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previous period of less advanced civilisation, during which the domesticated animals, kept by different tribes in different districts, might have varied and given rise to distinct races. Since the discovery of flint tools in the superficial formations of many parts of the world, all geologists believe that barbarian man existed at an enormously remote period; and we know that at the present day there is hardly a tribe so barbarous, as not to have domesticated at least the dog.

The origin of most of our domestic animals will probably for ever remain vague. But I may here state, that, looking to the domestic dogs of the whole world, I have, after a laborious collection of all known facts, come to the conclusion that several wild species of Canidrc have been tamed, and that their blood, in some cases mingled together, flows in the veins of our domestic breeds. In regard to sheep and goats I can form no decided opinion. From facts communicated to me by Mr. Blyth, on the habits, voice, constitution, and structure of the humped Indian cattle, it is almost certain that they are descended from a different aboriginal stock from our European cattle; and some competent judges believe that these latter have had two or three wild progenitors,—whether or not these deserve to be called species. This conclusion, as well as that of the specific distinction between the humped and common cattle, may, indeed, be looked upon as established by the admirable researches of Professor ltiitimeyer. With respect to horses, from reasons which I cannot here give, I am doubtfully inclined to believe, in opposition to several authors, that all the races belong to the same species. Having kept nearly all the English breeds of the fowl alive, having know, when he first tamed an

vary in succeeding generati"1

endure other climates? Has

the ass and goose, or the sm

warmth by the reindeer, or

camel, prevented their domes

that if other animals and pi

our domesticated productions,

diverse classes and countries,

of nature, and could be made

number of generations under d

on a average vary as largely as

existing domesticated productio In the case of most of our

animals and plants, it is not

definite conclusion, whether t
one or several wild species,
relied on by those who believe in tl
our domestic animals is, that we 1, •
ancient times, on the monuments of E
lake-habitations of Switzerland, much
breeds; and that some of these ancient
resemble, or are even identical with, those .
But this only throws far backwards the
civilisation, and shows that animals were dot,
at a much earlier period than has hitherto been s
The lake-inhabitants of Switzerland cultivated
kinds of wheat and barley, the pea, the poppy l
and flax; and they possessed several domestic
animals. They also carried on commerce with o,
nations. All this clearly shows, as Heer has remark,
that they had at this early age progressed considerabl.
in civilisation; and this again implies a long continued

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en loosely said that all our races of dogs

reduced by the crossing of a few aboriginal

by crossing we can only get forms in some

mediate between their parents; and if we

air several domestic races by this process,

ait the former existence of the most extreme

- Italian greyhound, bloodhound, bull-dog,

wild state. Moreover, the possibility of

»et races by crossing has been greatly

Many cases are on record, showing that a

modified by occasional crosses, if aided by

!ection of the individuals which present

'acter; but to obtain a race intermediate

to distinct races, would be very difficult.

pressly experimented with this object

M'spring from the first cross between

tolerably and sometimes (as I have

quite uniform in character, and

•pie enough; but when these

•ie with another for several

'hem are alike, and then the

manifest.

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bred and crossed them, and examined their skeletons, it appears to me almost certain that all are the descendants of the wild Indian fowl, Gallus bankiva; and this is the conclusion of Mr. Blyth, and of others who have studied this bird in India. In regard to ducks and rabbits, some breeds of which differ much from each other, the evidence is clear that they are all descended from the common wild duck and rabbit.

The doctrine of the origin of our several domestic races from several aboriginal stocks, has been carried to an absurd extreme by some authors. They believe that every race which breeds true, let the distinctive characters be ever so slight, has had its wild prototype. At this rate there must have existed at least a score of species of wild cattle, as many sheep, and several goats, in Europe alone, and several even within Great Britain. One author believes that there formerly existed eleven wild species of sheep peculiar to Great Britain! When we bear in mind that Britain has now not one peculiar mammal, and France but few distinct from those of Germany, and so with Hungary, Spain, &c, but that each of these kingdoms possesses several peculiar breeds of cattle, sheep, &c, we must admit that many domestic breeds must have originated in Europe; for whence otherwise could they have been derived? So it is in India. Even in the case of the breeds of the domestic dog throughout the world, which I admit are descended from several wild species, it cannot be doubted that there has been an immense amount of inherited variation; for who will believe that animals closely resembling the Italian greyhound, the bloodhound, the bull-dog, pug-dog, or Blenheim spaniel, &c—so unlike all wild Canidie—ever existed in a state of nature? It has often been loosely said that all our races of dogs have been produced by the crossing of a few aboriginal species; but by crossing we can only get forms in some degree intermediate between their parents; and if we account for our several domestic races by this process, we must admit the former existence of the most extreme forms, as the Italian greyhound, bloodhound, bull-dog, &C., in the wild state. Moreover, the possibility of making distinct races by crossing has been greatly exaggerated . Many cases are on record, showing that a race may be modified by occasional crosses, if aided by the careful selection of the individuals which present the desired character; but to obtain a race intermediate between two quite distinct races, would be very difficult. Sir J. Sebright expressly experimented with this object and failed. The offspring from the first cross between two pure breeds is tolerably and sometimes (as I have found with pigeons) quite uniform in character, and everything seems simple enough; but when these mongrels are crossed one with another for several generations, hardly two of them are alike, and then the difficulty of the task becomes manifest.

Breeds of the Domestic Pigeons, their Differences and Origin.

Believing that it is always best to study some special

group, I have,, alter deliberation, taken up domestic

pigeons. I have kept every breed which I could

purchase or obtain, and have been most kindly favoured

with skins from several quarters of the world, more

especially by the Hon. W. Elliot from India, and by

the Hon. 0. Murray from Persia. Many treatises in

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