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as it may be poslible to remain in the current, long enough to be carried from a parallel that may be deemed a very safe one, to that, of the rocks of Scilly, in the course of such a night; it would appear prudent, after experiencing a continuance of itrong westerly gales in a the Atlantic, and approaching the channel with light southerly winds, either to make Ufhant, or at all e::ents to keep in the parallel of 48°, 45', at the highest. If they kecp in 49°, 30', they will experience the whole etfeet of the current, in a position where they can least remedy the evil: but if in 48°, 45', they are assailed by the north-west current, they are still in a position from whence a southeily wind will carry them into the channel. But all ships that cross the Atlantic, and are bound to the eastward of the Lizard, had better to make chant, under the above circumftances, in times of peace. Or, at all events, why thould they run in a parallel, in which they are likely to lose ground ?

• 3d. Ships, bound to the westward, from the mouth of the channel, with the wind in the south-west quarter, so that it may appear indifferent which tack they go on, should prefer the larboara tack; as they will then have the benefit of the current.

• 4th. I understand that the light-house of Scilly is either removed, or to be removed, to the south-west part of the islands; or of the high rocks. This is certainly a wise measure; as the light fhould be calculated more particularly for ships that have a long than a short departure ; like those from any part of the European coafts, to the northward, or eastward. The light-house ought also to be built very lofty. I am sorry to remark, that, as far as my observation has gone, this light has never appeared clear and bright, as a light to dire&t thips ought to do

If the current sets round the shore, it is not probable that it would be sentible after westerly winds, for, as major Rennel has shown, the waters must then be accuinulated, and the resistance greater in the bay. Perhaps it then affumes, in consequence of this increased resistance, a notherly course, while naturally it is lost in the bay, or broken against the shore. These suggestions, however, we leave to the author's consideration ; but we must not leave him without the highest commendations of his skill, his accuracy, and humanity. Many of the wrecks on the Scilly Idlands, have, probably, been owing to seamen's ignorince of this current. The Well-Bred Scholar, or praftical Ellays on the best Mcthods of im.

proving the Tafe, and a lifting the Exertions of youth in their Literary Pursuits. By William Milns, M. A. 810. 75. boards. Rivingtons. 1794.

A better title to this book would, perhaps, have been The Eng. lish Clasic Scholar, since the chief design is to conduct the student throngh a course of Englith literature, and to form him to a habit of English composition. The author, aloog with many others, we

think, erroneously recommends the beginning with English grammar; we say erroneously, because English grammar has so few inflections, that there is very little to employ the memory, and as an exercise of judgment, it is of much too abstract a nature to be taken up with advantage by those who are as yet in the very porch and entrance of literature. Besides, if it is intended that at any time a youth fhould have two languages, he will study the grammar of his own with more advantage when he can compare it with another. Rules for English composition are given under four heads, Letters, Fables, Themes, and Orations, and some fables are analysed after the manner of Rollin in his Billes Lettres. Blair's Lečtures are often adverted to. A course of reading is pointed out, beginning with the poets, and ending with prole writers (most would reverse the order), which, in general, seems to be judiciously chosen; on. ly that it is by far too extensive for either the time or the abilities of school-boys. Blackstone's Commentaries, and Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws being of the number of books recommended ; and that the translations of French works might, perhaps, have been omitted, fince (carce any one, in the culture of whose inind so much time and pains should be employed, would be ignorant of French-hardly of Latin. The bulk of the volume is taken up with specimens of rhetorical eloquence, chiefly from the ancients, çiven in the translations which the compiler of this book found ready done to his hands.--At the conclusion is a slight sketch of a course of French and Italian reading.--Among the French didactic poets the author of Les Jardins ought certainly to have found a place, and Ver-vert among the mock heroics. Voltaire is only mentioned as a poet.

A Description of Pocket and Magazine Cases of Mathematical Draw. - ing Instruments; in which is explained the Use of each Inftrument,

and particularly of the Sector and Plain Scale, in the Solutions of a Marity of Problems; likenvifi, the Description, Confruction, and Use of Gunter's Scale. Illustrated with Copper-piates. By J. Barrozu, Private Teacher of the Mathematics. 8vo. 35. 6d, Watkins. 1794.

An useful little tract, particularly to the student of mathematics--The author has fully executed what his title promised. Hißory of the Government of the Island of Necofoundlund. With an

Appendix; containing the Arts of Parliament made respiliing the Trade and Fishery. By John Reeves, Esq. Chief Juftice of the Island. Svo. 45. Boards. Sewell. 1793.

As the subject of this work has been before the house of commons, it must prove intere{ting to persons concerned in the trade

and

and filteries. As a history, the editor is entitled to the praise of industry, and he has thrown in a confiderable portion of the agreeable to relieve the necefiary dryness of his subject. The profits of it are ordered to be given to the sufering clergy of France, refugees in the British dorninions.

The Discovery, Settlement, and present State of Kentucky. And an

Introduction to the Topography and Natural History of ihat rich and important Country; also, Colonel Daniel Boon's Narrative of the Wars of Kentucky : with an Account of the Indian Nations within the Limits of the United States, their Manners, Cufioms, Religion, and their Origin; and the Stages and Dijiances between Philadel. phia and the Falls of the Ohio, from Pittsburgh to Pensacola, and Jeveral other Bülaces. By Join Fillon. Dilufraitd with a large schole Sheet Map of Kentucky, from actual Surury's, and a Plan, with a Defcription of the Rapid; of the River Ohio. By Capt. Thomas Hutchins, Geographer to the Crongress. Svo. 25. Stockdale. 1793.

As we have not Mr. Imlay's work at hand, we mean the Topographical :Description of the Western Parts of America *, we cannot say how much is copied from that work, or, more properly, how nearly the two works coincide. From our recollection, it appears, that they do not materially differ; and, so far, they support each other. Our present author appears to be judicious and well-informed. Yet, in his Appendix, he copies the fabulous legend of prince Madoc, and the stories respecting the remains of ancient for. tifications. Letter addressed to Sir John Sinclair, Bart, President of the Board of

Agriculture and internal Improvement. Refpecting the important Discovery lately made in Sweden, of a Method to extinguish Fire, with an Account of the Process adopted for that Purpose; and Hints of Means for preserving Timber, used either in Houses, or in Shipbuilding, from that deftructive Element. By Mr. William Knox, Merchant in Gothenburg. 8vo. Is. 611. Debrett. 1793.

The process recommended for extinguishing fires, is diffolving a quantity of saline matter, of almost any kind, in the water which is projected from the fire-engine, with the addition also of calcareous or argillaceous earth. Of these materials, common salt and clay are recommended, as the cheapest and most attainable. From the following experiment, our readers will be able to judge of the nature and practicability of this contrivance, in the principle of which,

* Nuticed in our oth Vol. New Arrangement, p.53.

however,

bowever, there is nothing new, since substances impregnated with alum have been long known to resist the action of fame:

• A house, 16 feet square, was raised of well seasoned and dry timber; the height of the walls, under the roof, was ten feet; the elevation of the roof five feet perpendicular; and the doors and windows of this building were so placed, one opposite to another, that the air had free access. It was tarred all over, both inside and out, and filled with faggots and tar-barrels; moreover the outside of this house was covered with bunches of tarred faggots. The build. ing thus erected was set on fire, under a violent storie of wind, by which means the power of the flames was doubled, and had acquired much additional strength; at which period, the extinction of the fire was begun with a small engine, whose leather pipe was only one fourth of an inch in diameter, which nevertheless produced such an effect, that the fire extinguishing solution no sooner reached the house, than the force of the fire was immediately diminished. The engine, during this operation, broke, and had to be repaired, which occafioned a delay of four minutes, for which reason the complete extinction of the fire was not effected until the expiry of fourteen minutes; but if we deduct the four minutes lost, the time taken in extinguishing this fire was really no more than 10 minutes.

• The solution used on this occasion consisted of fifteen kans herring pickle, fifteen kans red ochre, or the residuum of aquafortis.

- To which were added only 7 kans of water; and of this solution about 60 kans were expended. Afterwards fire was set to eighteen barrels, tarred both without and within, which, in the fame way as the house, burned with the greatest violence; notwithstanding which, the extinction thereof was carried into execution, with a solution consisting of 1 part herring pickle, to il part gray lime, without the addition of any water.

And this solution proved so powerful, that the fire of the eigh. teen tarred barrels was extinguished in the space of about half a nimte of time.

CRITICAL REVIEW.

For JUL Y; 1794.

Sermons on several Subjects. By the Right Rev. Beilby Por· teus, D. D. Bishop of London. Vol. II. 8vo. 75. Boards.

Cadell. 1794.
A Sermon is by no means so easy a species of composition

as is generally imagined, and of this the paucity of good ones is the most decisive proof. The French, who in the last age cultivated with much ardour and industry every species of eloquence, and that of the pulpit in particular, can boast of but few preachers who have excelled, and whose discourses will stand the test of criticism ; and though the English school of theology is rich in divines, it is comparatively poor in orators. Few have fallen into that happy track, which is equally remote from the dulness of the metaphysician, and the rant of the declaimer; few have united the happy talent of interesting our passions with that of enriching our undertanding; few have known what it is to produce a discourse familiar, yet not trite; correct, yet not pedantic.

Among the most successful adventurers in this department of literature we have already had occasion to distinguish the respectable and ingenious prelate, whose fecond volume now lies before us. That writer is indeed peculiarly forcunate whose best literary efforts harmonise immediately with the duties of his profeflion; and who ranks superior to his competitors in that very line in which he is placed. Preferments conferred on such men as the present bishop of London, rea flect a lustre on the hand which confers them, and we have only to regret that such instances do not more frequently occur.

If the alarm be real, and we are far from thinking it deftitute of foundation, that the established church, and even Christianity itself, is in danger from the innovating spirit of the times, it is obvious that the evil can only be opposed by

arming in its defence the whole genius and learning of this · nation; by liberally encouraging rising talents, and by placing in the foremost ftations of the church, those men whose C. R. N. AR. (X1.; July, 1794.

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