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trustees, constitutionally appointed by their popularity. Do they make laws for the state? They wholly possess, in their house of commons, the department which can dictate laws. Do they judge. of the breaches of those laws? We find them in the character of jurors interpreting and supporting what they themselves have enacted as legislators. Are their decisions to be fulfilled? We find the people at once obeying and executing; and that without their services, breaches of the laws would render laws inefficient. Are the people aggrieved? We see them appealing to themselves in that department of the state in which they are purpofely stationed to defend their liberties, to redress their own grievances; and by checking the popular trustees in the abuse of power, and upholding the other two estates, as the certain means of averting oppression and discontents, we behold the people preserving that constitution which is the basis of all. Are the people in all the public offices and departments of the state? Without them the doors of no assembly would be unlocked. Are they employed in the army and navy? Without them, there could be neither. Do they cultivate the land and employ the manufactures for their own benefit?-Without such assistance the first would be unproductive, and the latter fall into decay.'
The author concludes with a well-written address, in which his loyalty, his love of freedom, and his abilities as a writer, are equally conspicuous. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to say more, as already (this being the second edition) many of our readers may have had opportunities of examining the work itself.
Remarks on Dr. Kipling's Preface to Beza. Part the Firsi.
By Thomas Edwards, LL.D. 8vo. 15. 6d. fewed. Flower,
Cambridge. 1793. IN our Review for November 1793, we announced the pub
lication of the fac-simile of the Cambridge manuscript. We made free and cop:ous observations on it, both on account of the importance of the manuscript, and the magnificence of the fac-simile. The Latinity we did not dare to compliment; much of the reasoning we thought inconclusive; and some defects we found in the fac-simile. But while impartial criticilin is just, it is also candid. We, therefore, did not mean to under-rate the worth or the utility of Dr. Kipling's undertak. ing, though we could not bestow all the praise which we wished on his share of the performance.
Dr. Edwards is unquestionably a gentleman of considerable learning; and, as well from his situation, as the course of his iludies, qualificd to examine the literary pretensions of Dr.
Latter, an however, to wiele sustained by Dr. Edwa
Kipling. The former professes to have little knowledge of the latter, and to be incapable of prejudices against his person : in order, however, to wipe off any imputation of this kind, to which the character lately sustained by Dr. Kipling at Cambridge might be supposed to give rise, Dr. Edwards thus bespeaks the attention of his readers:
Neither are these strictures to be attributed to petulance or forwardness. Nothing more strongly excites my indignation and contempt than an officious interference in the concerns of others. I have observed that it constantly proceeds-either from a childisha ignorance of the small importance of each individual,-or from an inability to fill up leisure with a laudable and liberal pursuit, -or from a desire of acquiring an artificial consequence, which neither abilities nor learning, neither birth nor station have bestowed. Studious therefore to avoid the least appearance of fuch a character, I feldom engage in any business, which is not strictly my own.'
These Remarks are divided into fixteen sections, in the course of which Dr. Edwards expresses doubts of Dr. Kipling's authority for asserting, that Bentley had thoroughly examined the Cambridge MS; shews, that Dr. Kipling makes Bentley speak of three MSS. only, where he'cught to have mentioned four; gives a few instances of insertions and omissions ; examples of bad Latin; and maintains, that either the writer of the Codex Bezæ used several Greek MSS. from which he felected those readings, which appeared to him beft, or that the codex is a transcript from a more ancient version : on either of these suppositions, Dr. Kipling's argument, from the omission of the doxology, would be inconclusive.
Dr. Kipling's three arguments for the antiquity of the MS. are asserted by Dr. Edwards to be visionary :-Id quod ideo alserui, says Dr. Kipling, quia sectiones, quæ vocantur Ammonianæ, folæ per fe in hoc noftro incedunt, in illo autem cum Eusebii canonibus sociatæ. Dr. Edwards replies :
Our promoter seems to be secure, that hence it naturally follow's, that the Codex Bezz is older than the Codex Alexandrinus; but he is too hafty in his conclusion. Dr. Mill in his Prolegomena gives us the following information : Codices quidem vidimus, quibus ad marginem adpicti erant numeri isti seorsim, et absque Canonis Euse. biani comitatu ; pervetuftum Bezz Cantabrigiensem, ad cujus oranı extant, manu diversa ; et alterum quendam quadringentorum circiter annorum." I have seen two manuscripts,” says Mr. Marsh, “ in the University Library at Cambridge,-a MS. in Trinity College Library,--and the Cod. Gonvilli et Caii, all written in the common small Greek character, and at least fix hundred years after the time of Eusebius, in which the Ammonian sections are written in the margin, without any reference to the canons of Eufebius. Their absence therefore from the Codex Bezæ affords no absolute proof of its antiquity."
Dr. Edwards further remarks, that Baker had inspected the Cambridge MS. with some care, though Dr. Kipling had mainzained the contrary; that he is mistaken about Dr. Mill's testimony; that he draws a hafty and erroneous conclusion from the use of the particle xai ; and that in one half page of the fac fimile, there are no less than three errors ; psov asyouevos for 1σι---Ευαγγελλιον for ευαγγελιον-τους υιος for νιους και and adds:
• Now the doctor cannot reasonably object to be tried by the rule, which he has himself adopted to discover the number of WetStein's blunders in noting the various readings of the Codex Bezæ. Let us see then :--Three blunders in half a page will give fix in a page: in the whole fac-simile there are 828 pages : which will give 4968 errors.—This sum may perhaps appear very extravagant: but we must remember that the do&or is fond of having enough and to spare ; for in the opinion of the vice-chancellor he brought much supernuous evidence to prove that Mr. Frend was the author of the pamphlet: so in the present case, if according to the doctor's calculation Beza's manufcript contains 4311 verses, 4968 errors will give one to each verse, and 657 to spare.—But the promoter, fúffocated and overwhelmed, will perhaps as a last refuge cry out, that he has inserted a faving clause in favor of Wetstein: Nifi vero in quandam Wetstenianze editionis partem forfitan inciderim cæieris mendofiorem.--True, sir. This exception may certainly be applied in favor of Wetstein: there was no particular reason why Wetstein hould have been more attentive in these two chapters than in any other; he may perhaps have been less fo : but there were two strong reafons why you, fir, should have been particularly attentive in your Preface : (1.) because you muít have been sensible that it is the orrly part of the work, which would be read by the majority of your readers; who will therefore from this part of it receive a favor. able or unfavorable impreffion of the execution of the whole: and, (2.) because even to critics, who mean to consult the fac-simile, and have not an opportunity of comparing it with the original, your accurracy or inaccuracy in the Preface must be a pledge of your accuracy or inaccuracy in the body of the work. Charity itself, there. fore, which will not allow us to suppose you devoid of the respect due to your readers, suffers us not to apply to yourself your exception in favor of Wetítein.'
The learned doctor, throughout this little series of remarks, assails the other learned doctor with considerable severity, while he exposes his mistakes with confiderable success. Dr. Edwards observes:
•The doctor here therefore does not aspire to the distinction of chien blunderer, which Bentley has bestowed upon Collins; he is modestly contented with the title of deputy blunderer : but the university are so unanimously of opinion, those only excepted who are utterly loft to all sense of merit, that he has an indisputable claim to the former appellation, that they will probably thrust him, whether he will or no, into that enviable situation. For this purpose the following grace will in the ensuing term be proposed to the senate:
"Cum vir reverendus THOMAS KIPLING in doctiffimis suis paginibus rara specimina linguæ antehac inauditæ ediderit, usitatisque artis logicæ proculcatis regulis, novam ratiocinandi methodum in usum tyronum induxerit, cumque divinum illud ingenium tales errores procuderit, quales ullo alii in mentern ne per fomnium quidem unquam venire potuissent, tamque varios, ut de iis differere omitto; placeat vobis ut pro tantis meritis ApXondamte tifulto cohonestetur.'
As Dr. Kipling's Preface, together with the fac-simile, will go into foreign universities, it seems reasonable to wish, that Dr. Edwards had published his Remarks in Latin; that the testimony against the Preface might have gone into the same hand as the Preface itself has. Dr. Edwards is himself admirably qualified for a work of this kind : though probably the learned doctor wished to expose Dr. Kipling before the English Teader, as it were, in terrorem.
The University of Cambridge, we understand, very generoully defrayed the expence of printing and publishing the fac-simile of the codex Bezze; and the price to subscribers, we hear, was only two guineas. Dr. Kipling was, however, permitted to sell it for three. We are happy to hear, that he aims to carry his goods to a better market. If he succeeds in his negociation, he may smile at Dr. Edwards' criticisms.
Lormand for a che Day apbominfier,
A Sermon preached before the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, on Friday, April 19, 1793 : being the Day appointed by his Majesty's Special Command for a General Fast and Humiliation. By Richard,
Lord Bishop of Gloucester. 410. 15. Walter. 1793. TO whatever commendation this discourse may be entitled
upon other accounts, there are sentiments in it which we think no judicious reader can forbear to condemn; and we are the more surprised at them, when considered as pron ceeding from a prelate of our church.
• Happy would it have been for a modern great empire to have paid some regard to an example in this instance so applicable; to have derived instruction from a precedent so awful in its conse. quences, and so memorable in the annals of mankind. . But what
wisdom, what moderation was to be expected in the wild projects of visionary theorists, insolently determined to overturn every super. structure raised on the solid foundation laid by their ancestors, and affecting to hold in contempt the experience of past ages! What policy could be looked for in the councils of nock legislators, whose greatest pride it is to insult and trample under foot all that is important in human society, all that is venerable and facred in the estimation of man! What respect for the laws of humanity, what regard even for common decency, was likely to dignify the conduct of usurpers, with hands dyed in blood, and hearts steeled for op. preslion, unmoved equally at the distress of innocence, and the humiliating spectacle of fallen majesty! Infatuated and remorseless people! the measure of your iniquity seems at length to be full; the hour of retribution is coming fast upon you ! Drunk with the Blood of your fellow citizens, you have dared to spread your ravages abroad; rousing the surrounding nations, in justice to thenitelves, and the common cause of humanity, to confederate against you, in order to execute (we hope there is no presuniption, no want of charity in the expreslion,) to execute the wrath of God on your devot. ed heads!'
When the learned bishop talks of the superstructure raised on the solid foundation laid by their anceitors, and the experience of past ages, one might be induced to think that absolute power,Lettres de Cachet, and the Baltile, were the blessings that the first reformers of the French monarchy had subverted: blessings which, the experience of ages should no doubt have taught them, were equal to those of our Magna Charta, Habeas Corpus, and the Bill of Rights; and should have heen rcvered by them as equally sacred.
Another passage conveys no sight intimation that there are others who, if they would not get drunk with blood, have notwithstanding a religious hankering after it.
's Let us by a strict obedience to the divine laws fnew ourfelves faithfülin the servicc of the Almighty; we may then hope to be thought not unworthy means in his hands of avenging both the blood of a murdered sovereign, and the unexampled sufferings of his captive family, of protecting the violated rights of civil society, and of Yecuring to religion a shield of defence against the desperate and undisguised attacks of infidelity and atheism.
Merciful Jesus! is it then for the office of executioners that the practice of thy religion was intended to fit us !-And are the crimes here set forth, molt aggravated as they are, of individuals, to be revenged by us upon a nation at large ; upon thousands who abhor chem as feelingly as ourselves? Should we not rather exclaim, judgment is the prerogative of God alone? - Vengeance is mine, and I will repay, saith the Lord.'