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from the conduct of last century, that æra of real statesmeng when the powers of Europe, far from consolidating the English republie by attacks, treated it with friendship and respect, till it fell from internal causes!'

In p. 82, &c. Mr. Whitaker warmly attacks Mr. Dutens; because he observes that Hannibal could only shew Italy to his soldiers from a mountain near the Col de Fenestrelles. Here is a specimen of Mr. Whitaker's argument. From Col de Fenestrelles, therefore, from any hill near it, from any part of the Cottian or the Graianz could not Hannibal, or any man in his senses, pretend to shew the fite of Rome. But Hannibal, or any one, might from the Pennini.' As if, from any part of the world, one could not point out with one's finger the site of Rome!

The atheism of some members of the French republic ina terrupts the passage of Hannibal, vol. ij. p. 102, both text and notes, both elephants and light infantry. But Mr. Whitaker has not candour enough to allow, that in France the corruptions of Christianity were so extreme, that it is no wonder they excited a contempt of religion in some ignorant and vion lent minds; as the former political oppression occasioned the present political madness. Surely oppreffioni maketh a wile man mad,' says a book, which if Mr. Whitaker perused more frequently, and attended less to profane history and idle dil. putation, he would find replete with a spirit the very reverse of his own.

The burning of rubble-coal into liine, recommended vol. ii. p. 142, from Simler, would be a strange practice at present. We are somewhat surprised at the long discussion, whether Hannibal could use vinegar in diffolving rocks. The experiment may be tried upon an inch of granite. The passage from Appian, p. 171, is rendered nonsense by Mr. Whitaker's translation, he extinguished the ashes with fire and vinegar:' read, « with water and vinegar ;' üdato meb of th. Mr. Whitaker is moit severe on Hampton, and other tranflators, who never fell into such an error as this. In p. 197, we are furprised to find our author · so ignorant as to fuppose the Greek months were di. vided into weeks of seven days; while it is in imitation of the Greek practice that the new French calendar dividesthe month into spaces of ten days. See that trivial work, the Antiquitates Græcæ, of L. Bos, pars i. c. 26: 'Mensem dividebant in tres decades,' &c. Paulus Jovius, p. 217, is a writer of well-known falsehood ; and Merula only follow him; so that Mr. Whitaker's argument from their testimony falls of itself: that of Luitprand, an ignorant writer of the tenth century, is equally vague. But Jovius and Luitprand are fit opponents to Polybius and Livy.

C. R. N. AR. (XI.) Aug. 1794. I i izliami!

bi Hannibointed out to

Italiam! Italiam! Mr. Whitaker at length concludes. ,

• I have thus conducted Hannibal from Lauriol, on the Rhone in Dauphiny, to Turin, on the Po in Piedinont. I have taken himn stage by stage, and step by step, through this long labyrinth of nations; as the concurring narratives of Polybius and of Livy have held out the clue *. Geography has united with history, the present nature of the ground with the ancient description of the sites, and the Itinerary of Rome with the traditions of the Romans, to confirm their narrative and my account. I have pointed ont also the grand reasons, that aétuated the mind of Hannibal, and directed the movements of the Carthaginians under him. I have thus thrown a new and strong light, I presume, upon this important portion of history. I have particularly fixed the line in which he crossed the Alps, for the first time in a single part of his course, and for the laf, I trust, in every part of it. One part indeed comes in to support another; while all form such an accumulative series of proofs, as no other kind of argument can possibly bouft, and as raises this (L flatter myself) into a superlative fort of demonstration. Evidence has been successively added to evidence, like hill piled upon hill, till the whole (I think) has risen into a mountain, like its own St. Bernard; towering with its head over the history, as that does over the globe ; leaving all the clouds at its feet, and showing the sunshine in a burit of radiance upon its sides.'

We are rejoiced that Mr. Whitaker has satisfied himself. Had he only written a visionary and prolix book, we should have relaxed the rigour of criticism: but while he not only attacks ancients and moderns, in the most virulait terms, but even goes frequently out of his way, to spatter the doors of the most respectable writers on extraneous subjects, with the dirt of his heavy waggon, he has no title to complain of cene fure, though we should be sorry to imitate his fcurrility. We fall be the firit to applaud his talents, when better employed.

Remarks on a Book, entitled Memoirs of Gregorio Panzani. By the Rev. Charles Plowden. Preceded by an Address to the

Rev. Jofeph Berington. Svo. 55. Coghlan. 1794. THE Rev. Melirs. Plowden and Berington are both RoI man Catholic clergymen, but differ extremely in opinion respecting thejurisdiction of the church, and a varietey of other particulars. The former is a strong advocate for the hierarchy, the latter is accuíce of entertaining sentiments unfavourable not only to that system, but to the principles and political con

• After the preceding extracts, this must appear a strange deception, or over; fight. Raya

duct duct of Roman Catholics, particularly the ecclefiaftics, in different ages. Between difputants animated with all the zeal of opposite prejudices, and farther heated by controversies, which they have already maintained before the public, it would be in vain to expect an adherence to perfect coolness and candour of observation. The address to the Rev. Mr. Berington, which precedes the Remarks on the Memoirs, occupies almost one half of the volume, and is written with great spirit, as well as acuteness; but is so copiously blended with personal acrimony, and polemical invective, that, though it may gratify those among the Roman Catholics who entertain the same sentiments with the author, it can afford little satisfaction to the public, who are not interested in the dispute.

With respect to the Memoirs of Panzani, Mr. Plowden endeavours to evince that they are a spurious production, and could never proceed from a person who was employed in the capacity of a minister from the papal see. For the satisfaction of our readers, we shall lay before them a part of the obe servations adduced to establish this opinion.

6 The important report, in which Panzani communicates his own private thoughts and conjectures to cardinal Barberini, and another related by Mr. Berington, contain, in my judgment, the most intrinsic evidence of passionate folly, and therefore of absurdity and forgery. The Jesuits are here faid, by a grave papal minister emploved in a negociation of charity and peace, to have a great many followers and admirers; and in order to diminish the number of these admirers, he proposes to his court, to cramp the Jesuits in their faculties : he suggests a still sharper remedy, proposed by some perfons in England, to dismiss them from the government of the Enge lith college at Rome. Notwithstanding that they have so many fol. lowers and adınirers, he assures the cardinal, that they do not attend to the care of louls; that avarice is their only motive, traffic is their concern, and they have turned the mission into a business of profit: that they perfecute the bishop, and that this same avarice is the only motive which pushes them on to do it. “He had found, he says, by experience, that these Jesuits were for being sole proprietors of the mission (which they so much neglected), that they wormed the clergy out of their places, and obliged then to yield to the force of interest and money.” From the same report it appears, that notwithstanding the certainty of the Jesuits crimes, which Panzani had discovered ly experience, the young gentlemen of the best catholic families, and even of the best wits, fill had not wit encugh to find them out, or else were wicked enough to partake in their enormities. “ For the Jesuits, says Panzani, cull out the best wits for their own body, they daily make new conquests, and incorporate youths of the best families into their fociety, &c.” I am alhamed

of Dodd for having inserted such trash in what he calls a Church History; it is fit to figure only in the Quotlibets or the Cunfiderations of Watson; and, until Mr. Berington fhall support it by the evidence of cotemporary authors, I appeal to the judgment of every man of common sense, if it be not an indignity offered to the public, to tell us, that this is the original and authentic language of a prudent minister of the holy fee, sent to compose differences between the secular and regular elergy. In the multitude of pamphlets and libels against the Jesuits, which I have read, I have almost constantly observed, that the writers of them knew little or nothing of their real merits and real faults. The extravagance and the folly of the imputations, which the writers of such libels advance, is commonly an ample and very satisfactory refutation of what they impute.

• Cardinal Barberini informs Panzani, that the holy see itself was afraid that the Jesuits would traverse its design of giving a bifuop to England. The cardinal had probably forgotten, that a few year's before, the holy see had given two bishops to England, without the {mallest apprehension of the Jesuits power, though at that very time, as we have learned from Mr. Berington, the Jesuits poflefied all their usual influence in the court of Rome. In the very same letter Panzani is forbidden to insinuate the banishment of the Jesuits, or even a reduction of their number, which, by Windebank's statement, exceeded three hundred, though the cardinal, and of course, his uncle the pope, well knew, that these three hundred men were traverfing the designs of the holy see, and were besides, à band of traders, who persecuted bishops only from avarice, and were for being the sole proprietors of the million, which, however, they utterly neglected. Where is cardinal Barberini's original letter, which enjuins this wonderful policy? Where is his letter, in which he talks of the Jesuits artifices, and complains of them, for not having yet declared, “ that they would move in the affair (of the agreement with the secular clergy) as the Roman see should direct.The letters of Blond give evidence, that this was the very thing, which the Jesuits had constantly done in the whole dispute; and they thereby prove this unproduced letter of Barberini to be as much a forgery, as the admirable communications of Panzani himself. The letter incautiously says, that, “ moving as the holy fee should direct, was · a method, which the Jesuits, on all occasions, seemed prepared to

embrace.” If this was written by Barberini, how could he posibly apprehend, that these fanie Jesuits would traverse the design of the holy fee, to give a bishop to England ? .

Mr. Plowden's remarks on this subject are far from being void.of ingenuity; buty in our opinion, they do no not amount to such a proof of inconsistency as would infer the Memoirs to be spurious. Great allowance must be made for the political views of the writers of letters, which relate to transactions of a public nature; and, to one correspondent, they may with


propriety express a sentiment, which, to another, it would be imprudent to reveal. Even the reputed subtlety of the Jesuits would afford additional cause for such policy in letters which related to the conduct of that ecclesiastical order.

The few other observations, made by Mr. Plowden to dilo credit the authenticity of the Memoirs, are similar to the preceding in point of inference, and therefore contain no argument sufficient to establish the proof of any sorgery.

The Remarks are succeeded by the copy of a letter from the Rev. Mr. Milner to the author: and by an Appendix, containing some papers, which have a relation to the subjects in dispute.


P O L I T I C A L. A short Exposition of the important Advantages to be derived by Great Britain from the War, whatever its 1/jue and Success. By the

Author of the Glimpse through the Gloom. 8vo. Is. Owen. 1794. THAT Great Britain can derive important advantages from the

war, whatever its issue or success, is a paradox which we do not pretend to explain. As far as we can understand the author's mean. ing, it is this : “ That we ought to seize the present moment, to wither the naval strength of France, to burn her fleets to the water's edge (and no doubt they will burn the better for being first withered), to obliterate every veftige of her commerce on the paths of the sea, to stand its uncontrolled and unrivalled master, and to bear away, for the next century, at least, the monopoly of the world, and virtually of the world's empire with it.' The Trial of William Skirving, Secretary to the Britifle Convention,

before the High Court of Justiciary, on the 6th and 7th of January, 1794 ; for Sedition. Containing a full and circumstantial Account of all the Proceedings and Speeches, as taken down in Short-hant, by Mr. Ramsey, Short-hand Writer, from London. Svo. 350 Ridgway. 1794.

The seditious practices charged againf Mr. Skirving, were, that be contributed to circulate the handbill for which Mr. Fyshe Palmer was tried, and that he affociated with a number of persons, calling them. felves The Britisa convention of the delegates of the people, to obtain universal suffrage, and annual parliaments,' and who aped the forms of the French convention iņ their proceedings. After a long trial, he was fonnd guilty, and sentenced to fourteen years tranf. portation beyond seas. Mr. Skirving, or, as he affects to be called, Citizen Skirving, defends himself with a considerable portion of

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