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work was published at London in 1757, performed a series of experiments with a view of ascertaining the effects of the internal use of the leaves of nightshade in scirrhous affections, foul ulcers, ob
tinate long continued pains, erosions of the skin, dropsy, and a variety of other diseases. The result, upon the whole, was favour.able. He began by prescribing a grain, which he gradually increased. When given in due quantity, he found his patients greatly relieved, and the inedicine to operate gently as an evacuant, either by sweat, by urine, or by stool. If the dose administered was too large, it produced vomiting, profuse sweats, a too copious discharge of urine, diarrhæa; and in fome, head-ach, dimness of sight, vertigo, ftupor, sleep, and other disagreeable symptoms. The experiments of Gataker feem, however, to have died with their author; since, as far as we can learn, neither in this country, nor on the continent, if at all adminisiered, is folanum inwardly used in the cure of those diseases in which the gentleman juft mentioned considered it as little less than a specific. His fate in this respect, has not been fingular. Many valuable medicines, especially in the vegetable kingdom, which the moderns despise, were highly prized by the ancients: and even lately, the herilock of the celebrated Storck, of which such wonders were at firit related, no longer maintains so distinguished a reputation, though still employed with considerable success.
Notwithstanding what has been said above of the noxious qua, lities of solanum, when not administered with judgment, there are authors, and of considerable name, who afiert it, however, or in whatever quantity used, to be perfectly innocent. Of this number among the ancients, are Dioscorides, Theophrastus, and Oribafius, who rank it amongst the efculent herbs; and among the moderns, Ruellius, who, on what authority we know not, afirms that in many countries, the leaves are actually used as a pot-herb. Spielman, too, relates, that from an infusion of fitteen grains of solanum in water, which he took himself, he suffered not the least inconverience : and that a young epileptic patient, to whom he gave the juice in quantity from one dram and a half to two drams, was equally frce from fiupor, sleep, or any other of the apprehended disagreeable consequences. With the like safety were three drams of the juice of the herb taken Ly some foldiers, who had been debilitatied by previous disease: nor did itro drams of the juice even of the berries, ever esteemed the most fatal part, produce any other effact, than a copious discharge of urine on three convalescents, to whom he iad been induced to prescribe it.
• Such are the various and even contradictory accounts respecting solanum, which it is our province to relate, but not to reconcile.
"Non noftrum est tantas componere lites.' Tl.cre are two o:her parts of this work, which must be no.
ticed; we mean some little biographical information, and fome etymological inquiries. We must, however, correct one error, an assertion which Dr. Milne ought not to have hazarded, without some inquiries. "This is, says he, one of the precious fruits of that neglect, and even contempt, with which Cullen, and some other names great in physic, have affected to treat a science, which they knew not, and which, notwithstanding their misrepresentations, merits to be studied, not more as an elegant accomplishment, than as an useful and necessary branch of medical education.'--An author, who has betrayed so many defects, in the medical part of his work, should have been cautious of censuring the first systematic writer of any æra : if the accusation is not true, the charge, that must recur on Dr. Milne, will be much more severe. Dr. Cullen was well acquainted with botany. He strongly recommended it to the medical student, on every occasion, and has given proofs of his desire of connecting it, intimately with medicine, by the botanical arrangement of plants, in their natural orders, in his catalogue of the materia medica.-From what then can an accusation of such kind originate? Charity will say from misinformation, but charity will not commend the spirit which has disseminated the remark, and which seems to pervade this passage and some others in the present volume-But to return. We shail select one of the. biographical sketches of an author little known. We may observe, however, that Scopoli is improperly called a Germani. He was a Tyrolese.
• Ruppia Maritim?. This plant formerly ranked with the pondweedis, though elitntially diftir guished from them, as well by : the absence of the petals, as by the singular structure of the feeds. It was Linnæus who formed it into a diftinét genus by the name of ruppia, in honour of the ingenious Henry Bernhard Rupp, a native, of Gieffen in Germany, and author of the Flora Jenenkin, the third edition of which, publified in 1745, had the advantage of receive ing the corrections, besides many valuable additions, of the cele. brated Haller. Ruppius arranged his plants after the method of Rivinus, which he likewise considerably improved, particularly in the clailes containing the compound flowers. He was a most zealous and indefatigable botanist; and by his industry, collected both in Holland and Germany, a great number of plants, many of which had not till then been discovered, nor even fuipected to be natives of those countries. Haller's eulogiumn of Ruppius is remarkable, and deserves to be transcribed : “ Rurp. Giefienfis, privatus homo, etsi in Academ å Jenensi vixit, rei herbariæ cupidiflimus, egregius stirpium venator, qui in quovis tugurio lætus noétem tranfigeret, totisque diebus agros et colles perrepturet."-In describing the gen
nera of mofles, fungi, and ferns, he has committed some mistakes, which Haller attributes to a blameable negligence in not keeping the fpecimens he had obtained, and consequently being obliged to rely too much on his memory. Fifteen hundred dried plants collected by Ruppius, and likewise some manuscripts of his hand-writing, Hal·ler received from a gentleman, åt whose father's house this learned and active botanift had long been hospitably entertained.'
We shall conclude our account of the present volume, which extends to the end of the pentandria triginia, by two extracts refpecting etymology..
• Obs. Of the etymology of the generical name menyanthes, retained from the Greek and Latin botanists, we can give no account that is satisfactory. Some render it moon-flower, in which case, it Thould have been written mencanthos, as being compounded of unun, the moon, and avdos, a flower. Others deriving it from revw, to remain, conceive the name to be expressive of the permanency of the flower. This conjecture, however, seems as fanciful as the former. The name buck-bean is either a corruption of bog-bean,
- or which is more probable, derived from the French, le bouc, a he-goat-the plant in question having been formerly distinguished by the appellation, phaselus hircinus, that is goat's-bean.'
• Obs. The generical name verbascum seems a corruption of lara bafeum; and this, being derived from barba, a beard, is properly enough expressive of the woolliness of the stem and leaves, as well as of the feathery appearance of the filaments of the stamina. Mullein, the English name, some, in reference to the same circumstance, suppose to have been originally written woollen ; though we rather imagine it derived from the French la molene, which, on the former supposition, would have been derived from it. Talso bar. ballo, the Italian appellation, is synonimous to thapsus barbatus, by which it was formerly known in the shops: and the propriety of the names high taper, and cow's lungruort, is sufficiently evinced in our description of the plant.'
Sellion of the srliament, inondation of the section
The History of the Reign of George the Third, King of Great
Britain, &c. From the Conclulion of the Sixth Session of the Fourteenth Parliament, in 1980, to the End of the Seventh Session of the Sixteenth Parliament of Great Britain, in 1795.
Vol. IIÍ. 8vo. 6s. Boards. Evans. 1794. THERE is scarcely a talk more difficult in the cxecution, 1 or more meritorious in its object, than that of conveying to posterity an adequate and faithful picture of any given period. In some respects, shis function can only be discharged by one who is a spectator of the events, who can alone be qualified to
depict the manners, the habits, the general sentiments of his country.-In what manner certain impressions were received, and how the general feelings of the public were expressed upon different occafions. The characters of men also can only be drawn by those who have known, seen, and conversed with them, and when future compilers undertake to furnish a portrait, they can only copy what an original writer has already described. On this account, though we have much more ele. gant histories than those of Clarendon and Burnet; and though additional liglit may have been reflected upon the transactions which they record from the discovery and exposure of papers and records, which had previoully been kept from the public eye, still the student, who would wish to make himself fullu acquainted with the history of his country, must not neglect to inspect those great original historians.
In other views publications, like that before us, are both useful and agreeable; it is pleasant to a reader to have the public transactions of a period, of which he was a spectator, brought again to his remembrance, to find some facts explaina ed, the reasons of which he did not perfectly apprehend at the time; and to have the whole brought within one comprehenfive point of view, and to retrace, in the course of a few hours, the events of years. It is like surveying a beautiful landscape in a camera obscura, in which, though the several objects be reduced, yet their relative effect is more completely seen in this concentrated view.
Perhaps no period was ever more deserving the attention of the philosopher and the historian than the present reign; no period ever presented more important and more diversified scenes, no period (not excepting that of the Reformation) ever promised to be productive of more ftupendous effects. Of this the judicious author of these volumes appears indeed sufficiently aware.
• The extended regions, says he, of history, like the face of the terraqueous globe, present to our view fome tracts distinguished by their fertility, and others by their barrennefs. On the diversified prospect which cheers us by its beauty, or excites stronger emotions by its grandeur and fublimity, the eye delights to dwell; while from the long and trackless desert it turns with a contemptuous inatten: tion. It is the fortune of the present generation to exist in one of those eventfui periods, when every year is an epoch; when the triviad circumstances which fill the pages of moft histories, give place to transactions which involve confequences of the deepeit import to mankind; when the petty wars concerning the boundaries of a province or a disputed succession, no longer occupy the attention of mankind; but when the couteft is concerning the principles, the
laws of society itself, the forms of government, and the modes of thinking which are to direct mankind.
• A change in the sentiments of the public must sooner or later be followed by a change in the existing state of things. The latent flame which is kindled in the recesses of the earth, may for a while be resisted by the superincumbent weight, but it finds a passage at length; and the violence of the shock is perhaps proportionate to the force of the pressure. Innumerable causes had co-operated to a change of sentiments in the nations of Europe, from the commencement of the present century. The Reformation had broken the strong fetters which Superstition had forged; it had bestowed on man the privilege of thought; it had taught him to difregard authority, and to inquire into its foundations. It was some time, it is true, before the effects of this bold and innovating spirit could be extended to the civil constitutions; but still the mind which is released from one prejudice, is at least prepared to struggle with another.
"A cause, however, which co-operated with this, and which may perhaps be regarded as still more powerful, was the general diffusion of literature and science. The metaphysical polemics of the last century were succeeded by a series of writers, who, while they indulged a greater freedom of opinion, addressed the public in a style more popular and captivating, and adapted to make, at least, a more general impreffion. From the time of Montesquieu it became even fashionable to speculate on political subjects; and what the caution of that judicious writer permitted him only to glance at, was openly afferted by the extravagant philosophy of Voltaire, and of Rousseau. .* The increase of commerce had created a new, independent, and powerful interest in almost every community, which looked with a jealous eye on the exclusive privileges of the ancient aristocracy. · The system of funding, which improvident wars had produced, established a new species of property, which could not be subjected to the feudal regulations. The distant dependencies which were held by the maritime states, and particularly by Great Britain, and the different forms of administration to which these must necessarily be submitted, all contributed to produce a diversity of interests, which did not exist in the fimplicity of the ancient governments; and where this takes place, the minds of men will soon become active, and will investigate as well with acuteness, as with severity, those rights which derive their chief support from antiquity, and from the passive acquiescence of ages.
· The reign of George III. was the period in which some effect might be naturally expected from these concurrent circumstances, and there were other causes which contributed to haften the crisis. Among these, we must account that extraordinary spirit of freedom in which the British colonies of America, through their original in