the elements of the prince of geometers into the fire. Our author is of a very different opinion, and conceives that children might be made to pass over the pons asinorum without difficulty, and that by appealing to the senses, we might give them at once an insight into those truths, which are now not to be acquired without toiling through the perplexities of a tedious demonstration. We are inclined to agree with him in this point, and heartily wish, that he may persuade his brethren of Oxford and Cambridge to make the experiment upon the youth entrusted to their care; for we have seen many a one wasting his hours unprofitably in endeavouring to enter into hisautor's ideas; ?
K ris prisontinto a new world of lines and circles, and being told that there is fomething very myfterious in the science into which he is to be initiated, he approaches every theorein wiin awe, and nnds himself soon bewildered in a labyrinth, without any friendly clue to guide his forlorn steps.
If it is true, that in a train of mathematical reasoning we proceed at every step upon the evidence of the senses, or in different terms, that the mathematical sciences are sciences of experiment and observation, founded solely upon the induction of particular facts, as much so as mechanics, astronomy, optics, or chemistry,' there cannot be a doubt, that the best way of communicating knowledge on these subjects, is to present to the senses every experiment in the same manner as it is mentally performed. That the mathematics are of this nature, the author shews in a variety of instances; and the fourth proposition of the first book of Euclid is so completely to his purpose, that it is sufficient to examine the proccís of the mind in every step, to be convinced, that the mere experiment of laying the one triangle upon the other in a vibble manner, would without difficulty teach the learner the truth required. The same may be said of the fifth proposition, which is difficult only from a beginner not being fo well acquainted with the nature of angles as of lines; but if he had been either accustomed frequently to consider them, or if his instructor had dwelt sufficiently upon this point, the experiments on this proposition might be easily made; and the result would fix itself at once upon the mind. Why do we, after having read the fix first books of Euclid, find great difficulty in surmounting the eleventh and twelfth? The figures are more complicated; they are on a plane surface, though they ought to represent folids, and we have been lets accustomed to confider solids and compare them , together: yet, if the solids were represented as such, and we
were frequently to examine them, the propositions in these books would be as easily digested as any in the preceding.
The docrine of ratios, which is supposed to be more mysterious than any part of the mathematics, and on that account the fifth book of Euclid is omitted in the lectures of many tutors in Carnbridge, is Thewn also to be easily acquired by experiments; and though the author is aware that many will laugh at the idea of itaching it by tapes and strings, the mode seems fealble and proper to fhorten the way to knowledge. Whether it is tine to throw away our Euclids, and subítitute other inodes of instruction, we shall not decide, though perr fectly convinced that there is great room for improvement in the present Irfem of education; and we cannot but think, that the remarks interspersed on this subject, in various parts of the work before us, (tserve the att:ntion of every person employed in communicating instruciion to the rising generation. The following extract will give an idea both of the author's style, and too true an account of the difficulties under which we labour in our early years.