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rance. She was daughter of lord O'Brien, and wife of Eugene, lord O'Bourk, and dying in 1512, lies here interred.

• The church stands on the side of a hill, and consists of two large chapels, divided by a belfrey, under which you pass through an elliptical arch, the lower terminations of which are ornamented with foliage, and a small angel in the attitude of prayer.

• The O'Bourks were ancient proprietaries of West Brefny, now the county of Leitrim, and one of them lies here at full length on a tomb over the burial-place of his family. There are also several curious figures, inserted into the walls, over the graves of the Murroghs, Cornins, and other eminent families of the vicinity.

. One of the O'Bourks was an active rebel in 1588. On his submission, he went to England and was introduced to queen Elizabeth, but refused to bend his knee. Being asked why he did not, he answered, that he was not accustomed to it. How, says a finart English lord, not to images ? Aye, replied O'Bourks, but there is a great deal of difference between your queen and the images of saints. He gravely petitioned the queen, not for life or pardon, but that he might be hanged with a gad or withe, after his country's fashion, a request, which no doubt, was readily granted him.'

FRANCISCAN A B B E Y. . We have every reason to place the foundation of this monastery, previous to the year 1230, for “ in the chore of the friars-preach. ers, says Stanihurst, William Marshall, erle of Pembroke, was buried, who departed this life in the yere 1231; Richard, brother to William, to whom the inheritance descended, within three years af. ter, deceased at Kilkennie, beinge wounded to deathe in a field in the heath of Kildare, in the year 1234, the twelfe of April, and was intoomed with his brother, according to the old epitaph here mentioned. “ Hic comes est positus, Ricardus vulnere fillus cujus sub soffa, Kilkennia continet offa.”

• The new choir was not comple:ed before 1321, when the great altar, a marble table of amazing fize, was consecrated, and in ten years after, the bihop of Waterford consecrated the ce.netery. A great food in the river Nore, destroyed all the bridges and mills in Kilkenny, but dared not approach, if we believe tradition, the high altar of this church. Nor were the friars of this house less successo fal in forging other miracles, and getting them credited. Elizabeth Palmer, who built at her own expence the forepart of the choir, and was interred therein, died a virgin at the age of seventy, though she had been married young, and to several husbands.

• St. Francis's well, belonging to this church, was famous for miraculous cures, and still among the superstitious, preserves fome degree of reputation. Henry VIII. granted this monastery and its poileffions to the corporation of Kilkenny, part of it is now a horseb.rrack. It was an elegant building as its surviving remains evince.'

C. R. N. ARR. (XI.) June, 1794. - A TriaA Treatise on the Science of Muscular Aflion. By John Pugh,

Anatomist. Illustrated by fif:ecu Coi per-plates. 410,

21 25. Boards. Dilly. 1794. IT has often been our misfortune to observe men fuch mar.

tyrs to the gout, that they have been disabled for a series. of years from making a free use of their limbs, and prevented from pursuing a course of bodiiy exercise fo essential to health; as well as a variety of other objects crippled, lames and deformed from different causes; and we have always lamented that the surgical art should be fo defective, as not to afford relief to such unfortunate fufferers. Indeed we have been apt to confider several of these maladies as approbria chirurgicorum; finding that many of them have been cured either by time or accident, after having foiled the ciforts of practitioners, who stood high in their profession with the public. ..

It is, therefore, with fingular pleasure, that we have peruscd the work before us, which promises success in many desperate cases, and that by the most simple means.- Nature has in here felf wonderful retources, and when judiciously assisted, feldom fails to exert her powers to the most happy purposes. But we are sorry to say she is often disturbed in her ;"erations, by ig.. norance, inattention, or a mistaken notion, relative to the means which the exercises for the promotion of her falutary ends: and in no instances, perhaps, more than in cases of dir. tortion and lameness, particularly in constitutions far distant from any stage of decrepitude. In all cases of disease, she is to be observed with great attention; and all her operations are to be imitated with that gentleness and simplicity, that

parts affccled may not be weakened and destroyed by cfforts · too powerful for the debilitated state into which they have unfortunately fallen.--This plan our author seems to have pursued, and with what success his work very clearly manifests. He has treated his subject in a concise and masterly manner, and has endeavoured io shew that it is founded on rational principles, and supported by experience. Indeed it appears. storithing to our reflection, that some such scheme has never Liture been brought forward, particularly as general exercise Le been univerfally allowed in all ages, and by every species.

su prociticrers, to be the grand preservative and reitorer of I t i' is furprifing alter the various hints given us by the akilir, reflecting partial or local exercise, that it Nould not home 1, ***? adopted and pursued; particularly when we consider terrundlane of surgery as it stands in the present pee zici Pium refimrie modes used in practice, which are, ridicate general cnly when coniirmed by experi

ini, a croce !!!, cars to have taken every proper fep to forrore

his doctrines, and has proved inconteftibly their validity by names of such respectabilitr, that he has not permitted scepticism to exercise its ingenuity with any success. We fall now, therefore, lay before our readers an account of the work which he introduces under the sanction of some men, whose allowed abilities will add weight to the publication, we mean those of Dr. Baker, Mr. John Hunter, and Dr. Lettsom, who all declare his apparatus well calculated to answer the intended purposes; to which Dr. Letsom adds : From the benefits dem rived by gentlemen of my acquaintance.'

Our author then proceeds in his Introduction, to explaini the reasons that first induced him to make the attempt ;' upon converfing,' says he, 'with several of the medical profesion, respecting the multiplicity of chronic complaints, which generally affect the limbs, he found that recreative exercise was by no means adequate to complete a recovery, because the parts locally affected received thereby no benefit.'-And, 'perluaded from the opinions of the best anthors which he had read, and the lectures he had heard, that strength, vigor, and actie vity, were to be given to the muscular system by general exer: cile; he was conscious, also from repeated experience, that partial exercise would relieve and remove local complaints, and in recent cases of debility and injury, restore their limbs to the performance of their proper functions '--On this idea he forms the whole of his work, which he endeavours to establith by shewing, ift. the different effects of inactivity and exercise on the human machine ; 2d. giving the opinions of various authors, ancient or modern, on these subjects; zid, pointing out the necellity and importance of exercise; 4th. furnishing an account of the formation of muscles; 5th. treating of murcular action, and the principles from whence they derive their powers; 6th. exhibiting a table of the muscles with their uses and plates; 7th. introducing the other moving powers of the machine connected with the muscles; and closing with a number of cases, wherein great benefit had been received by his mode of treatment and apparatus.

The regular niethod in which the whole is conducted, nos only renders it very readily intelligible, but also fatisties our reason, by laying down first the gencral necesity for exercise, .shewing its eitects, how those are produced, and proving, how from the nature and formation of the parts, partial action may be communicated to them, and be attended with similar conies quences. We cannot, however, think there was a necesity for such a variety of quotations, to prove the utility of exer cite, and the disadvantages of inactivity; it would have been su hicient to have mentioned the generalerficts bow her were occalioned, for phyficians of all ages lave agreed to uniformly with regard to the principles, that they are considered as selfevident propofitions. We think it proper to supply this hint, in bopes that if the work should require a second edition, it may be attended to, which will save the reader fcme unneceffary trouble, and take from the work a tedious and disinteretting part.

But still to render the work more complete, our author has susiplied a general table of the muscles, arranged them alphabeticaly, and explained their uses, with a nuniber of plates, that are executed with such a degree of boldness and perspicuity, as renders their action perfectly intelligible, and makes us acquainted with the politions of the body, necessary to promote the different actions conducive to the cure, or alleviation when labouring under disease. The delineations of them are clear and distinct, and a happy view of them in their different states of contraction, relaxation, and extension, in the various circunstances under which they are placed, so well expressed, as to render the means from whence advantage is to be derived to the valetudinarian, readily comprehensible.

Upon the whole, we confess that we have received much pleasure and information in the perusal, and would recommend it to cur readers, particularly fuch as are afllicted with mala. dies it promises to relieve-and though we cannot say any thirg of the apparatus invented by our author, as he has not furnished us with a description, we doubt not, but, if it is conunued, fo as to supply degrees of motion to muscular parts morbidly affi cled, where there is a deficiency of power, fimilar to that which can be afforded to muscles capable of action, fimilar bencfit will be the result.

With what probability this may be expected, will be best shewn from the author's own words, with which we shall close, the account.

• It is no small fatisfaction to me, that I have been enabled to lav before my re:ders not only the utility of general, but also the neceflity of partial exercise, from the authority of the most respectable characters in medicine, both ancient and modern. But they feun not to have carried the latter far enough; for though we will allow great benent nay be derived in many cases by the strict observance of the rules which may be deduced from what has already been advanced in n ild and recent cases, still will they all be infuf, ficient in cates more inveterate, though curable by proper applications.-- We find many arthritic subjects wlio, either from extreme debility, pain, or some other cause, cannot of themselves give power and force enough to the muscles, either to counteract the great contractility of fonie, to give proper elasticity to others-or promote a due circulation sufficient to alleviate or cure the local aflections.-


For many can only submit to frictions, which are applied too fuper, ficially to produce proper action on the more interior parts: for we find, that neither the muscular fibres, tendons, nerves, blood vessels, nor lymphatics, which are deeper seated, can fufficiently experience the effects which ought to be occasioned by motion ?-a great number of convalescents, who have used frictions afliduously, can be brought in proof of this affertion, and such as have by more powerful motion applied to the limbs received every desired bencfit.Some contrivance, then, has been long wanting, whereby all the muscles, left in a morbid state of debilicy, miglit be thrown into action, and that action continued or their too powerful contractility counteracted, and that with as much ease as the nature of the care would admit, or the necessity demand. - It has been my, study for a number of years to contrive such an apparatus; how far I have succeeded, will be most fatisfactorily proved by the following cases; a caretul comparison of which with the principles that have been laid down in the foregoing sheets, will shew incontestably, I Hatter myself, that the plan is founded on reafon, and not on the vain boastful pretences of quackery and imposition.'


: POLITICA L. The Catechifm of Man. Pointing out from found Principles, and ac.

knowledged Facts, the Rights and Duties of every rational Being. 800. 62. Eaton. 1794. THE principles of Mr. Thomas Paine have been conveyed in

various shapes to the public, since the circulation of his works was prohibited. We have them here in the form of a catechism, accompanied with notes, in which every pollible outrage is offered to the system and administration of the British constitution. The following lines from the Preface will afford a tolerable specimen of the author's powers of persuasion :

• It is the people who have been the authors of almost every thing, either illuminating in science, or useful in art. Who discovered the circulation of the blood ?_The people. Who the art of printing?

The people. Who the power of the magnet?- The people. Who the use of logarithms ? --The people. Who the continent of America ?- The people.

This method of answering questions, which have long puzzled the ablest antiquaries and historians is certainly new, if not satisfactory, and it may be continued ad infinitum, without the risk of contradiction, for all inventions were certainly owing to some people or other.


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