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velvet noeuds in front, velvet collar crossed in | front, wide sleeves, diminishing from the elbow to

ON. CHIVALRY AND THE COURTS OF LOVE. the wrist, to which it sits close with buttons. Head-dress a la fanchon.

CHIVALRY, has in all former periods, been a

subject of universally engrossing interest. The FIRST HAT---WITH BACK View.

noble deeds of valour, founded originally upon the Light blue satin hat richly ornamented with principles of disinterested protection towards the blond lace and flowers, a row of three dented

defenceless and oppressed, (particularly the fairleaves from the right side, extending to nearly the sex,) and celebrated as they were in the most glowmiddle of the brim.

ing colours, by the bards and minstrels of those · SECOND HAT-WITH BACK VIEW.. ages, must necessarily have been admired, not A hat of lilac velvet, open shape, the orna

only by contemporary but by subsequent genements of velvet, satin ribbon, and plumeau fea

rations. Hence the extremely romantic turn of thers, a large noeud under the brim, the ends

all the old stories and adventures, as well as the indented.

superhuman courage and perfection of their he

roes and heroines; and, though the same causes, PLATE THE FOURTH.

namely, open and violent oppression on the part FIGURE THE FIRST-WITH BACK VIEW. of the old barons, without any means of redress, EVENING FULL DRESS.---A dress of white are not at present permitted to exist; the interest crape, richly embroidered in gold, short beret in these relations must always continue great as long sleeves, edged with narrow blond. Corsage, drape as there exists an admiration of heroic gallantry en coeur, the back plain, with a fall of deep and patriotism-predominant virtues in all the blond turning on the sleeve very full; a satin actions and atchievements of the original cavaliers. rouleau in the hem, white satin slip, the corsage | It is our object in the present instance, to give edged with narrow blond, festooned. The hair a brief account of these institutions previous to is dressed in tufts of curls at the side of the their degeneracy, as well as a slight mention of face, and a large open net plait, en coque, from the Courts of Love, extracted from a foreign nothe back part of which is a noeud, with barbes, tice on the subject. the whole surmounted with feathers, pinked in The life of a Chevalier in the middle century, the middle, and gracefully curled; gold-mounted was divided into three important epochs. Until emerald ornament on the forehead; a boa folding his seventh year, the care of his education was conround the neck and over the left shoulder. fided to females, who excited his emulation by FIGURE THE SECOND.

recitals of the great exploits and daring deeds of - MORNING DRESS.---A dress of gros des Indes,

the primitive cavaliers. From their care, and

counsels, he entered into the service of a chevalier, with pelerine deep hem; trimmings black blond.

in whose chateau he learned every thing connected . FIGURE THE THIRD-WITH BACK VIEW. with his future prospects: Faith-Love-Va· EVENING DRESS ---A dress of pale blue satin, lour, were the ruling maxims they incessantly a la royal, velvet beret, ornamented with ostrich inculcated; and when it was observed, that the feathers, one of them curling under the left young page zealously fulfilled his duties, both to brim.

his knight and lady, and loved to engage in war•FIRST HAT–WITH BACK VIEW.

like pastimes, they endeavoured to strengthen him ' A hat of gros de Naples, ornamented with in his determination, and to prepare him to beblond lace and pinked feathers.

come one day, the defender of religion and of SECOND HAT---WITH BACK VIEW,

virtue. The ladies also entered fully into these Black velyet hat, contracted shape, richly or

principles, which they wished to instil into the namented with black blond lace and pink-co

mind of the young noviciate. The church and loured ribbons-the ends indented.

sex, being alike unarmed, needed a peculiar pro


tection, which the pious chevalier conceived it The new chevalier swore that he would faithnecessary to afford even at the risk of life. If hi- | fully serve his prince and country-cherish his therto the Greeks and Romans, had looked upon religion-succour widows and orphans-protect women, merely as objects of voluptuousness; the the oppressed, and make war upon miscreants; cavalier of this age less enslaved by his passions, that he would respect the chastity of women, and enlightened by the torch of a pure and sub and celebrate in all places their beauty and lime religion, considered them as the chef-d'œu virtue. This oath was also the knight's catevre of the creation, and as objects worthy of ho chism. As chivalry was the pivot upon which age; he conceived that to devote himself to their his very existence turned, he regarded it as the service was the noblest -- the most sublime most sacred vocation; and that every thing else duty. Constantly beholding models of chivalry, ought to be subordinate to its religious disenjoying the society of squires, who had accompa- charge. Degradation thus seldom occurred. The nied their masters in their expeditions, and hearing interest which princes also took in chivalry, by the martial songs of the Troubadours, his youthful obliging them to be the most distinguished in courage was stimulated to noble actions. The valour, and personal merit, as they were the most. page passed seven more years in that situation, 1 illustrious by birth-insured to this institution which rendered him the companion and assistant an honourable duration for many ages. of his master. In this capacity, he was bound to That public and military fête-the tournalook to the steed and armour of his chief, the de- ment, was also the most rigorous tribunal. They fence and safety of the castle, and also to attend only admitted him whose life was irreproachable, upon his noble mistress. He acconpanied the and who had never violated the laws of chivalry. knight in tournaments and expeditions; to com It was from the hands of the ladies they received bat under his eyes, and to improve himself by his the reward of their courage and address : thus example. Sometimes the distinction of superior | the respect, added to admiration, which the com. and inferior disappeared between the cavalier petitors testified towards the illustrious women, and his squire: they formed a sincere and mutual who judged, and remunerated them, was easily friendship, which, proved by dangers common to substituted for a far more enchanting sentiboth, and renewed by the remembrance of them, | ment—that of love. The most noble triumph of were rendered so dear to each that they became valour, was that of pleasing beauty ; and this seninseparable. At the age of twenty one, the squire timent devoted without doubt to the sex in gehecame entitled to knighthood, having first ren

neral, rather than to one in particular, gradually dered himself worthy of that honour by the per became an art, which the French have approformance of some noble deed. The canditate pre priately designated by the name of—Gallantry. pared himself by fasting, watching, and prayer: This art soon became the object of a widely dishe bathed and clothed himself in white, and re seminated theory, which, according to the spirit of ceived the Sacrament of Penance and the Eucha- the age, laid the foundation for those singular tririst. Having diseharged his religious duties, the bunals, which took cognizance of all matters conneophyte entered the temple accompanied by a nected with Love. The grandeur of chivalry, sponsor, and presented his sword to the high originally simple, soon acquired foreign changes priest, who after pronouncing a benediction, placed and additions; and as it lost its true energy it on his neck. He knelt down at the feet of after the crusades, gradually inclined towards him or her that was to arm hím, .(for women ceremonious formality: producing a singular sometimes exercised these honourable offices), connection of the most striking contrasts. The. and being invested with all the exterior honors chivalric inuse, by degrees began to mingle of chivalry, rose and mounted a charger which with the real world, and infused into it some of was brought to him, and thus equipped, wheeled its illusions-so that Clio herself, seduced by round and bowed to the spectators,

brilliant colours, has respected chivalry, and

veiled it with that mystery, which conceals it | thur's code of love, and partly from the cusfrom the eyes of the profane. The nearer the tomary edicts. They made sure of the execution intercourse of the two sexes approached Platonic of these decrees before hand, by making all love, the more there resulted from it strange parties swear they would submit to their deciamorous controversies, and it was apparent that sion; besides, no one would have dared to disthe subtleties of the dialectic and scholastic phi- pute the judgment awarded by the most honorlosophy, lent to love that solemn drapery, which able and powerful in the kingdom. There have made it appear amongst the most important and been instances of pecuniary fines, but the puaugust sciences. They soon formed a code of nishment was generally banishment from the love, which a knight of Bretagny brought from Kingdom of Love; that is to say, an exclusion the court of King Arthur to his lady. These from good society and other disreputable pelaws soon formed the basis, from which they nalties. The manner of proceeding was usually eventually judged every thing connected with verbal, and very properly so, in a tribunal conthe Erotic empire. There were, at first, only sisting of judges endowed by nature with an adcasual assemblies of ladies to determine difficult mirable loquacity. They kept records, however, matters of debate; for who could have been to preserve a remembrance of the most celebetter judges of these matters, than those, who

brated causes. are not only made for love, but are its most be. The following is an example—it happened in witching ornaments.

the 13th century William de Cabestaing was Although we cannot positively state the pre- accused by the Lady Eleanor de Comminge, of eise epoch of their institution, we find from the having violated the laws of gallantry. “We commencement of the twelfth century, in many will,” says the Chronicle, “cite the names of provinces in the south of France, and the ad the ladies summoned to give judgment on this jacent countries, Courts of Love; of which his occasion Madam de Sabian; the Countess de torians have transmitted to us detailed descrip- Forcalquier; Mesdames d’Ampus, de Blacres, tions. The Courts of Love were composed of de Simiane, de Villeneuve, de Turenne, de a president, and from ten, to sixty counsellors. Montfort; Margaret de Tarascon, the wife of Princes and kings, sometimes became presidents, Berenger, Count of Toulouse; a lady of Ventithey were then called Princes of Love. There mille; the lady of the city of Glandèves; Meswere at each court, many posts and dignities; dames de Sault, de Castellane; the lady de for instance, at the Court of Love, which flou- Pourrières, and the Countess de Porcelet. The rished at Paris, under the presidency of Isabella cavaliers descended from the same families, with de Bavière, in the time of Charles the Sixth, there the exception of Antoine de Boulins, Claude de were two grand huntsmen, one hundred and Montauban, and many others; most of whom eighty-eight keepers of the records and charters had crossed the sea, and made war upon the Saof love; fifty-nine chevaliers of honor, as coun racens, fought in Bohemia, or been in the sersellors of the court; fifty, as treasurers ; fifty-vice of the King of France. The ladies espe. seven, as masters of the court; thirty-two se- cially charged with watching over the precretaries, &c. &c. Among these different classes servation of gallantry and chivalrous principles, of dignities, were enrolled names of the most neglected nothing which tended to this object; illustrious families, and of the most celebrated they were beautiful and considerate, and demen of learning in the state. There were, be corum was with them the faithful companion of sides this, many other inferior tribunals, from love. The young knight remained outside the which they could appeal to the High Court of barriers. A lady who performed the office of Love, sitting at Paris. The decisions of the herald, called him three times; he entered the council were called arresta amorum, (love's de- assembly, another led him by the hand, saying, crees), and were taken, partly, from King Ar “ Gentle knight, leave your arms without ; you



Fading flowers, fading flowers, Ye are like the sadden'd heart,

When it's hopes, like passing hours, From it, transiently depart:

Ye are like the clouds of even, . As they darken one by one;

When each has had its last faint smile, And farewell of the sun.

But the darken'd clouds have only, When the light of day has ceased;

Again to fleet across the skies, To meet it in the east.

And the flowers if fragrant ever, Will a sweetness still retain,

But the broken heart will neverOh, never bloom again!


I found the warrior on the plain,
His eyes was fixed-his hand was chill..
Still bore his breast the life blood's stain,
The blood was on his helmet still;
He died as hearts like his should die,
In the hot clasp of victory.

want no other here, than politeness and courtesy; } with these, and a desire to please, you will assuredly succeed.”

When he heard the complaint of the Lady Eleanor, he blushed, for he was too sincere not to feel embarrassed-he knew not how to defend himself-he feared to offend this amiable tribunal; not being aware that his was one of those causes, which the court had chosen to make merry with. He demanded an official defender, and was permitted to make choice of one of his judges. Approaching the Lady Margaret, kneeling, he presented her with his glove; she accepted it, and, blushing, placed herself beside her client. The defence excited universal interest and applause, and the knight, enchanted with the eloquence of Lady Margaret, threw himself at her feet, to express his gratitude. “ The court,” said a herald, “ grants you permission to embrace your advocate ;" which favour he did not allow to be repeated. The noble knight, Raymond, (husband of the lovely Margaret), wished to protest against it; but they only answered him with bursts of laughter. The court commanded silence, and Eleanor de Turrenne, President of the Court of Love, pronounced the following judgment :-“ There is nothing punishable in your conduct, noble knight, but you have not known your duty towards the Lady Eleanor; the court, however, absolves you, and recommends you to be less embarrassed and less timid-to remember it is the duty of a chevalier to endeavour to please, to make love, at all times, with discretion and honour, and to bear in mind, that at any age, ladies are capable of loving, and expect a just return. Take heed of disdaining those who are not young, for there is then greater need of delicacy, honour, and discernment. Go, gentle knight, learn courtesy among the fair, and may the lady of your thoughts pardon you this adventure.” Thus terminated these singular proceedings.

There remain many other sentences of a similar kind in various works which treat of these extraordinary tribunals. In our next, we will insert a collection of those rules which served to regulate the decisions and resolutions of the Courts of Love.

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| Pacha threw across a bridge from the ravelin, coTHE SIEGE OF MALTA.

vering it with earth, to defend it from fire. ." Ar length motives, partly political, partly ge- ! “ After this, the mine and the sap both went on nerous, induced the Emperor Charles the Fifth, to at once; but the hardness of the rock was in favour offer the island of Malta to the Hospitallers. This of the besieged, and by a sortie, the bridge was burnt. proposal was soon accepted, and after various nego In a wonderfully short time, it was reconstructed ; ciations, the territory was delivered up to the knights, and the terrible fire from the Turkish lines, not only who took full possession on the 26th of October, 1530. swept away hundreds of the besieged, but ruined Thirty-five years had scarcely passed, when the Order the defences and dismounted the artillery. In this of St. John, which was now known by the name of the state the knights sent a messenger to the Grand Order of Malta, was assailed in its new possession by Master, representing their situation, shewing that the an army composed of thirty thousand veteran Turkish recruits they received, only drained the garrison of soldiers. The news of this armament's approach had the town, without protracting the resistance of a long before reached the island, and every preparation place that could stand no longer, and threatening had been made to render its efforts ineffectual. The to cut their way through the enemy, if boats did not whole of the open country was soon in the hands of come to take them off. La Valette knew too well the Turks, and they resolved to begin the siege by their situation ; but he knew also, that if St. Elmo the attack of a small fort, situated at the end of a were abandoned, the viceroy of Sicily would never tongue of land which separated the two ports. The sail to the relief of Malta ; and he sent three comsafety of the island and the order depended upon the missioners to examine the state of the fort, and to castle of St. Elmo, a fort which the Turkish admiral persuade the garrison to hold out to the last. Two well knew, and the cannonade that he soon opened of these officers saw that the place was truly unupon the fortress was tremendous and incessant. The | tenable, but the third declared it might still be mainknights who had been thrown into that post, soon tained; and, on his return, offered to throw himself began to demand succour, but the Grand Master, into it with what volunteers he could raise. La Valette La Valette, treated their request with indignation, | instantly accepted the proposal, and wrote a cold and speedily sent fresh troops to take the place of and bitter note to the refractory knights in St. Elmo, those whom fear had rendered weak.

telling them that others were willing to take their “ A noble emulation reigned among the Hose place : “ Come back, my brethren,' he said, ' you pitallers, and they contended only which should fly will be here more in safety; and, on our part, we to the perilous service. A sortie was made from shall feel more tranquil concerning the defence of the fort, and the Turks were driven back from their St. Elmo, on the preservation of which depends the position ; but the forces of the Moslems were soon safety of the island and of the order.' increased by the arrival of the famous Dragut; and “ Shame rose in the bosom of the knights; and, the succour of the viceroy of Sicily had promised mortified at the very idea of having proposed to yield to the knights, did not appear. After the coming a place that others were willing to maintain, they now of Dragut, the siege of St. Elmo was pressed with sent to implore permission to stay. redoubled ardour. A ravelin was surprised, and a “ La Valette well knew, from the first, that such lodgement effected ; and the cavalier, which formed would be their conduct; but, before granting their one of the principal fortifications, had nearly been request, he replied, that he ever preferred new troops taken. Day after day, night after night, new efforts who were obedient, to veterans, who took upon themwere made on either part; and the cannon of the selves to resist the will of their commanders ; and it Turks never ceased to play upon the walls of the fort, was only on the most humble apologies and entreaties while, at the same time, the ravelin which they had that he allowed them as a favour, to remain in the captured was gradually raised till it overtopped the post of peril. From the 17th of June to the 14th of parapet. The whole of the outer defences were now July this little fort had held out against all the efforts exposed : the garrison could only advance by means of the Turkish army, whose loss had been already of trenches and subterranean approach ; and to cut immense. Enraged at so obstinate a resistance, the off even these communications with the parapet, the Pacha now determined to attack the rock on which it

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