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with their own happiness. For it avails little to say, that some sovereigns have abolished the punishment of death in their dominions, if, perhaps, the punishments established in their room are more severe, which may very easily be. We should fear for instance, that the first of the punishments mentioned in the following scale of our author if at all continued, would be too severe for human nature.
• A scale of punishment by means of imprisonment and labour, might be easily contrived, so as to be accommodated to the different degrees of atrocity in murder. For example--for the first or highest degree of guilt, let the punishment be solitude and darkness, and a total want of employment. For the second, solitude and labour, with the benefit of light. For the third, confinement and labour. The duration of these punishments should likewise be governed by the atrocity of the murder, and by the signs of contrition and amend. ment in the criminal.'
One argument used by our author must apppear whimsical to those who do not happen to have heard that there have been actual instances in America of such melancholy enthusiasts.
It produces murder by its influence upon people who are tired of life, and who from a supposition that murder is a less crime than suicide, de stroy a life (and often that of a near connection) and afterwards deliver themselves up to the laws of their country, that they may escape from their misery by means of a halter.'
Dr. Rush concludes his pamphlet by expressing his full belief of a progreisive state of society, and gives the following statement of its actual amelioration in the course of the last two centuries, a latement which we fincerely hope may not be contradicted by any of the powers, who at presedy manage the interests of this our globe,
. The world has certainly undergone a material change for the better within the last two hundred years. This change has been produced chiefly, by the secret and unacknowledged influence of Christianity upon the hearts of men. It is agreeable to trace the effects of the Christian religion in the extirpation of slavery—in the diminution of the number of capital punishments, and in the mitiçation of the horrors of war. There was a time when masters poffefled a power over the lives of their Naves. But Christianity has deposed this power, and mankind begin to see every where that savery is alike contr: ry to the interests of society, and the spirit of the gospel. There was a time when torture was part of the punishment of death, and the number of capital crimes amounted to one hundred and fixty-one.--Christianity has abolished the former, and reduced the latter to not more than six or seven. It has done more. It has confined, in some instances, capital punishments to the crime of mur.
der- and in some countries it has abolished it altogether. The influence of Christianity upon the modes of war, has been still more remarkable. It is agreeab e to trace its progress, ' on .6 ift. In rescuing women and children from being the objects of the desolations of war in common with men. I want
• 2dly. In preventing the destruction of captives taken in battle, in cold blood. .
• zdly. In protecting the peaceable husbandman from Maring in the carnage of war.
• 4thly. In producing an exchange of prisoners, instead of dooming them to perpetual Navery.
i sthly. In avoiding the invasion or destruction, in certain cases, of private property.
• 6thly. In declaring all wars to be unlawful but such as are purely defensive.
"This is the only tenure by which war now holds its place among Chriftians. It requires but little ingenuity to prove that a defensive war cannot be carried on fuccessfully without offensive operations. Already the princes and nations of the world discover the Itruggles of opinion or conscience in their preparations for war. Witncis the many national disputes which have been lately terminated in Europe by negociation, or mediation, Witness too, the establishment of the constitution of the United States without force or bloodshed. There events indicate an improving state of human affairs. They lead us to look forward with expectation to the time, when the weapons of war shall be changed into implements of husbandry, and when rapine and violence Mall be no more. These events are the promised fruits of the gospel. If they do not come to pats, the prophets have deceived us. But if they do-war must be as contrary to the spirit of the gospel, as fraud, or murder, or any other of the vices which are rep'roved or extirpated by it.'
Miscellaneous Tracts and Collections relating to Natural History,
jeletied from the princirai Writers of Antiquery on that Subjefi. By W. Falconer, M. D. 410. 75. 6d. jewed. Cadell.
1793. THIS little volume is the result of great labour, extensive
I knowledge, and accurate research. We know the immense exertions it must have required, as we have laboured in some of these pursuits, for our advantage, without expect. ing to reap the 'barveft, the fruit of another's toil. As we have thus laboured in the vineyard, we know the advantages of the attempt, and can judge of Dr. Falconer's accuracy. It is with pleasure that we can add our testimony in his favour in each respect. As we are, thercfore, precluded from criticism, we shall chiefly give an account of each tract from our author's preface..
Th. The first tract is a calendar of natural occurrences, supposed to have taken place in Greece, nearly in the latitude of Athens. The different columns mark the place of the sun, the correlponding day of our own months, and the different plants, which come either into leaf, into flower, or ripen fruit at each, period. An attempt of this kind was made by Mr. Stillinge fleet, and published in his miscellaneous tracts; but the pre-i sent calendar is more full and explicit. An useful addition is the cosmical, acronical, and heliacal rising and setting of different stars and constellations, which ascertain, with greater precision, the period of the events. This part is taken from Geminus; and the rest chiefly from Theophrastus and Aristotle. The uncertainty of the real extent, and the particular order of the Greek months, has led Dr. Falconer to adopt the English months. The reasons we shall transcribe :
"1. The names and order of the Greek months are so much disputed, and so doubtful, that it would have required a long previous * discussion to settle their places and denomination, a thing inconsistent with a work like the present. Moreover the year to which these months were adjusted, was either of the lunar kind, and consisting of 354 days only, or else somewhat between the lunar and solar year, and containing 360 days; and probably both of them were in ufe at t different periods of time. The calendar, however, was fo incorrectly managed, and the commencement of the lunar year so irregular (it beginning not at the time of the summer folstice, but at the new moon succeeding it, or perhaps the neareft to it, whether before or after) as to create great error in cal-culating seasons, or dates of natural events.
• Another reason of greater weight was, that the lunar year was not made use of in calculating such occurrences. Civil affairs ,
• The names and order of the Greek months are both doubtful. The Lexicons give two and sometimes three significations to each month. Thus ExaFor balan is rendered by Bu iaus, Apriiis vel Junius. Bordcoutur, Junius, Augustus et September. Noente, october et Julius ; and so of the others. It is also doubted if Ela po bonser be the name of a month, or only an epithet of a time of year. The order of the Greek months that seems most agreeable to the ancient Greek writers, is that which is given in Spon and Wheler's Tra. pels, and taken from all antique marble preserved at Oxford; and is as fol. lows : • Enerous awww. Junius et Julius.
raunier, December et Januar. Metagsimuwr. Julius et Augustus. Avdenciar. Januarius et Februar, Bons pouswr. Auguftus et September. Enaonconjwy. Februar, et Mart. Ilvarefowy. September et Odtuber. Mongewy. Martius et Aprilis. Masuaxtniw. O&ober et November @agyni.wr. Aprilis et Maius. Tlogaidiw. November et December 1 Exacopopian. Maius et Junius.' $ $ Selden, Apparat. ad Græcor. Lpochas Chronologicus.
Annus Lunaris à primâ Luna nova post folttitium æstivum aufpicabatur. Ward's Greek Grammar. ! 9 Civiles anigi crant lunarcs, qui scilicet feftis celebrandis, magistratibus
ineundis, such as the celebration of * festivals, the election of magistrates, the payment of salaries, interest of money, and all civil contracts were indeed reckoned by the lunar year; but what regarded natural events, as the rise or setting of + stars for constellations, the works of agriculture, the g flowering of plants, and the li gestation of ani. mals, together with all transactions that regarded the laws of nations, as the duration of q treaties, truces, &c. were reckoned by the solar year. A solar year, or the term of 365 days, is also understood to be meant whenever the space of an entire ** year is mentioned or a series of years. It has been the opinion of some 77
ineundis, creditis, ufuris, ftipendiis, penfionibus folvendis, et id genus aliis, ftatis, temporibus, perficiendis apcati, Selden. Apparat. ad Græcor. Epochas Chronologicus.
i* Aristophanes pleasantly tells us, that these were so irregularly managed, that the gods themselves did not know them, and that they menaced the moon with their resentment, because that by her uncertain notice of these convivial mcerings, they were disappointed of their entertainment, and obliged to return hungry back to heaven.
- επειδη φως Σελεναιης καλον.
Ariftophan. Nebulæ. Ad. I. Scen. ultim.' • + See Calendarium Gemini --Petav. Uranologiun. • Hesiod. Egy. xai Hregwy.
• Š xen de ona 07076 785 punyaç o argos otAnuny apagua.cbai, alle ugos illos. Galen. Comm. Epid. 11.
|| 01 de imla pervos 70%OTAI EX TWvénator nuegewy nan oy Sonxorta xas duas nas wpororTos popie.--Hippocr. de septimestri partu.
• Ημισυ τα ενιαυτο και της ημερης τα μερες των μερες που γινομενω περιγινονται impeças. Ibidem.
Ev yap Erudyta, ning devons impegns, eygutara dua perveç EXTENBUTTab. Ibidem. See also Ariilot. Hift. Animai L. VI. 20. It is remarkable that Hippocrates, who in divers parts of his work, the Epidemics particularly, has so much oc. cafion to particularise t mes and seasons of the year, never makes use of any of the terms by which the Greek months were distinguished, but expresses his meaning either by the seasons, as summer, winter, &c. or by the cquinoxes or Solstiees, or by the rise or setting of the llars or cunstellations.
• Induciæ, fævera, et quæ sunt, id genus, aliæ ten porum durationes. Sel. den Apparat. .*** Plato in his Timæus, after saying that a month is measured by the course of the moon, adds ExauTy de Omotay halos Tov aute WuA904 XUX0. Chucydides also, in speaking of the duration of the Peloponnetian war, uses the words Autodixastar doea@ortwy, which che Scholiaft interprets to mean ten compleat or solar years. Themistius, likewise, speaking of the duration of the Trojan war, fuys toge yzovy ds to Ilsoy é alw; dexa ETFON. TETO SI 650N TOT AICE aripipogai Tennissa Themist. Phyfic: L. IV. Macrobius aifo speaks to the same purpose. Annum vetufiflimi Gizcorum Auza carta appellavant toy ana T8 Auxe (id eft fole) Bare Ouevov xar js TEELEYO.
oft Antiqui Græci annum in duodecim menses, pro totidem fignis in 20. diacii, divilerunt; femperque novi mensis initium fuit, quando fol in novum ingrcderctus ligpum, Noiæ in Theoph. à Bodão à Stapel. p. 137.
Stocurs very positas Dr. Ese observatithe Romans
learned persons, that the folar year was divided, as well as the lunar, into twelve months, each of which cominenced at the entrance of the fun into the several signs of the zodiac, and this is confirmed by: fome * expressions of Geminus, and particularly by the calendar :* of that author above mentioned, which is actually divided in that manner ; which division is preserved in the calendar here exhibited.'
The next is a similar calendar for Italy, adjusted nearly to the fatitude of Rome, taken chiefly from Columella. It is greatly enlivened, and rendered more interesting, by the insertion of corresponding passages from the Roman poets; and, in the postscript, are some observations respecting storms in Italy. Tempestas Dr. Falconar has translated storm; and it occurs very often' in the calendar of the summer months. Sforins, however, happen often in summer in these latitudes ; and perhaps the facts he has adduced in support of this cir. cumitance, may furnish some entertainment to our readers.
w Polybius tells us, that in the first Punic war the Roman fleet was so far destroyed by a storm, that out of 364 ships only eighty, escaped. This he attributes to the obstinacy of the consuls in neglecting the advice of the pilots, who cautioned them against going along the southern coast of Sicily, as the ahore was too deep for anchorage, and afforded no harbour; especially too as the season was then the most unfavourable for navigation, the constellation + of Orion-being not quite pailed, and the Dog-star just ready to appear. If we compute this according to the calendar of Geminus, which is nearest to the date of the account, and also nearer to the latitude where this transaction happened, it must have taken place on some day between the fourth and seventeenth of July, the cosmical rise of Orion being mentioned on the 5th, and the rise of the Dog-star on the 16th. The calendar of Columella agrees nearly herewith; Orion being mentioned as rifing.comically as late as the roth, and the Dog- ítar is put down as rifing on the 17th. Geminus | too in the calendar published in the present work remarks, that the 19th of
July has been noted for tempestuous weather at sea. Virgil likewise mentions that he had often feen great forms or whirlwinds § arise
.•* Aaaas yag €5vv*:&';..ov EV14U7C9, mai addos xa ta eurimv. ó Mev yag Ty jdie, . C' ξυδι αν εχει περιδρομην τα ηλια: όπερ εισιν ημέραι τξι. ο δε σεληνης β' μηνων περιέχει mapovov ons Geaning STEE 16:n plegat tid'. Gemin. Cup. VL
+ Polyb. L. I. S 37
• $ Srpe ego cum flavis micfforem induceret ai vis