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Round broken columns clasping ivy twin'd; - O'er heaps of ruin ftalk'd the stately hind;

The fox obscene to gaping tombs retires,

And savage howlings fill the sacred quires.' The manner in which Mr. Wakefield has conducted this work answers, in our opinion, to his declaration in the Ad

vertisement. It is neither on the one hand encumbered with "a studied display of literature, so as to offend ordinary readers, · nor yet so barren of genuine criticism on the other, as to dis· appoint readers of taste and learning. The notes are, in ge

neral, ingenious and useful'; and, as the immediate object of

them seems to be to point out the beauties and blemishes of - Pope's versification, afford fome good hints to critics and poets. - Speaking of the Efsay on Criticism, Mr. Wakefield obferves :

• When we consider the multifarious excellencies of the following performance, both as a collection of critical observation and an effusion of poetic genius, and are informed at the same time, that it was the production of a youth, who had not yet completed his one and twentieth year; the fingularity of the circumstance, or a jealous consciousness of inferior powers, might at first incline us to sceptical insinuation upon the fact itself; but, when we find, that the actual publication of the poem effectually filences every fufpicion of this nature, we are compelled to acknowledge The Effay on Criticism to be the most astonishing effort of taste, judgment, good sense, and knowledge united, take it all in all, that literature, ancient or modern, has yet exhibited. And yet, as we proceed in our remarks on this performance, we shall occasionally point out such specimens of inaccurate expression, flovenly versification, and superficial judge ment, as will abundantly evince, that, though Mr. Pope only was equal to such an effort, it was Mr. Pope in his immaturity: like Jove in Crete, sporting with his arrows and his javelin; not yet ad. vanced to the sovereignty of the skies, to compel the clouds and wield the thunder-bolt.'

We see much to admire in our ingenious editor's notes, and little to disapprove; but we were surprised at finding that Mr. Wakefield should treat the song (p. 326.) seriously, as he appears to do, which is evidently burlesque.

mination of the verse. Ovid, in his epistle of Penelope to Ulysses, has a similar thought :

ruinosas occulit herba domne. · Encroaching grass the ruin'd houses hides.' " Ver. 69. The imagery of this and the three following verses is filsully relected, and the conclufion is even sublime. The description of the hind in particular is chara&teistic of that noble animal, and perfectly happy in energy of di&ion, and majesty of numbers.

Ver. 72. And wolves with huwling fill, &c.] The author though this an error, wolves not being common in England at the time of the Conqueror. P.

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A Chemical Dissertation on the Thermal Waters of Pisa, and on

the neighbouring aridulous Spring of Asciano : with an Hiftorical Sketch of Pila, and a Meteorological Account of its Heather: 10-which are added, Analytical Papers respecting the Sulphureous Water of Yverdun. By John Nott, M. D..

of Bristol Hot-Wells. 8vo. 35. Jewed. Walter. ' 1793. THIS Essay, so far as relates to the waters of Pisa, is taken

from an Italian treatise, written by Giorgio Santi, professor of chemistry and natural history in the university of Pisa. The waters have hitherto been indistinctly known, and we are well pleased to add to the hydrological works every well conducted analysis. Our riches, in this line, have lately increased; and we are almost enabled to compile a more satisfactory account of mineral waters than has yet been published, of waters analysed, since chemistry assumed a more rational form, and extended its confines.

We can only sketch the outline of our author's work, and must pass by many valuable remarks, which will be highly useful to the valetudinarian, who passes the Alps, in search of health, from the air or the mineral waters of Pisa. We must take up the work in a more general view.

The mountains of Pisa are chiefly calcareous. Beneath is found schist, opake quartz, rock chrystal, and a beautiful red fpotted Brescia, which last pierces the schist, and forms the apex. This fact seems to show that these mountains have been raised by some fubterraneous force. Flint under schilt is no very common appearance; but it is by no means improbable. The minerals of this country are, in consequence of this structure of the mountains, chiefly calcareous. The general impregnations of the waters are, on the same account, combinations of this earth. 'The heat of the thermal waters is from 86 to 106°, most commonly from 929 to 104°. Much of the carth is kept in folution by the excess of aerial acid; consequently, when the water reaches the open air, some deposition takes place, which is called tartar, and a crust forms, called, in this treatise, a pellicle. We shall add the contents of the water of the Reservoir, and the warm spring of the Queen's Bath. .

• We will now enumerate from experiment the several proportionate contents of 100 pints of the reservoir water. • Aerial acid uncombined

- Gr. 187 . Vitriolated natron

203 Muriated natron

265 Vitriolated calx

969 Yitriolated magnesia

325 Muriated

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179 204

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Contents of 100 Pints.' « Vitriolated natron

Gr. 186 'Muriated natron oni

260 Vitriolated calx

:

- . . 905
Vitriolated magnesia

278
Nuriated magnesia , - - -
Lime-stone -
Magnesia alba, not calcined in

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Argillaceous earth
Siliceous earth .

10 The pellicle and the tartar contained more than three-fourths of calcareous earth : about .13 of magnesia, and .05 of flint. The former contained most calcareous earth, and the iatter the largest quantity of magnesia: the fint seems to have been entanlged only with the precipitat ,

The Asciano water is also aerian, and in ico pints, contains,

Uncombined aerial acid . . Gr. 374
Vitriolated natron

312
Muriated natron

- 338 Vitriolated calx

. 654
Vitriolated magnelia

· 275
Muriated magnesia -
Lime-stone
Magnesia alba, not calcined
Argillaceous earth -

38 Siliceous earth The water of the bath fountains is much loaded with earthy and other salts : that of the Pisa fountain is comparatively pure, and it is highly grateful. The salts are earthy, and these always render water pleasing to the taste, without injuring its salubrity.

"The water in the reservoir, situate in the middle of the eastern bathi is adapted for internal use: though warm, it does not nauseate, even drunk largely : its aerial acid renders it exhilarating and antiiepuc: it is a gentle attenuant, incides, and clears away the sharp vifcid humours of the first paflages; it is cleansing, detergent, and anthenmintic, It pervades the minutest veilcis, gives tone to the folds,

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177. 294 109

moderates the circulation; it also promotes perspiration and urine; which last, if crude and clear, it renders properly fedimentous.

• It is consequently useful where the intestines are ulcerated, abound with fordes, or with any of the causes of obstinate diarrhoea and dysentery ; also, in lienteric and coeliac affections, where the meysenteric glands are obstructed, or any of the abdominal viscera; and it mitigates the concomitant febrile symptoms. It effectually cures jaundice, and diffoives gall-stones; it expels gravel and stony concretions. It relieves, and has cured, ischury, diabetes, gleets ; also, ulcers of the kidneys and urinary passages. It allays pains in the stomach, with excessive vomitings; and for chlorofis it has proved a certain remedy.

In drinking this water, its virtues are in many diseases heightened by partial injections of it at the same time; for, by thus coming in immediate contact with the affected parts, it must have greater efficacy than when it reaches them changed and combined with the animal juices. This applies to ulcers in the rectumn, bladder, and womb, fuor albus, hæmorrhoidal ulcers, periodical colic, dysentery, and habitual diarrhea.'

! The diseases which the Baths are found to relieve, are principal. ly rheumatism, gout, periodical head-aches, pains over the eyes, convulsions, hypochondriac and hysteric affections, pally, weakness of the joints, rickets, white swellings, jaundice, scurvy, tinea, herpes, and old ulcers.

The douge effects the resolution of stagnant humours, particularly if external; it re-produces action in debilitated indolent parts, quickening circulation through them; and it cleanses wounds.

The heat of the waters is attributed to decompounded mis nerals. The sulphureous waters are said to owe their heat to decompounded pyrites, and the saline, according to Dr. Noit's representation of professor Santi, to schist, argillaceous earth, and magnesia. We wish the English chemist had been more 'explicit, for we are yet to learn that the two former contain the matter of heat, and the last, probably, does not hold it so loosely combined, as to yield it, in any quantity, to the aerial acid. We believe heat in mineral waters, from decomposition, is wholly owing to acid, or to fulphurs. .

The Asciano water cannot, in its effects, be very different from the Pisa water..

The historical account of Pisa is entertaining; but we find nothing in it particularly new. In the meteorological journal for the winter months of 1787, 1788, viz. O&tober, November, January, and February, we find the thermometer from 35 to 69; and, in in the month of December, 1792, and January 1793, from 32° to 69. In the two corresponding months

of this period, there was not so great a difference, the thermometer tising only to 62° in January 1788.

The account of the waters of Yverdun is the more curious, as they have been little known: 'their heat is but a little above the surrounding atmosphere, at the time the observation was made, viz. 78°. They are fulphureous alkaline waters, which bear being carried to a distance, without being decomposed, and they are useful as resolvents, like other hepatic waters. The water of the Baths is also fulphureous, but more volatile-chiefly, perhaps, impregnated with hepatic air.

On the Punishment of Murder by Death. By B. Rulli, M. D.

890, bd. Jonhon. 1793. THE benevolent author of this little tract, which has been

1 several times printed in Philadelphia, has written it to prove that to inflict death as the punilhment of murder, and, a fortiori, for any crime less atrocious than murder, is contrary to reason to the order and happiness of society--and especially to the spirit of the Christian religion.- We know not whether his arguments will afford as much satisfaction to the enlightened legislator, as his intention must give pleasure to the philanthropist :- they are chiefly textural, and le labours not a little to make 'the Old Testament difpenfation, and the Jewitha code of laws, accord with what he believes to be clearly the doctrine of the gospel. Indeed he is reduced to suppose the one was intended as a foil to the other.

The imperfection and severity of these laws were probably in. tended farther to illustrate the perfection and mildness of the correl dispensation. It is in this manner that God has manifested him felf in many of liis acts. He created darkness first, to illustrate by conparison the beauty of light, and he permits fin, misery, and death in the moral world, that he may hereafter display more illuftriously the transcendant glories of righteousness, happiness, and immortal life.

This opinion is favoured by St. Paul, who says, “ the law made · nothing perfect,” and that“ it was a shadow of good things to come.”

Dr. Rush says, and the argument is specious, 'till men are able to give life, it becomes them to tremble at the thought of taking it away. Yet this argument will equally apply againit taking away the life of brutes, and, indeed, there is such a provilion in nature, for even the enormous waste of life to which every species is subject, that we can hardly suppose mere life is considered in the dispensations of Providence as more precious than many other things for which it is daily sacrificed. The great question, therefore, seems to be, can the life of delinquents be spared congstently with the safety of the community, and

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