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street, as the name xwuwudía implies, being derived from xwolen a street, * and wori a poem. To this origin Horace alludes in these lines :
Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis,
Thespis is called the inventor of the dramatic art, because he raised the subject from clownish altercation to the character and exploits of some hero : he improved the language and versification, and relieved the chorus by the dialogue of two actors. This was the first advance towards that consummation of genius and art, which constitutes what is now called a perfect tragedy. The next great improver was Æschylus, of whom the same critic says,
Post hunc personæ pallæque repertor honestæ
The dialogue which Thespis introduced was called the Episode, because it was an addition to the former subject, namely, the praises of Bacchus ; so that now tragedy consisted of two distinct parts, independent of each other ; the old recitative, which was the chorus, sung in honour of the gods ; and the episode, which turned upon the adventures of some hero. This episode being found very agreeable to the people, Æschylus, who lived about half a century after Thespis, still improved the drama, united the chorus to the episode, so as to make them both parts or members of one fable, multiplied the actors, contrived the stage, and introduced the decorations of the theatre ; so that Sophocles,
Or rather from whos a riotous feast, whence xwwdos a singer at feasts, and mouwồra a festive poem. – B.
who succeeded Æschylus, had but one step to surmount in order to bring the drama to perfection. Thus tragedy was gradually detached from its original institution, which was entirely religious. The priests of Bacchus loudly complained of this innovation by means of the episode, which was foreign to the intention of the chorus ; and hence arose the proverb of Nihil ad Dionysium, “ Nothing to the purpose." Plutarch himself mentions the episode, as a perversion of tragedy from the honour of the gods to the passions of men.
But notwithstanding all opposition, the new tragedy succeeded to admiration ; because it was found the most pleasing vehicle of conveying moral truths, of meliorating the heart, and extending the interests of humanity.
Comedy, according to Aristotle, is the younger sister of Tragedy. As the first originally turned upon the praises of the gods, the latter dwelt on the follies and vices of mankind. Such, we inean, was the scope of that species of poetry which acquired the name of comedy, in contradiction to the tragic muse; for in the beginning they were the same. The foundation upon which comedy was built, we have already explained to be the practice of satirical repartee or altercation, in which individuals exposed the follies and frailties of each other on public occasions of worship and festivity.
The first regular plan of comedy is said to have been the Margites of Homer, exposing the idleness and folly of a worthless character; but of this performance we have no remains. That division which is termed the ancient comedy, belongs to the labours of Eupolis, Cratinus, and Aristophanes, who were contemporaries, and flourished at Athens about four hundred and thirty years before the Christian
Such was the licence of the muse at this period, that, far from lashing vice in general characters, she boldly exhibited the exact portrait of every individual who had rendered himself remarkable or notorious by his crimes, folly, or debauchery. She assumed every circumstance of his external appearance, his very attire, air, manner, and even his name ; according to the observation of Horace,
The comic poets, in its earliest age,
They boldly stigmatized the wretch ia rhyme. Eupolis is said to have satirized Alcibiades in this manner, and to have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of that powerful Athenian : but others say he was drowned in the Hellespont, during a war against the Lacedemonians'; and that in consequence of this accident the Athenians passed a decree, that no poet should ever bear arms.
The comedies of Cratinus are recommended by Quintilian for their eloquence; and Plutarch tells us, that even Pericles himself could not escape the censure of this poet.
Aristophanes, of whom there are eleven comedies still extant, enjoyed such a pre-eminence of reputation, that the Athenians, by a pablic decree, honoured him with a crown made of a consecrated olive tree, which grew in the citadel, for his care and success in detecting and exposing the vices of those who governed the commonwealth.
Yet this poet, whether impelled by mere wantonness of genius, or actuated by malice and envy, could not refrain from employing the shafts of his ridicule against Socrates, the most venerable character of Pagan antiquity. In the comedy of The Clouds, this virtuous philosopher was exhibited on the stage, under his own name, in a cloak exactly resembling that which Socrates wore, in a mask modelled from his features, disputing publicly on the nature of right and wrong. This was undoubtedly an instance of the most flagrant licentiousness and what renders it the more extraordinary, the audience received it with great applause, even while Socrates himself sat publicly in the theatre. The truth is, the Athenians were so fond of ridicule, that they relished it even when employed against the gods themselves, some of whose characters were very roughly handled by Aristophanes and his rivals in reputation.
We might here draw a parallel between the inhabitants of Athens and the natives of England in point of constitution, genius, and disposition. Athens-was a free state like England, that piqued itself upon the influence of the democracy. Like England, its wealth and strength depended upon its maritime power ; and it generally acted as umpire in the
disputes that arose among its neighbours. The people of Athens, like those of England, were remarkably ingenious, and made great progress in the arts and sciences. They excelled in poetry, history, philosophy, mechanics, and manufactures; they were acute, discerning, disputatious, fickle, wavering, rash, and combustible, and, above all other nations in Europe, addicted to ridicule ; a character which the English inherit in a very remarkable degree.
If we may judge from the writings of Aristophanes, his chief aim was to gratify the spleen and excite the mirth of his audience ; of an audience, too, that would seem to have been uninformed by taste, and altogether ignorant of decorum ; for his pieces are replete with the most extravagant absurdities, virulent slander, impiety, impurities, and low buffoonery. The comic. muse, not contented with being allowed to make free with the gods and philosophers, applied her scourge so severely to the magistrates of the common-" wealth, that it was thought proper to restrain her within bounds by a law, enacting, that no person should be stigmatized under his real name ; and thus the chorus was silenced. In order to elude the penalty of this law; and gratify the taste of the people, the poets began to substitute fictitious names, under which they exhibited: particular characters in such lively colours, that the resemblance could not possibly be inistaken or overlooked. This practice gave rise to what is called the Middle Comedy, which was but of short duration ; for the legislature, perceiving that the first law had not removed the grievance against which it was provided, issued a second ordinance, forbidding, under severe penalties, any real or family
, occurrences to be represented. This restriction was the immediate cause of improving comedy into a general mirror, held forth to reflect the various follies and foibles incident to human nature ; a species of writing called the New Comedy, introduced by Diphilus and Menander, of whose works nothing but a few fragments remain.
POETRY DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER WRITING.
Having communicated our sentiments touching the origin of poetry, by tracing tragedy and comedy to their common source, we shall now endeavour to point out the criteria by which poetry is distinguished from every other species of writing. In common with other arts, such as statuary and painting, it comprehends imitation, invention, composition, and enthusiasm. Imitation is indeed the basis of all the liberal arts ; invention and enthusiasm constitute genius, in whatever manner it may be displayed. Eloquence of all sorts admits of enthusiasm. Tully says, an orator should be “ vehemens ut procella, excitatus ut torrens, incensus ut fulmen : tonat, fulgurat, et rapidis eloquentiæ fluctibus cuncta proruit et proturbat.”
.”-“ Violent as a tempest, impetuous as a torrent, and glowing intense like the red bolt of heaven, he thunders, lightens, overthrows, and bears down all before him, by the irresistible tide of eloquence.” This is the mens divinior atque os magna sonaturun of Horace. This is the talent,
-Meum qui pectus inaniter angit,
We are told, that Michael Angelo Buonaroti used to work at his statues in a fit of enthusiasm, during which he made the fragments of the stone fly about him with surprising violence. The celebrated Lully being one day blamed for setting nothing to music but the languid verses of Quinault, was animated with the reproach, and running in a fit of enthusiasm to his harpsichord, sung in recitative, and accompanied four pathetic lines from the Iphigenia of Racine, with such expression as filled the hearers with astonishment and horror.