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clerks may be removed by the clerk, with the approval of the speaker; and they shall be so removed upon the request of the committees tó which they are severally assigned.

7. The clerk shall perform all the duties of his office under the direction of the speaker. He shall keep a journal of the proceedings of the house, and shall submit it daily to the speaker in time to be examined before the next assembling of the house. He shall keep at the clerk's table, during the sittings of the house, a calendar or docket, so arranged as to show the condition and progress of the business of the house.

8. He shall keep accounts of the compensation of the members and officers of the house, and shall from time to time certify the same to the auditor. He shall provide the stationery required for the business of his office and of the house, and for the use of the members during the sessions; but the amount furnished to each member shall not exceed in value ten dolars a session. The claim of the clerk for such supplies, when approved by the committee on house expenses, shall be certified by the speaker to the auditor. He shall keep detailed accounts of all these transactions in a book to be provided for the purpose, which shall be at all times open to inspection by members of the house.

Sergeant-at-arms. 9. A sergeant-at-arms shall be elected by the house, and shall continue in office during its pleasure. He shall have as his assistants three doorkeepers, who shall be elected by the house, and six pages, to be appointed by the speaker, who shall receive as compensation one-half the amount provided by law for a doorkeeper.

10. He shall, with his assistants, attend upon the house during its sittings, and shall execute its commands, together with all such process, issued by its authority, as shall be directed to him by the speaker.

11. He shall, under the direction of the speaker, have charge of the police of the hall, and shall prevent any interruption of the business of the house by disorder, within or without. He shall distribute among the members all papers printed for their use, and shall give such attendance upon them during the sittings of the house as will promote their comfort and facilitate the business of the house.

12. He shall procure for the members, when required, certificates for pay and mileage, and at their request and upon their endorsement, shall collect and pay over to those entitled to the money due upon such certificates.

13. He shall attend to receiving and dispatching all mail or telegraphic matter intended for or sent by members, and shall make such arrangements therefor as to promote the convenience of the members.

Oaths of Officers. 14. The oaths which the officers of the house are required by law to take shall be administered and certified by a justice of the peace or notary public, and be filed with the clerk of the house,

Committees. 15. All committees shall be appointed by the speaker, unless otherwise specially directed by the house, in which case they shall be appointed

by ballot, and a plurality of votes shall prevail. The first named member of any committee shall be the chairman, and if he be absent, or be excused by the house, the next named member, and so on, unless the committee elect a chairman.

16. At the beginning of each regular session there shall be appointed standing committees, to consist of not less than nine nor more than thirteen members (except the finance committee, which shall consist of fifteen members), as follows:

1st. Privileges and elections.
2d. Courts of justice.
3d. Schools and colleges.
4th. Propositions and grievances.
5th. Roads and internal navigation.
6th. Finance.
7th. Claims.
8th. Militia and police.
9th. Asylums and prisons.
10th. Labor and the poor.
11th. Public property.
12th. Banks, currency and commerce.
13th. Agriculture andmining.
14th. Manufactures and mechanic arts.
15th. Counties, cities and towns.
16th. Officers and offices at the capitol.
17th. Executive expenditures.
18th. Retrenchment and economy.
19th. Federal relations and resolutions.
20th. Enrolled bills.
21st. Immigration.
22d. Chesapeake and its tributaries.

17. Also a standing committee, to consist of five members, to be called the committee on house expenses. It shall be the duty of this committee to examine from time to time the accounts kept by the Clerk with the members and officers of the house, and to decide all questions arising in relation thereto, subject to an appeal to the house.

No account for printing, stationery, or any other expenses of the house, shall be certified for payment without the previous approval of this committee.

18. Also a standing committee on rules, to consist of five members, including the speaker, who shall be chairman of the committee.

19. Also a standing committee on the library, to consist of five members; and one on printing, to consist of three members. These committees, when acting with like committees of the senate, shall constitute the “library committee" and the “committee on printing” provided for by law; but in all other respects shall act as committees of the house.

20. Any committee of the house may at their discretion confer with a committee of the senate having under consideration the same subject; but no joint committee shall be appointed. Nor shall any select committee be appointed to consider any subject falling properly within the province of a standing committee.


21. After the minimum number required for any committee has been appointed, the speaker may, from time to time, at his discretion, fill it up to the maximum allowed by the rules, which shall in no case be exceeded.

22. Five members of any committee, or a majority, if less than five, shall constitute a quorum. Each committee shall appoint its own regular meetings; and it shall be the duty of a committee to meet on a call of any two of its members, if the chairman be absent or decline to appoint such meeting; but no committee shall sit during the sitting of the house without special leave.

23. The several standing committees shall not only consider and report upon the matters specially referred to them, but shall, whenever practicable, suggest such legislation as will provide upon general principles for all similar cases. And it shall be the duty of each committee to inquire into the condition and administration of the laws relating to the subjects which they have in charge; to investigate the conduct and look to the responsibility of all public officers and agents concerned, and to suggest such measures as will correct abuses, protect the public interests, and promote the public welfare.

24. Committees shall in all cases report by bill or resolution, in such form that, if passed or agreed to, it will carry into effect their recommendations. Every such bill or resolution shall be printed, unless the committee recommend that the same be not printed, but no papers returned therewith shall be printed unless the committee shall so recommend.

Committee of the Whole.

25. When the house shall go into the committee of the whole, the speaker may vacate the chair, and call some member to preside in committee; the other officers shall attend, and the rules of the house shall be observed and enforced in committee as far as applicable, except that the previous question shall not be ordered.

26. If the committee rise before the consideration of the subject referred is concluded, the same shall be reported back, and have its place in order, as unfinished business of the house. When it shall be again reached in order, unless it be otherwise disposed of, the house, after making such orders as it may deem proper in relation to the business before the committee, shall stand again resolved into the committee of the whole, and so on, until the business therein be disposed of.

27. Nothing shall be in order in the committee of the whole, except such matters as may be specially referred to it by the house.

28. Whenever the committee of the whole shall find itself without a quorum, the chairman shall cause the roll to be called, and thereupon the committee shall rise, and the chairman shall report the fact and the names of the absentees, which shall be entered upon the journal of the house.

29. The motion to go into committee of the whole, and the motion to discharge the committee, shall not be debated.

30. No member shall absent himself from the service of the house unless he have leave, or be sick or unable to attend.

31. Any ten members or more (including the Speaker, if there be one, and he be present), shall be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, by a call of the house.

32. Upon the roll of the house the names of the members shall, in all cases, be arranged and called in alphabetical order, except that the speaker shall be called last.

33. Upon a call of the house, the names of the members shall be first called over by the clerk, and the absentees noted; after which the names of the absentees shall be again called over; the doors shall then be shut, and those for whom no excuse, or insufficient excuses are made, may, by order of those present, if ten in number, be taken into custody as they appear, or may be sent for and taken into custody, wherever to be found, by the sergeant-at-arms or his assistants, or by special messengers to be appointed for that purpose.

34. When a member shall be discharged from custody, and admitted to his seat, the house shall determine whether such discharge shall be with or without payment of fees and expenses.

35. Any number of members may adjourn from day to day. A motion to adjourn and a motion to fix the time to which the house will adjourn shall always be in order, and shall be decided without debate.


36. Messages from the governor, and reports and communications (except petitions and memorials) from any other public officer or agent, may be received at any time; and if in the judgment of the speaker they require immediate action, may be brought at once to the attention of the house-otherwise they shall lie upon the speaker's table and be disposed of in the morning hour. The same rule shall be observed with regard to messages from the senate.

37. Members having petitions, memorials, resolutions or bills to present, may at any time hand them to the clerk, endorsed with their names and the reference or disposition desired. The clerk shall, under the direction of the speaker, refer all such papers to the proper committees, and enter the fact, with the names of the members presenting them, upon the journal.

38. No petition, memorial, bill, joint resolution, proposition to change a rule of the house, or resolution calling for information from the governor or other public officer or agent, shall be introduced, considered or acted upon otherwise than is provided by the preceding rule, until it shall have been examined and reported upon by a committee.

39. Any other resolution or motion upon which a member may desire the judgment of the house, or any action other than a reference to a standing committee, may be presented to the house in the morning hour after the business on the speaker's table is disposed of. 40. Reports of committees may be handed to the clerk at


time. He shall endorse upon them the time at which they are received by him, and place them upon the speaker's table, to be disposed of in the morning hour. If in the judgment of the speaker any report of a committee requires immediate action, he may bring it to the attention of the house at any time.


The Morning Hour. 41. After the reading of the journal, one hour, to be called the "morning hour,” shall be devoted to the dispatch of business upon the speaker's table, and to resolutions presented under rule 39. The business on the speaker's table shall be disposed of in such order as the speaker shall deem best, except as may be herein otherwise provided, or as the house may at any time order.

42. The annual message of the governor shall be laid before the house as soon as it is received. It shall be printed for the use of the house, and shall be considered by the several standing committees without any special order therefor.

43. All other messages from the governor shall, unless the house otherwise order, be referred by the speaker to the proper committees. And the same rule shall be observed as to reports and communications from other public officers.

44. Bills and joint resolutions sent from the senate shall be referred by the speaker to the proper committees; those originating in the senate being previously twice read. All other messages from the senate shall, unless the house otherwise order, be referred by the speaker to the proper committees.

45. All bills and joint resolutions reported from committees, and which have been previously read in the house, shall be transferred at once to the calendar, in the order in which they are reported. All those reported for the first time shall be numbered in the order in which they were handed to the clerk, and shall be read the first time and transferred to the calendar.

46. All other reports from committees shall be considered and disposed of in the order in which the speaker shall present them, unless the house shall in any case otherwise direct.

47. A member presenting a resolution, under rule 39, shall be allowed five minutes in which to explain his wishes in relation to it; after which the question on referring it to a standing committee shalí be taken without debate. If the house refuses to refer, the resolution shall be considered and disposed of.

48. Printing recommended by committees, under rule 24, shall be ordered by the speaker, unless the house shall otherwise direct. Under such order no more copies of any document shall be printed than is provided by law; nor shall more than two hundred and thirty copies be printed of any bill, resolution, petition or memorial, without the special order of the house.

The Calendar. 49. At the expiration of the morning hour, or sooner if the business of the morning hour has been disposed of, the house shall proceed to consider bills and joint resolutions upon the calendar, in the following order: 1st. Pending motions to reconsider, relating to business proper for

the calendar.
2d. The unfinished business of the preceding day.

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