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WEYMOUTH stands on the north side of the river Wey in Dorsetshire. Being sheltered by the surrounding hills, possessing a salubrious air, a fine beach of sand, and a calm bay, forming a semicircle of more than two miles, it is extremely well adapted for those who desire to recruit their health; and as a bathing place is perhaps unparalleled.
TORQUAY, situated on the southern coast of Devonshire, lies in a retired cove looking into Torbay, and has become a well-frequented watering place, being much resorted to by winter visitants on account of the mildness as well as salubrity of its air. It possesses good hotels and lodginghouses in abundance, a library, reading-room, and warm baths, all combining to render this a desirable residence for invalids.
TEIGNMOUTH, a few miles to the north of Torquay, and fifteen miles from Exeter, is celebrated for its balmy atmospere, which is so temperate that the geranium and the hydrangea grow there without shelter. The beach, composed of smooth sand with occasional layers of small pebbles, gradually slopes to the sea, which is, generally, clear and clean.
ExMOUTH, SIDMOUTH, and several other towns on the Devonshire coast, are well deserving of a visit.
TENBY, SWANSEA, and ABERYSTWYTH, on the Welsh coast, have of late years become favourite places of resort, and they are well calculated to produce beneficial effects on the health.
YARMOUTH, CROMER, Lowestoff, and ALDBOROUGH, on the Norfolk and Suffolk coast, are places favourably situated for sea-bathing.
SCARBOROUGH, on the Yorkshire coast, possesses the two-fold attraction of mineral springs and sea-bathing, for the latter of which its situation is one of the most delightful and convenient on the British coast. The bay is spacious, and open to the sea; the water pure and transparent; the sand smooth and firm; and the slope of the beach towards the sea so gradual as to be almost imperceptible. Bathing may be enjoyed at all times of the tide, and in most weathers with perfect security. It is sometimes advisable for those who leave town for a
in search of health, to avail themselves of the opportunity to visit some of the mineral springs with which our island abounds, the selection of which is of considerable importance to invalids. I therefore subjoin a short account of the principal places in this country resorted to on account of their medicinal waters.
HARROWGATE, in Yorkshire, which contains some of the most celebrated mineral springs in England, is beautifully situated, and commands a most extensive prospect. The springs are of two kinds, chalybeate and sulphureous. The former is a tonic, the latter a purgative; and its taste, according to the popular opinion, is like rotten eggs and gunpowder. It is found serviceable in most cutaneous diseases, and in various other complaints.
TUNBRIDGE Wells have long been distinguished for the excellence of their waters, which are of the chalybeate kind. They are only thirty-six miles from the metropolis, in a charming and romantic country. The waters are useful in cases of debilitated and relaxed constitutions; but being somewhat powerful in their operation, should be taken with caution.
CHELTENHAM is situated in the fertile vale of Gloucester, sheltered on all sides by hills, which renders its air mild and balmy. The number of springs in and about
this town is considerable, and their qualities are very diversified. The springs may be divided into two classes, saline slightly impregnated with iron, and those which are principally chalybeate. These waters are recommended for diseases, especially those of the digestive organs and skin.
Bath is the site of the earliest-known mineral springs in England, which are used both internally and externally for a variety of disorders, chiefly those arising from dyspepsia, such as gout, bilious cholic, &c. Advice should be taken before drinking these waters.
Bristol and Clifton possess several celebrated hot mineral wells, the waters of which are efficacious in the treatment of many diseases arising from debility.
Buxton, in Derbyshire, lies in a pleasant valley, environed by picturesque hills, and is much frequented on account of its warm baths, which have been known ever since the time of the Romans. The water is used both externally and internally for rheumatic and scorbutic affections, for the gout, and for pulmonary diseases. It appears to be of a very simple nature, its analysis yielding only minute quantities of calcareous earth, sea salt, and aperient salt.
Matlock lies about twenty-two miles south-east of Buxton. It is a neat, clean, and comfortable village, and is surrounded by scenes of great romantic beauty. Matlock water has a temperature of sixty-eight degrees, and is exceedingly pure, containing only a small quantity of neutral and earthy salts. It is principally used as a tepid bath.
LEAMINGTON, which has within the last half century become famous for its mineral springs, is situated in the very centre of England, about two miles from Warwick. The water is a powerful but safe aperient, and is also used for bathing. When artificially heated, it is found of remarkable service in paralytic affections, and is said to be an almost sovereign remedy for all diseases of the skin.
MALVERN, in Worcestershire, is in the vicinity of several medicinal springs which issue from the Malvern hills, and are famous for the extreme purity of their waters, to which quality, combined with the fixed air which they contain, their efficacy is mainly attributable. They are principally used in scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, and nephritic complaints.
Some time ago, when I was labouring under the effects of too severe application to professional pursuits, my medical friends advised me to visit Aix-la-Chapelle and Spa, celebrated for the beneficial effects of their baths and mineral waters in dyspepsia and various other complaints. I followed their advice; and so great was the relief which I experienced from the pleasure of travelling, and the change of scene and occupation, that a few days after I arrived at the latter place I was perfectly well.
Our communications with the Continent are now very rapid and direct. By means of the steam-boats which start from London to Antwerp twice a-week, and of the new railroad from that place to Leige, the journey to Spa may be performed without hurry or inconvenience in thirty hours, from which place, those who have time and inclination, may easily reach the principal spas of Germay. It is of no small advantage to this crowded metropolis to be thus placed in such close connexion with those celebrated springs, formerly the resort of all Europe, and now by the influx of fashion regaining their ancient repute.
The most powerful of the mineral springs at Spa is the Pouhon, which rises in the centre of the town, and over which a building has been erected to the memory of Peter
the Great, who found much benefit from drinking the waters. The Sauvenière, the Gröesbeck, the Tonnelet, and the Geronstère, have their sources at distances from the town averaging about a mile: good roads, planted with avenues, connect them with the town; and the climb to these springs, on foot or on horseback (for which latter description of exercise there are abundant facilities, horses being numerous, and let for hire at very reasonable rates), assists, in no immaterial degree, the beneficial effects of the waters.
I would not, however, be understood to sanction the notion, which many persons appear to entertain, that a journey or residence on the Continent, is a never-failing remedy for many diseases which are supposed to be generated and fostered by our own climate. Nothing can be more futile, for example, than to send persons affected, or supposed to be affected, with consumption to Italy or the south of France; for even granting that a warmer climate might prove beneficial in such cases, there may be other circumstances of an opposite tendency. And indeed few of the parts most resorted to in Italy are so healthy as many places on our own southern coast-Hastings, for example. Pisa is perhaps the least objectionable. At Leghorn ague is prevalent. Florence is exposed to cold bleak winds.-At Naples and Rome (the atmosphere of which is affected by the volcanic soil, in the one case, and by the exhalations from the Pontine marshes, in the other) brain fevers and agues are common. In the Lombardo-Venetian states remittent and intermittent fevers are rife during the summer and autumn. “ It is generally very unnecessary,” says Dr. Billing, “and worse than useless, to send patients away from their friends, often at an enormous inconvenience. If they are consumptive, they will thus die in exile; and if not they may be cured at home.”
The weekly cessation from the toils of business, which is generally observed in Christian countries on the first day of the week, is a practice at least as conducive to the welfare of the body as of the soul ; and one which will be more inviolably kept, when men become better acquainted with the conditions on which their health depends. Nothing could be more inexpedient, as regards merely the present interests of mankind, than the abandonment of this practice, viewing it as a matter of political economy; for can be no doubt that the capacity for labour is increased by occasional rest from it; and that if every day in the year were devoted to labour, the produce of that labour would be less than it is at present.”— Curtis on Health,
sides. The leaflets are often plaited, when the whole leaf is called pava, and forms an excellent skreen for the sides of their houses, or covering for their floors. Several kinds of baskets are also made with the leaves, one of which called arairi, is neat, convenient, and durable. They were also plaited for bonnets, or shades for the forehead and eyes, and were worn by both sexes. In many of their religious ceremonies they were used, and the niau, or leaf, was also an emblem of authority, and was sent by the chief to his dependants, when any requisition was made: bunches or strings of the leaflets were also suspended in the temple on certain occasions, and answered the same purpose as beads in Roman Catholic worship, reminding the priest or worshipper of the order of his prayers. On the tough and stiff stalks of the leaflets, the candle-nuts, employed for lighting their houses, were strung when used.
While the leaves are young, the inner bark is remarkably white, transparent, and as fine in texture as silver paper. In this state it is occasionally cut into long narrow slips, tied up in bunches, and used by the natives to ornament their hair. Its remarkable flexibility, beautiful whiteness, and glossy surface, render it a singularly novel, light, and elegant plume; the effect of which is heightened, by its contrast with the black and shining ringlets of the native hair it surmounts. As the leaf increases in size, and the matting is exposed to the air, it becomes coarser and stronger, assuming a yellowish colour, and is called Aa.
A fibrous matting is sometimes taken off by the natires in pieces two or three feet wide, and used as wrapping for their arrow-root, or made up into bags. It is also occasionally employed in preparing articles of clothing. Jackets, coa's, and even shirts, are made with the Aa, though the coarsest linen cloth would be much more soft and flexible. To these shirts the natives generally fix a cotton collar and wristbands, and seem susceptible of but little irritation from its wiry texture and surface. It is a favorite dress with the fishermen, and others occupied on the sea.
The fruit, however, is the most valuable part of this serviceable, hardy and beautiful plant. It does not, probably come to perfection in much less than twelve months after the blossoms have fallen. A bunch will sometimes contain twenty or thirty nuts, and there are, perhaps, six or seven bunches on the tree at the same time. Each nut is rounded by a tough fibrous husk, in some parts two inches thick ; and when it has reached its full size, it contains, enclosed in a soft, white shell, a pint or a pint and a half of the juice usually called cocoa-nut milk.
There is, at this time, no pulp whatsoever in the inside. In this stage of its growth the nut is called Oua, and the liquid is preferred to that found in the nut in any other state. It is perfectly clear, and in taste combines a degree of acidity and sweetness, which renders it equal to the best lemonade. No accurate idea of the consistency and taste of the cocoa-nut ce can be formed from that found in the nuts brought to England. These are old and dry, and the fluid comparatively rancid; in this state they are never used by the natives of the South-sea Islands, except for the purpose of planting or extracting oil. The shell of the Oua, or young cocoa-nut, is often used medicinally.
In a few weeks after the nut has reached its full size, a soft, white pulp, remarkably delicate and sweet, resembling in consistency and appearance, the white of a slightly-boiled egg, is formed around the inside of the shell. In this state it is called Niaa, is eaten by the chiefs as an article of
VALUE OF THE COCOA-NUT TREE TO THE
The trunk of the tree is used for a variety of purposes; their best spears are made of cocoa-nut wood; wall-plates, rafters, and pillars for their larger houses, were often of the same material; their instruments for splitting breadfruit, their rollers for their canoes, and also their most durable fences, were made with its trunk. It is also a valuable kind of fuel, and makes excellent charcoal.
The timber is not the only valuable article the cocoa-nut tree furnishes. The leaves, called niau, are composed of strong stalks, twelve or fifteen feet long. A number of long narrow-pointed leaflets are ranged alternately on opposite
luxury, and used in preparing many of what may be called the made-dishes of the Tahitian banquets. After remaining a month or six weeks longer, the pulp on the inside becomes much firmer, and rather more than half an inch in thickness. The juice assumes a whitish colour, and a sharper taste. It is now called Omoto, and is not so much used. If allowed to hang two or three months longer on the tree, the outside skin becomes yellow and brown, the shell hardens, the kernel increases to an inch or an inch and a quarter in thickness, and the liquid is reduced to less than half a pint.
It is now called Opaa. The hard nut is sometimes broken in two and broiled, or eaten as taken from the tree, but is generally used in making oil.
The cocoa-nut oil is procured from the pulp, and is prepared by grating the kernel of the old nut, and depositing it in a long wooden trough, usually the trunk of a tree, hollowed out. This is placed in the sun every morning, and exposed during the day: after a few days the grated nut is piled up in heaps in the trough, leaving a small space between each heap. As the oil exhudes, it drains into the hollows, whence it is scooped in bamboo canes, and preserved for sale or for use. After the oil ceases to collect in the trough, the kernel is put into a bag, of the matted fibres, and submitted to the action of a rude lever press; but the additional quantity of oil, thus obtained, is inferior in quality to that produced by the heat of the sun.
In addition to these advantages, the shells of the larger old cocoa-nuts are used as water bottles, the largest of which will hold a quart; they are of a black colour, frequently highly polished, and, with care, last a nnmber of years.—Polynesian Researches.
LONDON AND PARISIAN FASHIONS.
DRESSES.—The corsages à revers and the variation in the depth of the volan, are the principal modifications that have occurred in dress; the former gives a breadth and amplitude to the upper part of the figure, highly favorable to the display of a symmetrical shape; and the ceinture is by this seen to great advantage ; it requires, however, considerable attention on the part of the dress-maker to obtain the desired effect.
The form of volan alluded to, is in the increasing the depth behind more than in the front of the skirt, which has given an effect much in conformity with the prevailing tendency to the old style of costume.
The sou-jupes of crinoline and crino-zephir which lie in such ample folds, and yet so slight have obtained a considerable share of favor.
A blue poult de soie dress was open in front in the tunic form, was also disposed over a white gros de Naples slip, and was plentifully embellished with English point lace. A garland of white roses embellished both sides of the front and a similar decoration was placed in the hair.
A dress of poult de soie was disposed in the upper part of the corsage in a plain broad biais fold, placed in a waived line, and having næuds at the ends and centre ; bouillons were attached to the sleeves by neuds also, and the volan of the skirt was composed of a large bouillon, which was elevated in front, and fixed by a næud with ends. A cordeliére ornamented the waist, the ends fell low, and were terminated with long fringes.
An India muslin dress had the corsage ornamented with
a fold of the same, crossed slightly in front, and diminishing at the ends, the sleeve with a spiral ornament decorated with ivy, the skirt similarly ornamented in the shape of a garland, traversing the dress in a rather oblique direction, and the ends turning in different directions in front.
The hair was embellished with the same foliage.
An organdi dress was made plain in the corsage, the sleeves and body ornamented with bouillons of ribbon, a bouquet was introduced among the hair.
A muslin dress had a blond fall on the corsage, which was of a moderate height, volans of lace formed prominent ornaments on the sleeves and skirt, and an elegant colored embroidery gave an air of great style and elegance not only from the delicacy of the workmanship, but the manner in which it was disposed.
It may be well here to direct especial attention to the proper choice and disposal of embroidery, that it may correspond well with the dress, and adorn, instead of disfigur
Hats, Caps, &c.—A pretty hat and much in vogue in the watering places, is made in paille cousue, and but very slightly raised in the crown or brim. The front and bavolet have the addition of an ornamented edging of velvet, placed broad on the former part. The sides generally low on the face, and a single næud complete the decoration of this hat.
The turban and demi-turban in which much various taste is exhibited, are worn in a great variety of material, principally with ornaments of a light description, either flowers, ribbon, or lace, with barbes, &c.
The Crape Bonnets, something in the gipsey form, with lace fall, and a drooping feather, are greatly in vogue; the latter ornament has a very elegant effect in carriage costume.
Besides the rice-straw Hats which are still in very great vogue, the crape are worn, white, blue, or rose colour, and the ornaments principally of the same material. Ostrich feathers may be occasionally seen.
Lace and Tulle Hats, both colored and black, are in esteem,
MATERIALS AND Colors.-In this department we can recapitulate nothing of consequence in the way of novelty ; the same fabrics, with nearly similar tints, prevail in the fashionable world as at our last announcements. The muslins, mousselines de laine, organdis, crapes, and the new introduction of the crenolines enjoy the same extent of patronage ; and lilac, blue, grey, plum and cherry colors may be cited as still in decided preference.
VARIETIES.-Fringed Cachmere shawls are worn in considerable variety ; the fringes are preferable of the same color as the shawl.
Grey is a frequent color now, that tint called the Visapour grey is a favourite.
An embroidery in silk is a frequent addition to these elegant shawls, sometimes as a garland or bouquet in the corner, sometimes with a narrow pattern running round the border.
Old lace shawls are also in no small vogue, and especially with those toilettes which represent so closely the ancient styles of costume.
The hair is worn as low as usually, sometimes falling in ringlets, sometimes having but one or two pendant from behind the ears. The greater variety of dress is seen in the upper and back part of the hair, the assistance of a slight bouquet, a ribbon, a satin border, a lace ornament, &c.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.
PLATE I. FIGURE 1.-WALKING Dress.—Organdi dress. — The corsage made high at the shoulders, open slightly in front. The shoulder part gathered and fixed with a piping, the ceinture composed of a small scarf, the end hanging down; sleeve moderately full, flounce headed by a broad piping. The Mode mantelet having a deep edging of black blond.
FIGURE 2.-WALKING DRESS.—Tulle redingote. Openfronted corsage, draped, the sleeve full to the wrist; the flounce which is double, is so arranged as to form the appearance of a robe, by king a direction upwards towards the ceinture. Rice-straw Bonnet with a couple of feathers.
FIGURE 3.-PROMENADE Dress.-Gros de Tour dress, with crape tunic, the latter made with wide sleeves, having an opening at the side, and a capuchon added to the corsage, with a bordering of scolloped lace. The inner sleeve is of moderate dimensions ; skirt as well as flounce rather full and ample; Crape Bonnet with ribbon ornaments.
The First Half-Figure of figured muslin, has the corsage quite plain, and a small ruche extending round the upper part of the sleeve.
The Second Half-Figure is very similar in make, but has an upright piping in front, and an embroidered cannezou.
The Drawn and Plain Bonnets are of Tulle and Organdi, a strongly curled bunch of feathers ornaments the first, and the others are principally decorated by rolls and bouillons laid on round the middle of the upper part at the junction of the brim and the front.
The Muslin Cap has an ornamental border of lace and satin alternated.
PLATE II. FIGURE 1.- WALKING DRESS.-Mousseline de laine dress. The corsage made high up, and having upright gathers, the shoulder part and upper portion of the sleeve compressed in folds by small bands; the sleeve full at the centre, and continued to the wrist, which is similarly placed in folds.
The Lace Bonnet has a full black lace fall, and ties of the same.
FIGURE 2.—PROMENADE Dress.-Muslin dress, with worked spots. The corsage made in the lappel style, edged with a double ruche which runs down the front, and is also placed in a double row on the upper part of the sleeve.
Crape demi-Chapeau with deep lace volans.
FIGURE 3.-WALKING DRESS.-Foulard dress. The corsage rather high, draped in the upper part : pointed ceinture, the sleeve rather rounded in shape, the upper part having a treble row of bouillons in the upper part. A double tlounce surrounds the lower part of the skirt.
Drawn Crape Bonnet with lace edging and flowers.
Figure 4.-BALL Dress.-Tulle dress. The corsage made moderately high, closely fitted to the shape, the upper edge having a bordering of pearls disposed at slight intervals; the sleeve short and disposed in bouillons intermixed with pearls ; the ceinture with long ends and tassels ; the skirt festooned up by a looping of pearls, exhibiting a satin slip underneath.
The hair plainly banded over the temples, ornamented with a pin and a bouquet.
The First Half-Figure is of the same make as that immediately under it.
The Second Half-Figure of figured satin de laine; the sleeve is formed of rouleaux to the elbow, the
with a narrow blond edging.
The Drawn Bonnet of muslin, and crape Bonnet have flowers as ornaments, the latter profusely ornamented with lace edgings.
The Muslin and Blonde Caps have flowers, satin, and ribbon ornaments.
PLATE III. Figure 1.-Walking Dress.—Gros de Naples dress, the corsage disposed in folds and formed in the lappel style, the sleeve full and rounded in the centre, with trimmings at each termination. The skirt is ornamented, with two flounces having a piped edging.
FIGURE 2.- Ball Dress. — Crape dress, half high mounting corsage laid in upright gathers; the sleeve composed of rows of bouffans, the skirt having a plain flounce flounces laid on as a biais.
FIGURE 3.—EVENING DRESS.—Challi dress; a draping extends round the upper part of the corsage and is edged with a lace bordering; the corsage is pointed, the sleeve is double, the outer one admitting the arm by an aperture in the inside, the inner sleeve is tight to the arm, the waist is encircled by a cordelière which hangs down low and is terminated by tassels; the two founces of lace, scolloped, are looped up by neuds. The hair has a bouquet at each side.
FIGURE 4.-WALKING Dress.-Mousseline de laine dress; the corsage, half high mounting, the upper part draped in larger gathers than in the preceding dress, thc corsage pointed. The sleeve, which is full towards the lower part, is ornamented in the upper portion with sabots; the skirt has three rows of flounces. The Hat of Tuscan straw has a bouquet on the crown.
The first Half-figure, of spotted mousseline de laine, has a narrow draping at top, and sabots of lace on the sleeves.
The second Half-Figure, of batiste, is made plain at the upper part, the sleeves full.
The Hats and Bonnets have feather and ribbon ornaments, and lace barbes.
PLATE IV. Figure 1.–Ball Dress.—Organdi dress; the corsage open in front, having a bordering of lace laid on rather full. The sleeve in bouffans, terminating at the elbow; the ceinture tied in a næud in front with long ends, the skirt having two flounces with piped headings. Coiffure in lace with bouquet.
FIGURE 2.—EVENING Dress.-Poult de soie dress; the corsage having a blond ornament in the old style of working, corsage en pointe, sleeves short, open in the inside part, with neud, a flounce surrounding the bottom of the skirt and another terminated by a neud, both having a gimp heading. Tulle cap with flowers.
FIGURE 3.-PROMENADE Dress.-Crape redingote, high in the neck and shoulders but cut down in front, laid in upright plaits ; the sleeve ample, with a double border, and the flounce to correspond. Crape hat with demi-voile.
Bonnets in Paille de riz, Crape, and Tulle; of the latter material also the caps may be seen : the ornaments principally composed of lace, rouleaus of the material used, flowers, &c.